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Tài liệu Business Plans Kit For Dummies 2nd editon - Chapter 1 pptx

by Steven Peterson, PhD,
Peter E. Jaret,
and Barbara Findlay Schenck
Business Plans Kit
FOR
DUMmIES

2
ND EDITION
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Business Plans Kit For Dummies
®
, 2nd Edition
Published by
Wiley Publishing, Inc.
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Copyright © 2005 by Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana
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About the Authors
Steven Peterson and Peter Jaret wrote the first edition of Business Plans Kit
For Dummies, which was released in 2001.
Steven Peterson is founder and CEO of Strategic Play, a management training
company specializing in software tools designed to enhance business strat-
egy, business planning, and general management skills. He’s the creator of the
Protean Strategist, a business simulation that reproduces a dynamic business
environment where participant teams run companies and compete against
each other in a fast-changing marketplace. He holds advanced degrees in
mathematics and physics and received his doctorate from Cornell University.
For more information, visit
www.StrategicPlay.com
.
Peter Jaret has written for Newsweek, National Geographic, Health, Men’s
Journal, Reader’s Digest, and dozens of other magazines. He’s the author of In
Self-Defense: The Human Immune System and Active Living Every Day. He has
developed brochures, white papers, and annual reports for the Electric
Power Research Institute, Lucas Arts, The California Endowment, WebMD,
BabyCenter, Stanford University, Collabria, Home Planet Technologies, and
others. In 1992, he received the American Medical Association’s first-place
award for medical reporting. In 1997, he won the James Beard Award for food
and nutrition writing. He holds degrees from Northwestern University and
the University of Virginia.
Barbara Findlay Schenck built upon the great work of Peterson and Jaret as
she wrote this second edition of Business Plans Kit For Dummies, which is
updated throughout to include current business planning advice and all-new
emphasis on the topics of greatest concern to today’s entrepreneurs, business
owners, CEOs, and investors. She’s a successful business owner, marketing
consultant, author of Small Business Marketing For Dummies, and co-writer of
the Edgar Award-nominated memoir Portraits of Guilt. She has worked interna-
tionally in community development, served as a college admissions director
and writing instructor in Hawaii, founded an advertising agency in Oregon,
and has helped organizations large and small to plan and manage successful
marketing and management programs. You can contact her at
BFSchenck@
aol.com
.
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Publisher’s Acknowledgments
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Contents at a Glance
Introduction .................................................................1
Part I: Laying the Foundation for Your Plan ...................5
Chapter 1: Starting Your Planning Engine ......................................................................7
Chapter 2: Generating a Great Business Idea ..............................................................25
Chapter 3: Defining Your Business Purpose ................................................................43
Part II: Developing Your Plan’s Components .................67
Chapter 4: Understanding Your Business Environment .............................................69
Chapter 5: Charting Your Strategic Direction ..............................................................95
Chapter 6: Describing Your Business and Its Capabilities .......................................115
Chapter 7: Crafting Your Marketing Plan ....................................................................133
Chapter 8: Deciphering and Presenting Your Financial Situation ...........................151
Part III: Tailoring a Business Plan
to Fit Your Needs .....................................................175
Chapter 9: Planning for a One-Person Business .......................................................177
Chapter 10: Planning for a Small Business .................................................................193
Chapter 11: Planning for an Established Business ....................................................203
Chapter 12: Planning for a Nonprofit Organization ...................................................219
Chapter 13: Planning for an E-Business ......................................................................233
Part IV: Making the Most of Your Plan ......................249
Chapter 14: Putting Your Plan Together .....................................................................251
Chapter 15: Putting Your Plan to Work .......................................................................271
Part V: The Part of Tens ...........................................289
Chapter 16: Ten Signs That Your Plan Might Need an Overhaul .............................291
Chapter 17: Ten Ways to Evaluate a New Business Idea ..........................................297
Chapter 18: Ten Ways to Fund Your Business Plan ...................................................301
Chapter 19: Ten Things to Know about Venture Capital ..........................................305
Chapter 20: Ten Ways to Use Your Business Plan .....................................................311
Appendix: About the CD ...........................................315
Index .......................................................................321
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Table of Contents
Introduction..................................................................1
About This Book ..............................................................................................1
Why This Book Is for You ...............................................................................1
Conventions Used in This Book ....................................................................2
How This Book Is Organized ..........................................................................2
Part I: Laying the Foundation for Your Plan .......................................2
Part II: Developing Your Plan’s Components .....................................3
Part III: Tailoring a Business Plan to Fit Your Needs .........................3
Part IV: Making the Most of Your Plan ................................................3
Part V: The Part of Tens ........................................................................3
Icons Used in This Book .................................................................................4
Where to Go from Here ...................................................................................4
Part I: Laying the Foundation for Your Plan ...................5
Chapter 1: Starting Your Planning Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
Committing to the Business-Planning Process ............................................7
Defining your business-planning situation .........................................8
Buying into the value of business planning .....................................11
Identifying Target Audiences and Key Messages ......................................12
Your audience ......................................................................................12
Your message .......................................................................................13
The Anatomy of a Business Plan .................................................................15
Business-plan contents from beginning to end ...............................15
Frequently asked business-plan questions ......................................17
Establishing Your Plan’s Time Frame .........................................................18
Committing to a schedule ..................................................................18
Defining milestones .............................................................................19
Preparing for the Real World .......................................................................19
Locating informative resources .........................................................20
Seeking expert advice .........................................................................21
Sharing the load ...................................................................................22
Staying on track ...................................................................................23
Forms on the CD-ROM ..................................................................................24
Chapter 2: Generating a Great Business Idea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25
Brainstorming Business Ideas .....................................................................25
Using the do-it-yourself idea blender ................................................26
Inspiring team creativity (with or without donuts or bagels) .......29
Finding business ideas within your work environment .................32
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Identifying Business Opportunities ............................................................33
Putting your business ideas through a first test .............................33
Narrowing your choices .....................................................................34
Doing Your First Reality Check ....................................................................37
Getting a second opinion ...................................................................37
Conducting a self-appraisal ................................................................38
Forms on the CD-ROM ..................................................................................41
Chapter 3: Defining Your Business Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43
Knowing What Business You’re Actually In ...............................................44
How would I describe my business? .................................................44
Where’s the money? ............................................................................46
Giving Your Company Its Mission ...............................................................47
Asking basic questions .......................................................................47
Framing your mission .........................................................................48
Crafting your mission .........................................................................50
Putting your mission to work ............................................................51
Setting Goals and Objectives .......................................................................53
Approach #1: Tying goals to your mission .......................................55
Approach #2: Using goal-setting ACES ..............................................56
Approach #3: Covering all the bases ................................................56
Making final choices ............................................................................58
Exploring Values and Vision ........................................................................59
Uncovering values you already hold ................................................61
Writing a values statement .................................................................61
Writing a vision statement .................................................................64
Putting Your Principles into Practice .........................................................65
Forms on the CD-ROM ..................................................................................66
Part II: Developing Your Plan’s Components .................67
Chapter 4: Understanding Your Business Environment . . . . . . . . . . . .69
Zooming In on Your Industry .......................................................................70
Seeing your industry’s big picture ....................................................70
Paying the price of admission ...........................................................71
Defining Your Customers .............................................................................73
Developing your customer profile ....................................................74
Conducting customer research .........................................................76
Sharpening your customer focus ......................................................80
Describing your ideal customer ........................................................82
Segmenting your customers into buyer groups ..............................84
Doing business with business customers ........................................85
Sizing Up Your Competition .........................................................................86
Using cloak-and-dagger methods ......................................................88
Identifying your stealth competitors ................................................89
Staying a step ahead ...........................................................................91
Forms on the CD-ROM ..................................................................................93
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Chapter 5: Charting Your Strategic Direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .95
Assessing Your Capabilities, Opportunities, and Threats .......................95
Sizing up your strengths and weaknesses .......................................96
Identifying opportunities and threats ...............................................99
Conducting a SWOT analysis ...........................................................101
Defining Your Business Model ...................................................................103
Staying in the black ...........................................................................104
Timing your future ............................................................................105
Knowing how customers pay ...........................................................106
Creating a business model that works ...........................................107
Setting Growth Strategies ...........................................................................107
Understanding your options ............................................................108
Planning for growth ...........................................................................108
Outlining an Exit Strategy ..........................................................................112
Forms on the CD-ROM ................................................................................114
Chapter 6: Describing Your Business and Its Capabilities . . . . . . . .115
Introducing Your Company ........................................................................115
What is it you’re selling, anyway? ...................................................116
How do you prepare an elevator speech? ......................................118
Describing Your Business Capabilities .....................................................121
Research and development ..............................................................121
Operations ..........................................................................................123
Distribution and delivery .................................................................124
Management .......................................................................................125
Organization .......................................................................................127
Focusing on What You Do Best .................................................................130
Forms on the CD-ROM ................................................................................131
Chapter 7: Crafting Your Marketing Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .133
Marketing at a Glance .................................................................................134
The big marketing picture ................................................................134
The nuts and bolts of a marketing plan ..........................................134
Analyzing Your Market Situation ...............................................................135
Getting a handle on your market .....................................................136
Assessing your competition .............................................................137
Forecasting your business climate .................................................138
Setting Marketing Goals and Objectives ..................................................139
Defining Your Position and Brand .............................................................140
Designing Marketing Strategies .................................................................142
Your product strategy .......................................................................142
Your distribution strategy ................................................................142
Your pricing strategy ........................................................................142
Your promotion strategy ..................................................................144
Establishing Your Marketing Budget ........................................................147
Forms on the CD-ROM ................................................................................149
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Chapter 8: Deciphering and Presenting
Your Financial Situation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .151
Decoding Financial Terminology ...............................................................151
Putting Together an Income Statement ....................................................152
Reviewing a sample income statement ..........................................153
Now it’s your turn: Creating your income statement ...................156
Creating Your Balance Sheet ......................................................................156
Reviewing a sample balance sheet ..................................................157
Now it’s your turn: Building your balance sheet ...........................164
Constructing a Cash-Flow Statement ........................................................164
Section 1: Total funds in ...................................................................165
Section 2: Total funds out .................................................................166
Section 3: Net change in cash position ...........................................168
Section 4: Changes in liquid assets .................................................168
Section 5: Net change in cash position ...........................................169
Now it’s your turn: Creating your cash-flow statement ................169
Forecasting and Budgeting ........................................................................169
Your financial forecast ......................................................................171
The master budget ............................................................................173
Forms on the CD-ROM ................................................................................174
Part III: Tailoring a Business Plan to Fit Your Needs ...175
Chapter 9: Planning for a One-Person Business . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .177
Confronting the Biggest Self-Employment Obstacles .............................178
Planning for success .........................................................................178
Putting a price on what you do .......................................................180
Treating your business like a business ..........................................188
Tailoring a Business Plan to Fit Your One-Person Enterprise ...............188
Company overview ...........................................................................189
Business environment ......................................................................190
Company description and strategy .................................................190
Financial review .................................................................................191
Action plan .........................................................................................192
Forms on the CD-ROM ................................................................................192
Chapter 10: Planning for a Small Business . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .193
Recognizing the Importance of a Plan ......................................................194
Preparing Your Small Business Plan .........................................................194
Analyzing your business location and
the surrounding environment ......................................................195
Defining your business and its purpose ........................................196
Plotting your business strategy .......................................................196
Clarifying your financial situation ...................................................197
Establishing your action plan ..........................................................199
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Keeping an Eye Out for Changes on Your Business Horizon .................199
Growing — or Not Growing — Your Small Business ...............................200
Forms on the CD-ROM ................................................................................202
Chapter 11: Planning for an Established Business . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .203
Purpose-Driven Planning ............................................................................204
Planning to Raise Capital ...........................................................................204
Bank financing ...................................................................................204
Investor capital ..................................................................................205
Planning for a Merger or Sale ....................................................................206
Planning to Grow Your Business ...............................................................209
Planning in Times of Trouble .....................................................................209
Diagnosing your problems ...............................................................211
Getting a second opinion .................................................................213
Analyzing your current situation .....................................................213
Charting a Turnaround ...............................................................................215
Keeping an eye on the clock ............................................................215
Focusing on what’s doable ...............................................................216
Getting the right people in the loop ................................................216
Using your plan to communicate ....................................................217
Forms on the CD-ROM ................................................................................217
Chapter 12: Planning for a Nonprofit Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . .219
Running a Nonprofit Like a Business ........................................................220
Fine tuning your mission and vision ...............................................220
Creating the appropriate structure .................................................221
Setting goals and objectives ............................................................223
Organizing to Do Good Work .....................................................................225
Operations ..........................................................................................225
Organization .......................................................................................226
Management .......................................................................................227
Research and development (R&D) ..................................................228
Keeping the Books ......................................................................................230
Finding funding ..................................................................................230
Managing overhead ...........................................................................230
Putting working cash to work ..........................................................231
Staying accountable ..........................................................................232
Forms on the CD-ROM ................................................................................232
Chapter 13: Planning for an E-Business . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .233
Avoiding the Well-Traveled Bumps on the Cyber Highway ...................235
Web presence isn’t an all-or-nothing proposition .........................235
E-business planning is a continuous process ................................235
Know and stick to your mission ......................................................236
Know where the money is coming from .........................................236
Ironing Out Pressing Planning Issues .......................................................237
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Creating an Online Customer Profile ........................................................238
Building an Internet Business ....................................................................238
Establishing your value proposition ...............................................239
Constructing a workable e-business model ...................................240
Getting funded ...................................................................................242
Adding an Internet Extension to Your Brick-and-Mortar Business .......244
Retailing online ..................................................................................245
Budgeting for your online presence ................................................246
Forms on the CD-ROM ................................................................................248
Part IV: Making the Most of Your Plan .......................249
Chapter 14: Putting Your Plan Together . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .251
Making a List and Checking It Twice ........................................................252
Locating Additional Resources .................................................................252
The bookstore ....................................................................................254
The Web ..............................................................................................254
Business software ..............................................................................256
Expert advice .....................................................................................257
Self help ..............................................................................................258
Assembling Your Planning Team ...............................................................259
Delegating responsibilities ...............................................................259
Setting the ground rules ...................................................................260
Putting first things last .....................................................................261
Keeping track of it all ........................................................................261
Targeting Your Plan to Key Audiences .....................................................262
Identifying your stakeholders ..........................................................264
Addressing more than one audience ..............................................266
Creating alternate versions of your plan ........................................267
Fitting the Pieces Together ........................................................................268
Forms on the CD-ROM ................................................................................270
Chapter 15: Putting Your Plan to Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .271
Organizing Your Company
around Your Business Plan ....................................................................272
Form meets function .........................................................................272
Duties and responsibilities ...............................................................273
Systems and procedures ..................................................................275
Getting Team Buy-In ....................................................................................277
Distributing your plan .......................................................................278
Leading effectively ............................................................................279
Sharing the vision ..............................................................................280
Encouraging pride of ownership .....................................................281
Developing employee skills ..............................................................282
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Leading into the Future ..............................................................................284
Keeping Your Plan Current ........................................................................285
Monitoring your situation ................................................................285
Encouraging feedback .......................................................................286
Forms on the CD-ROM ................................................................................288
Part V: The Part of Tens ............................................289
Chapter 16: Ten Signs That Your Plan Might Need an Overhaul . . .291
Costs Rise, Revenues Fall ...........................................................................291
Sales Figures Head South ...........................................................................292
You Don’t Meet Financial Projections .......................................................292
Employee Morale Sags ................................................................................293
Key Projects Fall Behind Schedule ...........................................................293
New Competitors Appear ...........................................................................293
Technology Shakes Up Your World ...........................................................294
Important Customers Defect .....................................................................294
Business Strategy Does a 180 ....................................................................294
Growth Is Out of Your Control ...................................................................295
Chapter 17: Ten Ways to Evaluate a New Business Idea . . . . . . . . .297
Is This Something I Really Want to Do? ....................................................297
Is This Something I’m Capable of Doing? .................................................298
Does It Tap My Personal Strengths? .........................................................298
Can I Describe It in 25 Words or Less? .....................................................298
What’s the Closest Thing to It in the Marketplace? ................................299
Does It Meet a Need or Solve a Customer Problem? ..............................299
Does It Take Advantage of a New Opportunity? ......................................299
What’s the Biggest Drawback or Limitation? ...........................................300
Will It Make Money — and How Fast? ......................................................300
Am I Willing to Remortgage My House? ...................................................300
Chapter 18: Ten Ways to Fund Your Business Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . .301
Your Own Pocket .........................................................................................301
Friends and Family ......................................................................................301
A Bank Loan .................................................................................................302
A Commercial Line of Credit ......................................................................302
Equipment Leasing ......................................................................................303
A Small Business Administration (SBA) Loan .........................................303
Deep-Pocket Partners .................................................................................303
Venture Capital ............................................................................................304
Angel Money ................................................................................................304
Prospective Customers ..............................................................................304
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Chapter 19: Ten Things to Know about Venture Capital . . . . . . . . . .305
Three Sources of Investment Dollars .......................................................305
What Venture Capitalists Look For ...........................................................306
What Venture Capitalists Expect to Gain .................................................306
When to Raise Venture Capital ..................................................................307
Aiming Your Proposals ...............................................................................307
Approaching Venture Capitalists ..............................................................308
Memorizing Your Elevator Speech ............................................................308
Tailoring Your Business Plan .....................................................................309
The Importance of an Exit Plan .................................................................310
The Red Flags ..............................................................................................310
Chapter 20: Ten Ways to Use Your Business Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .311
Put Your Business Idea to the Test ...........................................................311
Turn a Good Idea into a Viable Business .................................................311
Determine Your Start-Up Needs . . . ..........................................................311
. . . and What They’re Likely to Cost .........................................................312
Uncover What You’re Up Against ..............................................................312
Find Funding ................................................................................................312
Gauge Progress ............................................................................................312
Prepare for the Unexpected .......................................................................312
Tell the World Who You Are .......................................................................313
Inspire Your Team .......................................................................................313
Appendix: About the CD ............................................315
System Requirements .................................................................................315
Using the CD ...............................................................................................316
What You’ll Find on the CD ........................................................................316
Author created material: Business plan forms ..............................316
Other software ...................................................................................320
Troubleshooting ..........................................................................................320
Index........................................................................321
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Introduction
T
here’s no question among business advisors: When you’re establishing,
expanding, or reenergizing a business, the best way to start is by writing
a business plan. The task may seem a little daunting, which is why we bring
this kit to the rescue.
Business Plans Kit For Dummies, 2nd Edition, doesn’t tell you how to proceed;
it shows you how, walking you through the process with step-by-step action
plans, examples, and do-it-yourself forms throughout the book and on the
information-packed CD-ROM. So relax. Whether you’re planning to launch a
brand-new business, kick-start an idling enterprise, or take a going concern
to all-new heights, this book makes the process straightforward, easy,
rewarding — and even fun.
About This Book
You can find plenty of books full of business-planning theories and principles,
but this book is different: It cuts through the academics and steers clear of
the jargon to provide an easy-to-grasp, step-by-step approach to putting a
business plan together. It also offers dozens of forms to make the task easier
and includes examples from all kinds of businesses — from freelance contrac-
tors and small retailers to online marketers and nonprofit organizations.
What’s more, we’ve updated this 2nd edition to include input and advice on
the most current and pressing issues facing businesses today. In response to
the fact that marketing is a top concern of today’s entrepreneurs, business
owners, CEOs, and investors, we dedicated an all-new Chapter 7 solely to the
topic. And because investment dollars are flowing once again, a new Chapter
19 offers 10 things to know about venture capital. Plus, all the chapters incor-
porate lessons from the dot-com crash, opportunities presented by today’s
technology, and current resources, tips, and planning advice.
Why This Book Is for You
You’ve picked up this book, so you’re probably starting or growing a busi-
ness — most likely a small- to medium-size business, because that’s how
most companies start. Maybe you have nothing more than the glimmer of
a good idea for a company; maybe you’ve already started a business and
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