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Tài liệu Module 1: Introduction to Change and Configuration Management Design pptx







Contents
Overview 1
Introduction to Change and Configuration
Management 2
Defining the Requirements for CCM 9
Defining the CCM Solution 26
Selecting a Course of Action 35
Review 41

Module 1: Introduction
to Change and
Configuration
Management Design





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Module 1: Introduction to Change and Configuration Management Design iii


Instructor Notes
This module provides students with an overview of the concepts and principles
of Change and Configuration Management (CCM).
After completing this module, students will be able to:

Describe the need for a well-defined and correctly deployed CCM
infrastructure.

Define the requirements for CCM by documenting the business needs and
current environment of an organization.

Define the CCM solution by assessing available technology options.

Select an appropriate course of action to meet the business needs.

Materials and Preparation
This section provides the materials and preparation tasks that you need to teach
this module.
Required Materials
To teach this module, you need the following materials:

Microsoft
®
PowerPoint
®
file 2410a_01.ppt

Module 1, “Introduction to Change and Configuration Management Design”

Trainer Materials compact disc

Preparation Tasks
To prepare for this module, you must:

Read all of the materials for this module.

Read the technical white papers located on the Trainer Materials compact
disc.

Read any relevant information in the Microsoft Windows
®
2000 or
Microsoft Windows XP Help files, and in the Windows 2000 or
Windows XP Resource Kit.

Be familiar with the principles and practice of CCM.

Read the instructor notes that precede each module. These contain
preparation suggestions for each module.

Read the review questions and be prepared to elaborate on the answers
provided in the text.

Presentation:
90 Minutes

Lab:
00 Minutes
iv Module 1: Introduction to Change and Configuration Management Design


Module Strategy
Use the following strategy to present this module:

Introduction to Change and Configuration Management
This section introduces the principles and application of CCM. Take the
following actions:
• Highlight, but do not dwell on, the benefits of CCM.
• Describe CCM implementation as a process that is triggered by
infrastructure changes and that results in a managed infrastructure.
• Emphasize that new CCM deployments must be implemented as a
structured process.

Defining the Requirements for CCM
In this section, students learn how to define the requirements for CCM
based on an assessment of job roles, user locations, and organizational
factors such as corporate policy and security. Take the following actions:
• Describe the key elements of CCM: operating system deployment,
application management, computer settings management, user settings
management, and user data management.
• Emphasize that customers should design configurations based on
classification of users—for example, based on job role and location.
Note that the requirements of each customer are unique.

Defining the CCM Solution
In this section, students assess the choice of available CCM technologies.
Students consider the respective benefits and drawbacks. Take the following
actions:
• Explain that Microsoft delivers a rich management infrastructure in the
Windows operating system by means of Group Policy, Remote
Installation Services (RIS), and Terminal Services. In addition to these
technologies provided in Windows, Microsoft provides Systems
Management Server (SMS) to promote advanced CCM capabilities.
• Emphasize that most enterprise-class organizations want to consider
more than just the in-the-box solutions. SMS is a valuable component
that delivers advanced software distribution capabilities.
• Make it clear that CCM technologies do not exist exclusively for CCM.
Some, like the Active Directory

directory service, are built into the
operating system and have a number of uses besides CCM.

Selecting a Course of Action
In this section, students learn how to determine a course of action that forms
the basis of a CCM plan. Take the following actions:
• Emphasize the need for a structured approach to CCM implementation,
based on a plan. All of the modules in this course generate input to a
CCM plan.
• CCM deployments can be complex. Underline the importance of
undertaking a pilot prior to a CCM implementation.

Module 1: Introduction to Change and Configuration Management Design 1


Overview

Introduction to Change and Configuration Management

Defining the Requirements for CCM

Defining the CCM Solution

Selecting a Course of Action

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To reduce the costs associated with managing a diverse set of organizational
needs, many organizations are moving toward a highly managed computing
environment based on a successfully designed Change and Configuration
Management (CCM) infrastructure. In this module, you will learn how to
analyze such needs and develop a plan for a CCM infrastructure that will meet
them.
After completing this module, you will be able to:

Describe the need for a well-defined and correctly deployed CCM
infrastructure.

Define the requirements for CCM by documenting the business needs and
current environment of an organization.

Define the CCM solution by assessing available technology options.

Select an appropriate course of action to meet the business needs.

Topic Objective
To provide an overview of
the module topics and
objectives.
Lead-in
In this module, you will learn
about change and
configuration management
and how it is implemented.
2 Module 1: Introduction to Change and Configuration Management Design






Introduction to Change and Configuration
Management

The Need for CCM

CCM Key Elements

Building an Organization for CCM

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System administrators are required to support a range of users and computers.
Users have different needs and varying levels of expertise. And, with today’s
changing business needs, enterprise organizations need a process for allowing
change to occur in a structured way, in addition to technology that allows that
process to happen smoothly and efficiently. This is the basis for Change and
Configuration Management.
CCM may be defined as the management processes and software tools for
managing and supporting the changing hardware and software configurations of
the Information Technology (IT) infrastructure of an organization, in a
proactive way. CCM must enable efficient IT operations, keep the Total Cost of
Ownership (TCO) to an acceptable minimum, and ease the burden on system
administrators and network managers.
A number of technologies with Microsoft
®
Windows
®
2000 and Microsoft
Windows XP, in addition to Microsoft Systems Management Server (SMS), can
be used as part of the CCM infrastructure, by facilitating changes to user
settings and client computers with minimal impact. To use these technologies
effectively, it is crucial that you develop a CCM plan that defines the resources
to be managed and the management processes to be implemented.

Topic Objective
To introduce CCM, to
describe its key elements,
and to introduce the
organizational structures
required for CCM.
Lead-in
The definition of Change
and Configuration
Management is the
management processes and
software tools required to
manage an IT infrastructure
proactively.
Module 1: Introduction to Change and Configuration Management Design 3


The Need for CCM

Complete Administration Tasks Faster

Effectively Target IT Staff

Reduce User Down time

Increase Information Accessibility

Increase Management Control

Enable Remote Management

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Computer networks must be defined and built according to business needs.
Furthermore, as time passes, hardware and software may be upgraded and
replaced at regular intervals. CCM technologies support the definition,
construction, and upgrade of computer networks.
An efficiently managed network is less costly to run. Therefore, CCM
technologies benefit an organization by reducing the TCO of the computer
network. Benefits include being able to complete administration tasks faster,
effectively target IT staff, reduce user down time, increase information
accessibility and management control, and enable remote management.
Complete Administration Tasks Faster
The amount of time taken by your network’s administrators to perform the
various operating system installations and upgrades is one of the major costs in
your organization's current TCO. Therefore, as one of its major benefits, your
design must provide a means to greatly reduce this time factor.
Effectively Target IT Staff
IT staff spend a lot of time manually installing, upgrading, and removing
software from client computers. They also spend time answering support calls
and visiting client computers to conduct management activities. With CCM, the
overhead can be reduced in terms of time taken for both ongoing maintenance
and support calls. Hence, CCM provides a means to allocate staff more
appropriately.
Reduce User Down Time
Computer availability directly affects user productivity. For example, when a
client computer fails or when there are delays in providing newly appointed
staff with computers, productivity suffers. Use of a CCM infrastructure can
reduce the amount of time users spend waiting for new or upgraded software to
be installed. It can also speed up the process of software installation or repair.
Topic Objective
To describe the benefits of
CCM.
Lead-in
An efficiently managed
network is less costly to run
than an inefficiently
managed one.
4 Module 1: Introduction to Change and Configuration Management Design


Increase Information Accessibility
By using CCM technologies, users’ data, settings, and applications can be
available at any client computer. Even user data that is saved to the network can
be made available when network resources are not present.
Increase Management Control
With existing installation technologies, it can be difficult to control which users
receive installed or upgraded systems, and the timing of this. CCM technologies
enable IT staff to control how, when, and where software is distributed, in
addition to providing inventory, reporting, and monitoring capabilities.
Enable Remote Management
CCM technologies can help IT staff manage and control computers without
having to visit them locally. For example, CCM technologies enable the remote
management of desktops by applying user and computer configuration settings
from a central location. CCM technologies also enable the remote distribution
of operating systems and applications.
Module 1: Introduction to Change and Configuration Management Design 5


CCM Key Elements
Software Distribution
Computer Settings
Management
User Settings
Management
User Data
Management
Operating System
Installation
Distribution of Applications, Upgrades and
Updates
Definition of Computer Types and
Application of Common Settings
Definition of User Types and Application
of Common Settings
Ensuring the Accessibility, Availability and
Security of User Data
Automated OS Installations and Upgrades

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CCM involves the definition and deployment of configurations to meet the
technical and organizational requirements. A key element of CCM is the ability
to administratively make a change once (for example, perform a task, define
some settings), and then replicate that change broadly to many users and
computers.
You can use a CCM infrastructure to simplify or automate a number of system
management tasks:

Operating system installation
As new computers are delivered and new operating systems are released,
organizations must install and upgrade client computer operating systems.

Software Distribution
CCM tools enable a fast, efficient method of deploying software upgrades
and updates, including service packs and software patches.

Computer settings management
CCM tools enable common configurations to be defined and applied by
policy. Changes to the settings can be applied to all computers in a group,
rather than individually, simplifying ongoing administration.
Topic Objective
To describe the features of
CCM.
Lead-in
CCM features have five
primary components.
6 Module 1: Introduction to Change and Configuration Management Design



User settings management
By using Group Policy, you can use CCM tools to define user-specific
settings, such as users’ desktop configuration, Internet settings, and access
to system functionality.

User data management
CCM tools can ensure that important data is available to users, whether
users are connected directly to the local area network (LAN), connected
through a slow link, or working remotely without a network connection. For
example, administrators can provide improved protection of user data by
ensuring that local data is redirected or copied to a network share, providing
a central location for administrator-managed backups. This capability helps
to enforce corporate directives—for example, to place the most important
data on servers.

Module 1: Introduction to Change and Configuration Management Design 7


Building an Organization for CCM

Understand the Existing CCM Process

Identify how the organization currently manages its computing
environment

Follow a Process to Implement a CCM Infrastructure

Analyze business requirements and assess appropriate
technologies

Create a CCM Design Team

Employ a multidisciplinary team that shares responsibilities and
balances competencies

Determine and Agree on the Organizational Goals

Identify the criteria that will define the success of the CCM project

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You must consider the deployment of CCM technologies as a project. To
maximize the project’s chances of success, you must understand the existing
CCM process, follow a process to implement a CCM infrastructure, create a
CCM design team, and then determine and agree on the organizational goals.
Understand the Existing CCM Process
When developing a CCM infrastructure, consider how the organization
currently manages changes to its computing environment. You must determine
the process that is in place—it may be similar to the one already described. You
can then determine the CCM technologies required. The CCM features in SMS,
Windows 2000, and Windows XP are extensive and require you to make design
choices. Not all of the features will be required by every organization.
Follow a Process to Implement a CCM Infrastructure
CCM deployment is initiated by the business need to reduce TCO or to improve
efficiency of IT operations. If you follow a design process, you can analyze the
underlying business requirements and assess the technologies that will best
support the requirements.
At each stage of the process, there are distinct activities that you must undertake
and design decisions that you must make. These issues are explored throughout
this course, which is structured accordingly.
Topic Objective
To explain the importance of
consultation and
involvement during the
analysis and design phase.
Lead-in
Most CCM implementations
are likely to have cross-
functional boundaries. They
have the potential to
become political and be
delayed if the right people
are not involved at the right
levels and at the appropriate
time.
8 Module 1: Introduction to Change and Configuration Management Design


Create a CCM Design Team
Create a multidisciplinary team to define and implement the CCM
infrastructure. One option is to employ the Microsoft Solutions Framework
(MSF) team model. Under the MSF model, teams are small and
multidisciplinary. Team members share responsibilities and balance each
other’s competencies to focus on the project.
To follow and align your team with this model, include the following six roles
in the CCM design team:

Product Management. Acts as the customer advocate for the team and the
team advocate to the customer.

Program Management. Acts as a leader, facilitator, and coordinator of the
project, but does not act as the boss.

Development. Designs and develops the CCM infrastructure.

Testing. Ensures that the status of the project is accurately portrayed by
clearly stating what is currently wrong and right with the project.

Logistics Management. Acts as a team advocate to operations and the
operations advocate to the team—for example, ensuring that physical
requirements are provided for deployment.

User Education. Designs user and team training systems.


For more information about Microsoft Solutions Framework, see the
Microsoft Solutions Framework White Paper on the Student Materials compact
disc.

Determine and Agree on the Organizational Goals
It is very important that you identify early in the design process the criteria that
will define the success of the project. Remember that different groups of users
have different business requirements, so success may mean different things to
each group. For example, from the administrative perspective, success may be
defined as a reduction in the 10 most common support calls, whereas for a
department manager, success would involve increased productivity. It is
important to set achievable and measurable targets, and to review periodically
how close the project is to achieving these goals.
Note
Module 1: Introduction to Change and Configuration Management Design 9






Defining the Requirements for CCM

Defining the Scope of the CCM Infrastructure

Collecting Key Information

Categorize Users by Job Type

Categorize Users by User Location

Define Appropriate Computer Configurations

Assess the Readiness of the Network

Determining CCM Needs

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When creating a design for a CCM implementation, you need a deep
understanding of the organizational environment. You may be familiar with the
technologies already, but it is very important at this stage that the business
needs of the organization, rather than the capabilities of the technologies, guide
the design process.
To provide a baseline, the design process must start with an analysis of the
organization's current environment. You must also understand the types and
working practices of the users, in addition to existing and planned computer
configurations and locations.
If you fail to plan the implementation of a CCM infrastructure, the deployment
process may take longer than expected, or may fail to meet the needs of the
business when the project is complete. As a designer, it is important to
understand the business motivations for adopting a CCM infrastructure, and the
potential business benefits that can an adequate design process can deliver.
In this section, you will learn about defining the requirements for CCM in terms
of the computers, their users, and the environments in which the computers and
users are found.
Topic Objective
To collect information and
define requirements for the
CCM infrastructure.
Lead-in
It is as important to define
the boundaries for the
requirements as to
determine them.
10 Module 1: Introduction to Change and Configuration Management Design


Defining the Scope of the CCM Infrastructure

Defining Organizational Scope

Defining Technical Scope
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It is important to identify both the organizational and technical scope for CCM.
The rationale is simple: A CCM infrastructure will be deployed to meet the
needs of a defined set of users and to manage a clearly defined computing
environment. Defining scope is important to set user expectations and to enable
concrete targets to be set for the project.
Defining Organizational Scope
To understand the CCM requirements of an organization, you must identify the
organizational structure and determine organizational goals.
Every organization can be mapped to show a representation of its logical
hierarchy. Consider using a drawing application, such as Microsoft Visio
®
2000
Professional Edition, to create an organizational chart. This chart is useful to the
design process because it defines natural boundaries in the organization, which
may function as separation points in the use of CCM technologies.
The breakdown of the organization is continued through to the job role level;
these job roles act as input to the activity of categorizing users by job type.
One view of the organization may be available in the form of the existing
Active Directory

directory service implementation for the organization.
Topic Objective
To define the organizational
and technical scope for the
CCM project.
Lead-in
There are more than one
kind of scope.
Module 1: Introduction to Change and Configuration Management Design 11


Defining Technical Scope
The technical scope for CCM infrastructure deployment may be considered as
the set of computing resources (hardware or software) to be managed.
As part of your Windows 2000 or Windows XP deployment, you must have a
detailed plan of the organization's network infrastructure. This plan includes the
location of:

Domain controllers and member servers.

Site configuration.

The speed of links on and between sites.

The available bandwidth between sites.

Servers providing specific services, such as Domain Name System (DNS)
and Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP).

Interfaces with infrastructure elements outside the scope of CCM, such as
firewalls, networking equipment, and systems running other operating
systems.

It is useful to develop a diagram of the network, and a logical representation of
servers and services on the network. In such a diagram, you can confirm which
elements of the computing environment the CCM infrastructure will manage,
and where the boundaries lie between managed and unmanaged elements. If
you do not have a network diagram, use a tool such as Microsoft Visio 2000
Professional Edition to create one.
12 Module 1: Introduction to Change and Configuration Management Design


Collecting Key Information
Assess the readiness of the network
Assess the readiness of the network
3
3
Incorporate organizational factors
Incorporate organizational factors
4
4
Define appropriate computer configurations
Define appropriate computer configurations
2
2
Categorize users by job type and user location
Categorize users by job type and user location
1
1

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A critical factor in achieving success with a CCM infrastructure is to ask
relevant questions that generate data to guide the design decisions. A significant
amount of information must be collected and assessed during the design
process, and the time required to assimilate this data must not be
underestimated.
Collecting key information can be a four-step process:

Categorize users by their job requirements and their locations.

Determine how to combine these categories with any organizational
considerations to create standard configurations.

Assess the readiness of the existing network for CCM deployment.

Incorporate organizational factors such as corporate policy and security.

Your goal for this data collection process is to document the organization's
CCM requirements and the current level of change and configuration
management implemented. From this, you can plan how the Windows 2000
and/or Windows XP technologies will meet the needs of the organization.
Topic Objective
To explain how to collect
key information.
Lead-in
Your users are unique, but
they share characteristics
with other organizations.
Module 1: Introduction to Change and Configuration Management Design 13


The sections that follow give generic categories of user types, locations, and
configurations, which may be used as a starting point for your own
classifications. It is likely that your users will include many of the
characteristics described, in varying quantities. Determine the user categories
that are most appropriate for your own organization. For example, you may
categorize all of your sales staff as knowledge workers, but some may also be
categorized as stationary users or traveling workers.

Document this research process. This will provide guidance when you
create a plan to accommodate business needs into the CCM infrastructure. For
examples of planning worksheets, see the Change and Configuration
Management Deployment Guide in Appendix A on the Web page on the
Student Materials compact disc.

Tip
14 Module 1: Introduction to Change and Configuration Management Design


Categorize Users by Job Type
High-Performance Workers
High
High
-
-
Performance Workers
Performance Workers
•Engineers
•Financial Traders
•Software Developers
•Engineers
•Financial Traders
•Software Developers
Knowledge Workers
Knowledge Workers
Knowledge Workers
•Executives
•Researchers
•Salespeople
•Executives
•Researchers
•Salespeople
Process Workers
Process Workers
Process Workers
•Receptionists
•Claims Processors
•Accounts Payable Clerks
•Receptionists
•Claims Processors
•Accounts Payable Clerks
Data-Entry Workers
Data
Data
-
-
Entry Workers
Entry Workers
•Bank Tellers
•Data-Entry Personnel
•Factory Line Workers
•Bank Tellers
•Data-Entry Personnel
•Factory Line Workers

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The Gartner Group identified several job types based on how different types of
workers use IT services in an organization. These job types describe the
majority of users in most organizations.
High-Performance Workers
The job success of high-performance workers is wholly dependent on their use
of technology. They require specialized, often resource-intensive software (such
as software development tools or financial trading systems) to perform their
jobs, and they make relatively little use of office productivity applications such
as word processors. The job value of these workers is tied to technology,
making down time extremely costly. Financial traders, engineers, and software
developers are examples of high-performance workers.
Knowledge Workers
Knowledge workers use technology to collect and manipulate data. Their job
success is based on the ability to convert data into information and
communicate that information to influence decision-making. They
predominantly use office productivity applications but may also use specialized
applications related to their work areas. Executives, researchers, salespeople,
reporters, and attorneys fall into this category.
Process Workers
Process workers perform highly repetitive process-driven tasks. These users
require a combination of line-of-business applications and office productivity
applications in their jobs. Claims processors, accounts payable clerks, loan
processors, and receptionists typically fall into this category.
Topic Objective
To define the use of job
types as a way of
categorizing users.
Lead-in
Job types are according to
how workers use IT
services.
Module 1: Introduction to Change and Configuration Management Design 15


Data-Entry Workers
Data-entry workers use computers to enter data that will then be available for
other corporate functions. Data-entry workers are dedicated to a single task and
normally use a single line-of-business application (or a small number of related
applications) to do their jobs. Bank tellers, data-entry personnel, and factory
line workers typically fall into this category.

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