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Tài liệu Adjectives, the adjective phrase and adverbs doc


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Adjectives, the
adjective phrase and
adverbs
Presented by “
HORIZON
” group
Group members
Nguyen Huyen Linh
Tran Thi Thuy Trinh
Nguyen Thi Thu Trang
Tran Bao Ngoc

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The first presenter

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CONTENT
D
D
B
B
C
C
A
A
Adjectives
Adjective phrase& adjectival
complementation
Adverbs
Comparison of adjectives and adverbs
content

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Adjectives

1. Definition and classification of adjectives

2. Functions of adjectives

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1a. Definition of adjective:

Adjective is a word which modifies a noun or pronoun
(called the adjective’s subject) by describing, identifying
or quantifying words.

Every adjective answers one of 3 questions:

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adjective
Which one is it?
What kind is it?
How many are there?
Three
Three
questions
questions

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1. Which one is it? (Describing)
Eg: The students who have not prepared for English class sit out an hour in the
cafeteria
Which students? Not good students but lazy slackers

2. What kind is it? (Identifying)
Eg: I like green tea
What kind of tea do you like?

3. How many are there?
Eg: There are 48 students in our class.
How many students are there in your class?

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1b.Classification of adjectives

Their structure

2 kinds:

. Adjectives that are the roots
Eg: good, fat, little, young, hot…

.Adjectives formed by some suffixes:
Eg: Adj =N+ “ ous”: humor - humorous
“ful” : beauty - beautiful


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V+ “ive” : act - active
“able”: read - readable


.Notes: “-ing”: property of something (Eg: This book is so interesting)
“-ed”: someone’s feeling or opinion (Eg: I found it interested
when going out with him)

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Limiting adjectives

Quantity: many, some, any, (a) few, (a) little…

Possessive: my, your, their, his, her, its…

Indicative: that, this, those…

Order: 1st, 2nd… 20th…

“Article: a, an, the is considering as an adjective”

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Limiting
adjectives
B
B
E
E
C
C
D
D
A
A
Quantity
Possessive
Indicative
Article Order

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)

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Attributive and predicative

Adj are attributive when they premodify nouns: appear between
the determiner and the head of noun phrase
Eg: the lovely cat

Predicative adj can be
+subject complement:
My hat is beautiful
+object complement:
He made her mother unhappy

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They can be complement to a subject which is a finite clause or
a non –finite clause
Whether he will learn is true
Playing tennis isn’t easy

adj can be object complement to clause:
I consider what he said untrue
or Playing so hard

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The adj functioning as object complement often
expresses the result of the process denoted by the
verb

He pulled the window open (as a result, the window was
then open)

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Exercise: Modify for noun, verb, object, and subject
1.He is a nice man
2.Do you see the small green boat, which has such an old shape
3.She wore her shirt short
4.The weather becomes cold
5.Her hair was dyed blonde
6.We should keep our room clean and tidy

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Verb less adjective clause

An adj (alone or as head of an adj phrase) can function as a verb
less clause, the clause is mobile, though it usually precedes or
follows the subject of the super ordinate clause;

Eg: (By then) happy, she opened the gift

She, (by then) happy, opened the gift

She opened the gift, by then happy

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The implied subject is usually the subject of sentence. Thus, while we
have
Eg: The man restrained the woman, who was aggressive
We do not have as its equivalent
*the man restrained the woman, aggressive

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However, if the clause contains additional clause
constituents, its implied subject can be other than the
subject of the sentence:
Eg: She glanced with disgust at the cat, quiet (now) in her
daughter’s lap

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An adverb may sometimes replace, with little difference in
meaning, an adj functioning as a verb less clause:
Eg: Happy, she opened the gift
Happily, she opened the gift

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(When the implied subject is the whole clause, a corresponding
adverb can replace the adj with little or difference in meaning, as with
strangely for strange:

Strangely, it was she wanted to live far from home

The adj, unlike the adverb, allows a that- or how-clause to follow:

+that……

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Exclamatory adjectives sentence

An adj as head of an adj phrase or its sole realization can
be an exclamation:

How beautiful girl!

How a nice day!

What a lovely cat!

What a pity!

How wonderful

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Postpositive

Adj can sometimes be postpositive, they can sometimes
follows the item they modify .A postposed adj (together
with many complementation it may have) can usually be
regarded relative clause

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Indefinite pronouns ending in-body, -one, -thing- where
can be modified only postpositively:
Eg: I want to do something better (ie which is better’)

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Postposition is obligatory for a few adj, which have a
different sense when they occur attributively or
predicatively. The most common are probably elect and
proper as in: “the Pesident elect the city London proper”

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