ĐỀ BÀI TẬP ĐIỀU KIỆN
Although a computer can be a very useful tool it is not the solution to all our problems. There are
certain problems which computer do well and other problems which people do well. Computer are very
good at processing data quickly and accurately storing and retrieving large quantities of data and
following instruction. People are better at recognising patterns, setting goals, identifying issues, solving
problems, and dealing with special cases.
A computer solution involves using a computer system to solve a problems
It is needed when a task is to difficult, dangerous or time-consuming for people. For example, the task of
sorting names could take hours for a person, but can be done in seconds by a computer. Our modem
society is continually finding new ways of using computer systems and their application appears
Designing computer solutions is a creative process. It is simply not possible to look at a complex
problem and immediately use the computer to solve that problem. It requires people with good problem-
solving skills. In this chapter we will be outlining how computer solutions are developed to solve
Stages in developing a computer solution
There are six stages in developing a computer solution to solve a problem. They are:
defining the problem
planning a solution
designing a solution
implementing the solution
testing the solution
reporting the solution
DEFINING THE PROBLEM
The first step is to understand the problem and determine what is needed to solve that problem
and whether it can be solved by a computer. This may involve rewording the problem and identifying
the important elements in the problem.
PLANNING A SOLUTION
Before a solution is designed it has to be carefully planned. This requires:
determining the input, processing and output which needs to take place.
The problem may have to be refined into smaller problems and a solution for each
smaller problem. Hierarchy charts and IPO charts provide useful took Solutions to similar
problems need to be investigated, resources identified and test data writter. The test date
will be used to test the solution and needs to cove the range of values in the problem.
DESIGNING A SOLUTION
There is no point in repeating someone else's work, so the first step in designing a
solution involves investigating existing solutions. If an appropriate software package is not
available, and an existing program cannot be modified to solve the problem, a new solution
must be developed. Algorithms such as English prose, pseudocode, and flowcharts can be
used to develop new solutions.
IMPLEMENTING THE SOLUTION
Implementing a solution involves using the solution to solve the problem. If a
software package, such as a word processor, has been chosen, implementing the solution
will mean applying the software to the problem. If a new solution is being developed the
algorithm needs to be converted into a programming language and is called a program. The
program can then be executed to solve the problem.
TESTING THE SOLUTION
Testing the solution involves checking the results of the solution and making sure it
solves all aspects of the problem. If the solution is unsatisfactory another solution has to be
planned. Testing the solution should be carried out throughout all the stages.
REPORTING THE SOLUTION
Reporting the solution means producing a statement of the solution and the method
of solution, in either written or verbal form.
1. For each of the following statements, select the appropriate stage in developing a
a. Checking the results.
b. Understanding the problem an determining what is needed to solve the problem
c. Investigating known solutions.
d. Producing a statement of the solution and the method of solution.
e. Using the solution to solve the problem.
f. Determining the input, processing and output which needs to take place.
2. What are the problem- solving strengths of ?
a. a computer?
3. State whether a computer or a person would best solve these problems.
a. calculating interest on a bank account
b. looking after a dog
c. driving a car
d. storing recipes
4. When is a computer solution needed?
5. List the six stages in developing a computer solution.
6. What is a program?
7. A letter can be written using a pen, a typewriter or a word processor. Do you think the
computer is an efficient tool to use for this task? Why?
8. A telephone directory of students in your class can be constructed by hand or using a
database. Do you think the computer in an efficient tool to use for this task? Why?