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TONY PROCTOR
Looking for a concise introduction to Market Research? Look no further.
Tony Proctor’s Essentials of Marketing Research, 4e offers a streamlined,
traditional introduction to all the major concepts of the field. He also
discusses new developments, particularly in the areas of qualitative
data analysis and marketing decision-support systems.
Ideal for undergraduates studying marketing research for the first time,
MBA students, and anyone who seeks a basic understanding of the topic,
Essentials of Marketing Research, 4e, strikes an excellent balance between
different topics.
NEW TO THIS EDITION!
• New case studies
• Coverage of Internet databases and the use of the Internet
• Increased references to journal articles
T
o access additional Learning Resources, including an Instructor’s Manual
and Power Point Slides, visit www.pearsoned.co.uk/proctor_emr.
Tony Proctor, MA, MPhil, Phd, DipM, has had many years experience in
the marketing research industry and is Professor in Marketing at the
Chester Business School. He has also authored several books and articles

on marketing and management creativity.
ESSENTIALS OF MARKETING RESEARCH
www.pearson-books.com
“The simplicity of Proctor’s book differentiates it from other offerings in the
marketplace. Many of my overseas students really find it an easy book to access
and its straightforward approach is the key here.”
Nigel Culkin, The Business School, University of Hertfordshire
“There are many books on Marketing Research, but they rarely cover qualitative
data analysis so well. This is one of the key reasons why I chose Proctor as an
essential text. I could not manage without this chapter.”
Dr. Jane Hemsley-Brown, School of Management, University of Surrey
ESSENTIALS OF
MARKETING RESEARCH
TONY PROCTOR
FOURTH EDITION
TONY PROCTOR
FOURTH EDITION
ESSENTIALS OF MARKETINGRESEARCH
FOURTH
EDITION
an imprint of
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Essentials of Marketing Research
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ESSENTIALS OF
MARKETING RESEARCH
FOURTH EDITION
TONY PROCTOR PhD
Professor in Marketing,
Chester Business School
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Pearson Education Limited
Edinburgh Gate
Harlow
Essex CM20 2JE
England
and Associated Companies throughout the world
Visit us on the World Wide Web at:
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First published 1997
Second edition 2000
Third edition 2003
Fourth edition published 2005
© Pearson Professional Limited 1997
© Pearson Education Limited 2000, 2005
The rights of Tony Proctor to be identified as author of this work has been asserted
by him in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a
retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,
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endorsement of this book by such owners.
ISBN 0 273 69494 4
British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
A catalog record for this book can be obtained from the Library of Congress
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Brief contents
1 Nature of marketing research 1
2 Planning the research project 42
3 Secondary data 68
4 Sampling 103
5 Surveys 136
6 Measurement and scaling 164
7 Questionnaires 188
8 Qualitative research 219
9 Observation and experiment 247
10 Quantitative data analysis 278
11 Qualitative data analysis 322
12 Evaluation, reports and presentation 348
13 Applied marketing research 383
14 Marketing research settings: business-to-business,
services and internal marketing 430
15 Global marketing research 455
16 Marketing decision-support system 481
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Supporting resources
Visit www.pearsoned.co.uk/proctor_emr to find valuable online resources
For instructors
• Complete, downloadable Instructor’s Manual
• PowerPoint slides that can be downloaded and used as OHTs
For more information please contact your local Pearson Education sales
representative or visit www.pearsoned.co.uk/proctor_emr
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Full contents
List of case studies xiv
Preface xvii
Acknowledgements xxi
1 Nature of marketing research 1
Introduction 3
Marketing research: a definition 3
Philosophy of science 4
Marketing research and decision making 7
Divisions of marketing research 9
Categories of applied marketing research 13
Marketing information systems 14
Types of data 16
Marketing research as part of marketing strategy 18
Deciding who should do the research 18
Assistance from outside research organisations 19
Evaluating proposals 22
Ethical considerations in marketing research 22
Researchers’ obligations to clients 25
Changing role of marketing research 27
Using the Internet for marketing research 29
Need for more creativity in research 29
Non-response as an issue in marketing research effectiveness 30
Summary 31
Questions 31
Case study 1.1 Lampelichter AG, Essen 32
Case study 1.2 Spirit of Magellan Enterprises 34
Case study 1.3 Rosine and Vera 35
Case study 1.4 The English Bear Company 37
Case study 1.5 21st-century market research 38
References and notes 40
Further reading 41
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Full contents
2 Planning the research project 42
Introduction 44
Marketing problems 44
Deciding whether to undertake a research study 47
Uncertainty in decisions 48
Research plan 50
The proposal 55
Use of PERT in planning research 56
Summary 60
Questions 61
Case study 2.1 New Shoe Company 61
Case study 2.2 Cheri-Rose 62
Case study 2.3 Why researchers are so jittery 63
Case study 2.4 Tracking the railways 65
References and notes 66
Further reading 67
3 Secondary data 68
Introduction 70
Types of secondary data 70
Searching for external data 72
How secondary data can be used 78
Other general sources 80
International sources 82
Non-official sources of data 85
Professional organisations and libraries 88
Using secondary data in exploratory research 90
Online marketing research 93
Marketing research tools 94
Summary 94
Questions 94
Case study 3.1 Montres d’Occasion 95
Case study 3.2 The Web 95
Case study 3.3 Salaries 96
Case study 3.4 PowerUp Electricity plc 99
References and notes 101
Further reading 101
4 Sampling 103
Introduction 105
Census and samples 105
Sampling 106
Sampling frame 110
Sampling methods 111
Sampling in practice 122
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Full contents
Sample size 127
Summary 129
Questions 130
Case study 4.1 Research Consultants 130
Case study 4.2 Jerome’s department store 131
Case study 4.3 McBain’s fast food restaurant 131
Case study 4.4 Student research projects 132
References and notes 134
Further reading 134
5 Surveys 136
Introduction 138
Postal surveys 139
Personal interviews 143
Telephone surveys 145
Self-administered surveys 148
Panels 148
Syndicated research services 151
Omnibus studies 153
Interactive research 154
Summary 154
Questions 155
Case study 5.1 Central Training College (1) 155
Case study 5.2 Consumer Products 156
Case study 5.3 Liptonjuice (1) 157
Case study 5.4 Opinion polling faces new scrutiny 159
Case study 5.5 Volvo Car UK 160
References and notes 161
Further reading 162
6 Measurement and scaling 164
Introduction 166
Measurement 166
Scale types 169
Attitude measurement 172
Self-reporting methods 175
Methods for rating attributes 180
Summary 182
Questions 183
Case study 6.1 Summit Motors (1) 183
Case study 6.2 Barney’s Café 184
Case study 6.3 Liptonjuice (2) 184
Case study 6.4 Chinese imports 185
References and notes 186
Further reading 186
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Full contents
7 Questionnaires 188
Introduction 190
Questionnaire structure 190
Stages in questionnaire development 192
Questionnaire design and construction 193
Introducing a questionnaire 206
Reliability and validity in questionnaire design 208
Summary 209
Questions 210
Case study 7.1 Central Training College (2) 211
Case study 7.2 The Rholand Watch Company 212
Case study 7.3 Researching the sports market 214
Case study 7.4 Attitudes of cat owners to cat food 215
References and notes 218
Further reading 218
8 Qualitative research 219
Introduction 221
Limitations of qualitative research 222
Focus groups 223
Other group research methods 227
Practicalities of focus group sessions 229
Industrial focus groups 234
Other qualitative research methods 234
Summary 237
Questions 238
Case study 8.1 Avon Cosmetics 238
Case study 8.2 IBM 239
Case study 8.3 Muller 240
Case study 8.4 Brand valuation 240
Case study 8.5 Hi-fi systems 242
References and notes 245
Further reading 245
9 Observation and experiment 247
Introduction 249
Observation 249
Experiments 254
Experimental designs 258
Statistical designs 263
Test marketing: an introduction 267
Consumer-tracking studies 270
Summary 271
Questions 271
Case study 9.1 Soap-sud 272
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Case study 9.2 Cheung’s chips 273
Case study 9.3 The Safe ‘T’ fireproof letterbox 273
Case study 9.4 Thompson Toys 274
References and notes 276
Further reading 276
10 Quantitative data analysis 278
Introduction 280
Interpretation 280
Analysis 281
Tabulation 282
Statistical analysis 284
Significance of differences between numbers 287
Chi-square analysis 290
Use of similarities between numbers to show cause and effect 293
Analysis of variance 294
Measuring relationships 296
Summary 313
Questions 314
Case study 10.1 La Gaieté Parisienne 317
Case study 10.2 Summit Motors (2) 317
Case study 10.3 Mr Hungry’s Burger Bar 318
References and notes 320
Further reading 321
11 Qualitative data analysis 322
Introduction 324
Qualitative analysis 324
Operational aspects of qualitative research 325
Data displays 331
Matrices 332
Networks 334
Summary 338
Questions 338
Case study 11.1 Cyclist survey 338
Case study 11.2 Uses of aluminium foil 343
Case study 11.3 Renault Clio 345
References and notes 346
Further reading 346
12 Evaluation, reports and presentation 348
Introduction 350
Evaluation of research 350
Written report 351
Sections of a report 354
Oral research report 355
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Full contents
Visual aids and their use 356
Summary 363
Questions 363
Case study 12.1 The St Honoré de Mazarin Restaurant, Paris 364
Case study 12.2 Central Training College (3) 365
Case study 12.3 Sunrise Hotels 367
Case study 12.4 Wallaby Tours 379
References and notes 381
Further reading 381
13 Applied marketing research 383
Introduction 385
Product research 385
Getting ideas for new products 385
Product delivery 392
Naming the product 394
Packaging the product 395
Market segmentation research 397
Cartographying geographic segmentation 400
Competition research 402
Promotion research 405
Measuring advertising effectiveness 406
Selling research 411
Pricing research 412
Distribution research 413
Summary 417
Questions 417
Case study 13.1 Tourism in Bukhara 418
Case study 13.2 South Africa 419
Case study 13.3 Music in marketing communications 422
Case study 13.4 Bronco Jeans 424
Case study 13.5 British divided into four types 425
Case study 13.6 S
ˇ
koda cars 425
References and notes 427
Further reading 428
14 Marketing research settings: business-to-business,
services and internal marketing 430
Introduction 432
Business-to-business marketing research 432
Research into services 439
Research for internal marketing 444
Summary 446
Questions 447
Case study 14.1 Management in the public sector 447
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Case study 14.2 Orchestras aim to pass the baton 448
Case study 14.3 Decline of frills 449
Case study 14.4 Jasmine Hotel, Dubai 450
Case study 14.5 Banking in Portugal 451
References and notes 453
Further reading 453
15 Global marketing research 455
Introduction 457
Global marketing research 457
Desk research 467
Principal methods of organising research 470
Marketing research in developing countries 471
Summary 471
Questions 471
Case study 15.1 Michel Herbelin 472
Case study 15.2 China 473
Case study 15.3 The future lies abroad 475
Case study 15.4 European laundry statistics 476
Case study 15.5 Delhi delights 478
References and notes 479
Further reading 480
16 Marketing decision-support system 481
Introduction 483
Marketing information systems 483
Decision-support mechanisms 490
Forecasting demand 491
Applications for mathematical models in the marketing
decision-support system 499
Expert systems and decision support 512
Summary 519
Questions 519
Case study 16.1 Demand for agricultural tractors 520
Case study 16.2 Kenbrock 521
Case study 16.3 Restaurant strategies 521
Case study 16.4 Brand switching 522
Case study 16.5 Simon Theodolou, hairstylist 523
References and notes 525
Further reading 526
Further case studies 528
Glossary 553
Bibliography 559
Index 577
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List of case studies
1.1 Lampelichter AG, Essen 32
1.2 Spirit of Magellan Enterprises 34
1.3 Rosine and Vera 35
1.4 The English Bear Company 37
1.5 21st-century market research 38
2.1 New Shoe Company 61
2.2 Cheri-Rose 62
2.3 Why researchers are so jittery 63
2.4 Tracking the railways 65
3.1 Montres d’Occasion 95
3.2 The Web 95
3.3 Salaries 96
3.4 PowerUp Electricity plc 99
4.1 Research consultants 130
4.2 Jerome’s department store 131
4.3 McBain’s fast food restaurant 131
4.4 Student research projects 132
5.1 Central Training College (1) 155
5.2 Consumer Products 156
5.3 Liptonjuice (1) 157
5.4 Opinion polling faces new scrutiny 159
5.5 Volvo Car UK 160
6.1 Summit Motors (1) 183
6.2 Barney’s Café 184
6.3 Liptonjuice (2) 184
6.4 Chinese imports 185
7.1 Central Training College (2) 211
7.2 The Rholand Watch Company 212
7.3 Researching the sports market 214
7.4 Attitudes of cat owners to cat food 215
8.1 Avon Cosmetics 238
8.2 IBM 239
8.3 Muller 240
8.4 Brand valuation 240
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List of case studies
8.5 Hi-fi systems 242
9.1 Soap-sud 272
9.2 Cheung’s chips 273
9.3 The Safe ‘T’ fireproof letterbox 273
9.4 Thompson Toys 274
10.1 La Gaieté Parisienne 317
10.2 Summit Motors (2) 317
10.3 Mr Hungry’s Burger Bar 318
11.1 Cyclist survey 338
11.2 Uses of aluminium foil 343
11.3 Renault Clio 345
12.1 The St Honoré de Mazarin Restaurant, Paris 364
12.2 Central Training College (3) 365
12.3 Sunrise Hotels 367
12.4 Wallaby Tours 379
13.1 Tourism in Bukhara 418
13.2 South Africa 419
13.3 Music in marketing communications 422
13.4 Bronco Jeans 424
13.5 British divided into four types 425
13.6 S
ˇ
koda cars 425
14.1 Management in the public sector 447
14.2 Orchestras aim to pass the baton 448
14.3 Decline of frills 449
14.4 Jasmine Hotel, Dubai 450
14.5 Banking in Portugal 451
15.1 Michel Herbelin 472
15.2 China 473
15.3 The future lies abroad 475
15.4 European laundry statistics 476
15.5 Delhi delights 478
16.1 Demand for agricultural tractors 520
16.2 Kenbrock 521
16.3 Restaurant strategies 521
16.4 Brand switching 522
16.5 Simon Theodolou, hairstylist 523
Further case studies
1 Noteworthy response 529
2 Moving images 530
3 Going below the surface 532
4 One strike and you’re down 534
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List of case studies
5 Desmond sizes up shopping 536
6 Is fizzing up its look enough? 538
7 They might just as well be men... 540
8 Now interacting with lots of new partners 542
9 Lake Lucerne Navigation Company (SGV) 544
10 Gondolas for Liverpool 551
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Preface
‘Marketing research’ has often been called ‘market research’, and there has been
much confusion about what these terms actually mean. Indeed, some writers
have been so worried about the terminology that they have called their books
‘research for marketing decisions’ to overcome the problems. The term marketing
research, of which market research is but one element, encompasses the full range
of research and evaluation activities undertaken by marketing professionals to
guide them in decision making, and it is marketing research that I address in this
book.
There have been vast changes in marketing research, largely as a result of the
development of information technology. Marketing research is, to some extent, a
quantitative subject and although many of the techniques have been around for
many years, using them was hindered by the lack of powerful and readily avail-
able computational aids. It is sobering to remember that in the mid-1960s the
slide rule was the main calculating tool, mainframe computers were in their
infancy and the mechanical Burroughs’ comptometers had only just given way to
more sophisticated electronic ones. Now the problem is not so much lack of com-
puting power as the need to acquire the skills necessary to select from and use the
many sophisticated analytical methods that are available.
SCOPE AND COVERAGE
This book looks at the traditional approach to marketing research and the tradi-
tional tools of analysis. It also discusses new developments – particularly in the
areas of qualitative data analysis and marketing decisions support systems.
I have tried to make the book into a teaching/study book designed primarily
for undergraduates but of interest to MBA and other postgraduate or post-
experience students wanting to get some idea of the subject matter. In writing
such a book, getting the balance right between different topics and the depth at
which each is covered is constrained by the length of the book. Because it is
designed as a teaching book, I have devoted much of the available space to case
studies, illustrations and questions.
The various chapters address different topics in marketing research:
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Preface
• Chapter 1 looks at the nature of, and the need for, marketing research. An
overview is given of the process of marketing research and the chapter con-
cludes by looking at the role of agencies and at ethical issues.
• Chapter 2 pays attention to planning the research project and in particular to
the use of PERT analysis to guide the management of the project.
• Chapter 3 examines the uses and limitations of secondary data, indicating
when secondary data may be useful in research and giving details of useful
internal and external sources of data.
• Chapter 4 examines the process of sampling. Attention is given to all aspects of
sampling, including the sampling frame, sampling unit selection, sampling
method, the sample size and the sampling plan.
• Methods and applications of surveys are dealt with in Chapter 5. Sources of
error, methods of data collection, dealing with non-response, panel/syndicated
marketing research and omnibus surveys are among the topics discussed.
• Chapter 6 covers measurement, scales and attitude measurement. The process
of measurement is discussed along with levels and variations in measurement.
The chapter also looks at the nature of attitudes and their measurement.
• Chapter 7 looks at questionnaire construction and development. Particular
attention is given to question content, question phrasing, kinds of response
format, question sequence, question layout, pretesting and revising. Validity,
reliability and sensitivity are also considered.
• Qualitative research methods are outlined in Chapter 8. Focus group discus-
sions, individual depth interviews and projective techniques are considered.
• Chapter 9 looks first at observation as a research method and then at experi-
mentation. Details of many different experimental designs are given. The
chapter also looks at test marketing, both in the marketplace and under simu-
lated conditions.
• Chapter 10 examines data interpretation and the various tools of quantitative
data analysis. A wide range of statistical methods is examined. It is presup-
posed that the reader is familiar with statistics at an introductory level.
• Chapter 11 presents an aspect of marketing research that is not usually dis-
cussed in a textbook of this kind. Qualitative data analysis is an important
dimension of marketing research. The chapter looks at a variety of tools and
methods that can assist in the analysis of qualitative data.
• Chapter 12 discusses reports and their presentation. Emphasis is placed on the
use of information technology to help prepare and present good reports.
• Chapter 13 looks at a variety of examples of applied marketing research,
including product research, segmentation research, competition research and
promotion research.
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Preface
• Business-to-business marketing research, services research and research for
internal marketing are the subject matter of Chapter 14.
• Global marketing research is the subject matter of Chapter 15.
• Chapter 16 discusses marketing decision support systems. Among the most
interesting developments here are applications of neural network software as
expert systems.
NEW TO THIS EDITION
This edition recognises that the Internet is becoming more and more important as
a source for information. Chapter 3 provides more information on how the
Internet can provide more information and how it can be used advantageously in
the course of research. In particular, the focus of attention is directed towards the
availability of Internet databases which can provide very relevant information for
marketers.
In addition, all chapters have been re-examined, revised and updated as
appropriate. The list of references in the book has also been extended consider-
ably and the questions at the end of each chapter have been modified and
reduced in number. New cases studies have replaced some of the older cases.
These include case studies 1.2 Spirit of Magellan Enterprises, 2.2 Cheri, 11.3
Renault Clio, 13.1 Tourism in Bukhara, among others.
ADDED BENEFITS
In addition the book also features:
• further case studies to promote thought on how marketing research as an
entity can be applied in practice
• a glossary to reinforce key terms
• a full bibliography offering additional references.
LEARNING RESOURCES
Visit www.pearsoned.co.uk/proctor_emr to access an Instructor’s Manual and
PowerPoint slides.
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Preface
AUTHOR’S ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
My thanks are due to Jim Blythe for the case studies that he has contributed.
In addition, I extend thanks to Lucy, Carol and Zoë for their contributions. The
following reviewers provided useful feedback for this edition:
Nigel Culkin, University of Hertfordshire
Jouan de Kervenoael, Lancaster University
Rod Harradwe, Teeside Business School
Kathy Mouat, Napier University
Jane Hemsley-Brown, University of Surrey
Richard West, University of Westminster
I would also like to thank the editorial team at Pearson for making this
4th edition a reality. Thanks to Thomas Sigel, Senior Acquisitions Editor; Peter
Hooper, Editorial Assistant; Anita Atkinson, Senior Desk Editor; Helen Baxter,
Copy Editor.
Tony Proctor
Spring 2005
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Acknowledgements
We are grateful to the following for permission to reproduce copyright material:
Figures 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, 2.6 and 16.8 featuring Microsoft’s Windows ™ browser bar,
screen shots reprinted by permission from Microsoft Corporation; Table 4.1 from
‘The “Marketing Research Services Classification’ of Social Class,’ in National
Readership Survey, JINCARS 1981, National Readership Surveys Ltd; unnumbered
table on pp. 118–19 from http://www.caci.co.uk/acorn/acornmap.asp, 22 April
2005, © 2005 CACI Limited, Acorn is a registered trade mark of CACI Limited;
Figure 11.3 a screen shot from NUD*IST, Version 6, Work Interactions Project,
NUD*IST is developed by QSR Pty Ltd; Figure 16.2 a screen shot from SNAP soft-
ware, Mercator Research Group Ltd; Table 16.13 from Kotler, Philip, Marketing
Management, 11
th
edition, © 2003, p. 499, reprinted by permission of Pearson
Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ.
The American Marketing Association for a definition of ‘Marketing Research’;
Editions Rebondir for extracts adapted from ‘Small business ideas and studying
the local market’ published in Rebondir no. 12 1996; The Market Research Society
for the following extracts; ‘How a spoonful of research helps the medicine go
down’ by Tracey Sanderson April 1996, ‘With growing demands for data, will
purity prove only theoretical?’ by Peter Mouncey May 1996, ‘Quality will mark
the route to deeper client relationships’ by Bryan Bates March 1996, Extracts
adapted from Research Plus ‘Homelink’ September 1993, ‘Get a helping of the
sugar-free chips game’ by Sue White September 1993, ‘The launch went fine –
then the devil’s in the dealing’ by Andrew Scott April 1996, ‘In Europe’s complex
market, check the price is right’ by A.J. Bowditch April 1996, ‘The cascade theory
that shows practical gains’ by Peter Gorle October 1995, ‘Now business research
is every agency’s research’ by D. Jamieson October 1995, ‘The world shrinks,
maybe, but there’s still the need to travel’ by M. Goodyear May 1996, ‘Why we
won’t keep taking pills’ by A. Branthwaite and J. Bruggemann April 1996, ‘Now
that India’s got GATT, a massive market beckons’ by Sue Bunn April 1996, and
‘The markets are emerging – and research is hard on their heels’ by Mia
Bartonova January 1996; Marketing Week for extracts adapted from Marketing
Week ‘Research needs more creativity’ by Clare Nutall 29
th
April 1996, ‘Working
on site’ 26
th
April 1996, ‘Commercial TV audiences rise’ by Paul McCann
26
th
April 1996, ‘The data game’ by David Reed 3
rd
May 1996, ‘PepsiCo needs
new strategy for iced tea’ by Jon Rees 16
th
April 1996, and ‘Poster watch’ 26
th
April
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Acknowledgements
1996; Rene Spindler for an extract adapted from her MSc dissertation, Odense
University 1991; Zoe Cooper for an extract adapted from her MBA dissertation,
Keele University; Carol Fry for extracts adapted from her MBA dissertation,
Keele University; Marketing for extracts adapted from ‘Research propels innova-
tion’, and ‘Avon ads praise the real woman’ by Ruth Nicholas published in
Marketing 27
th
January 1994, and ‘Eastern Promise is worth all the pain of red
tape’ by Bob Tyrell published in Marketing 3
rd
February 1994; Business Oppor-
tunity World for an extract adapted from ‘Safety letterbox’ published in Business
Opportunity World May 1996; Lucy Double for an extract adapted from her MBA
dissertation, Keele University 1991; Marketing News for an extract adapted
from ‘Delphi technique can work for new product development’ by Gianni
Bolongaro published in Marketing News 3
rd
January 1994; MapInfo Limited for
extracts from their website www.mapinfo.co.uk/products/spftware.cfm and
company literature; South Africa Tourism Board for an extract adapted from
South Africa: a World in One Country, 1996; International Wrist Watch for an extract
adapted from ‘The French Connection’ published in International Wrist Watch
1995, Issue 31; Rushuang Xiong for an extract adapted from an MBA disserta-
tion, Keele University 1994; Mercator Research Group Limited for ‘SNAP’;
Emerald Group Publishing Limited for an extract adapted from ‘Forecasting:
the key to managerial decision-making’ by D. Waddell and A.S. Sohal published
in Management Decision, 32(1) 1994 © MCB University Press Limited; and The
Lake Lucerne Navigation Company, Switzerland, 2005, for information in ‘Lake
Lucerne Navigation Company (SGV)’.
We are grateful to the Financial Times Limited for permission to reprint the fol-
lowing material:
‘Potential benefits of market research’, from Marketing wake-up, © Financial
Times, 3 June 1997; Golden nuggets on a long and winding road, © Financial
Times, 3 December 1997; Data loss, © Financial Times, 23 January 1997; Opinion
polling faces new scrutiny, © Financial Times, 21 March 1997; Baby boomers
get the message, © Financial Times, 26 May 1997; Shoppers under the microscope,
© Financial Times, 5 December 1997; Caught in the neighbours’ tangled web, ©
Financial Times, 15 August 1997; Public puts faith in brand names, © Financial
Times, 13 October 1997; Soft drinks switch to PET leaves industry struggling, ©
Financial Times, 22 October 1997; ‘Newspapers are a source of information about
competitiors’, from ‘Nike’ part of the Lex column, © Financial Times, 20 December
1997; ‘Electronic revolution in the retailing world’, from Pressures in the market-
place, © Financial Times, 3 September 1997; British divided into four types, ©
Financial Times, 5 September 1997; Deceptive appearance, © Financial Times,
3 February 1997; Orchestras aim to pass the baton, © Financial Times, 26 May 1997;
The decline of frills, © Financial Times, 28 April 1997; Noteworthy response, ©
Financial Times, 26 October 2004; Moving images, © Financial Times, 19 October
2004; Going below the surface, © Financial Times, 28 September 2004; Desmond
sizes up shopping, © Financial Times, 19 October 2004; Is fizzing up its look
..
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Acknowledgements
enough?, © Financial Times, 26 October 2004; Now interacting with lots of new
partners, © Financial Times, 12 October 2004.
We are grateful to the following for permission to use copyright material:
Why researchers are so jittery from The Financial Times Limited, 3 March 1997,
© Winston Fletcher; The future lies abroad from The Financial Times Limited,
30 June 1997, © Sir Martin Sorrell; One strike and you’re down from The Financial
Times Limited, 5 October 2004, © Richard Gillis; They might as well be men...
from The Financial Times Limited, 5 October 2004, © Jasmine Montgomery.
In some instances we have been unable to trace the owners of copyright
material, and we would appreciate any information that would enable us to
do so.
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