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Giáo dục kĩ năng so sánh cho trẻ 5 – 6 tuổi qua hoạt động hình thành biểu tượng hình dạng tt tiếng anh

MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING
HANOI NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF EDUCATION
-------------o0o---------------

PHAM THI OANH

EDUCATION COMPARATIVE SKILLS FOR
5 - 6 YEAR OLD CHILDREN THROUGHACTIVITY OF
FORMING SHAPE SYMBOLS

Major: Preschool education
Code: 9 14 01 01

THESIS SUMMARY FOR PHD IN EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE

HANOI – 2019


The research is conducted at
HANOI NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF EDUCATION


The scientific guidelines:
1. Asociate Prof. Doctor Do Thi Minh Lien
2. Doctor Tran Thi Ngoc Tram

Objection1: Prof. Doctor Nguyen Thi Hoang Yen
National Institute of Education Management
Objection 2: Asociate Prof. Doctor Nguyen Thi Ha Lan
Hong Duc University
Objection 3: Asociate Prof. Doctor Pho Duc Hoa
Ha Noi National University of Education
The thesis will be presented at the Dissertation Marking Board: School, Meeting at:
Hanoi National University of Education
At ……..o’clock…….., date ………………….

The thesis can be found at:
- The National Library, Hanoi
- The Library of Hanoi National University of Education.


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INTRODUCTION
1. Rationale
Comparison is a very important thinking manipulation for human education in general and
for 5-6 year old children in particular. Comparative skills help people to recognize the similarities
and differences between things and phenomenas in the world around them, so that people
recognize the world fully and deeply.
The activity of forming shape symbols is the process by which children perform actions that
affect things in order to receive images of the shape of objects and generalize, store, recreate in
their consciousness. That is a favorable condition to educate the comparative skills for children,
because in this activity children are practiced to experience recognition skills, differentiate
similarities and differences in the number, size, shape and placement of objects or target groups.
Since then, help children have a positive attitude to comparison activities, know how to
manipulate comparative skills in diverse activities. Therefore, the education of children’s
comparative skills from early childhood is an important task of preschool education.
The reality of preschool education has paid attention to the thinking education for children
in general and the comparative skills in particular, but it is conducted mainly through learning
activities and in other activities of children in preschool such as fun activities, outdoor activities,
afternoon activities ... the education comparative skills for children is very little cared by teachers.
In recent years, in Vietnam, there have been projects to study the formation and
development of comparative skills for children. However, educating comparative skills for 5-6
year old children in forming shape symbols is a problem that has not been specifically studied.
For the reasons mentioned above, we choose the topic: "Education comparative skills for
5-6 year old children in activity of forming shape symbols."
2. Aims of the study
Proposing measures to educate comparative skills for 5-6 year old children in activity of
forming shape symbols to improve the effectiveness of educating the comparative skills and
contributing to develop children's thinking.
3. Objects and subjects of the study
3.1. Subject of the study
The process of educating comparative skills for 5-6 year old children in activity of forming
shape symbols at preschools.
3.2. Object of the study
Measures to educate comparative skills for 5-6 year old children in activity of forming
shape symbols at preschools.
4. Scientific hypothesis
5-6 year old children’s comparative skills are influenced by teachers' educational measures.
If we use measures synchronously and flexibly to stimulate the children's excitement,
comparative needs; create opportunities for children to actively experience and help children
master the comparative process, the comparative skills of 5 - 6 year old children in activity of
forming shape symbols will develop better.


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5. Research tasks
5.1. Studying the theoretical basis of comparative skills education for 5-6 year old children in
activity of forming shape symbols at preschools
5.2. Assessing the status of comparative skills education for 5-6 year old children in activity of
forming shape symbols at preschools.
5.3. Proposing measures to educate comparative skills education for 5-6 year old children in
activity of forming shape symbols at preschools.
5.4. Experiment on pedagogy of some measures of comparative skills education for 5-6 year old
children in activity of forming shape symbols at preschools proposed.
6. Scope of the study
6.1. Content of the study: A number of measures to educate comparative skills through activity of
forming shape symbols for children aged 5-6 years in school activities, outdoor activities, fun
activities and afternoon activities.
6.2. Object and area of the study: The current situation survey is performed on 150 preschool
teachers and 120 children aged 5-6 years in some preschools in Hanoi, Hai Phong, Hai Duong,
Ninh Binh and Hung Yen. Pedagogical experiment with over 200 children at 4 preschools in Hai
Duong province.
7. Measureology and research methods
7.1. Methodology to implement the topic: In order to ensure the objectivity, in the process of
studying the problem of educating comparative skills for children through activities of forming
shape symbols, it is necessary to combine the views of Structure system approach perspective,
Development approach perspective, Integrated approach perspective, Practical approach
perspective, Operational approach perspective
7.2. Research methods
7.2.1 Method of theoretical research includes:Methods of theoretical analysis and synthesis,
Methods of theoretical classification and systems
7.2.2. Practical research methods include:Method of observation,Method of investigation by
questionnaire,Method of in-depth interview,Method of active products research,Method of
pedagogical experiment
7.2.3. Other methods include:Method of profession,Method of data processing and evaluation by
mathematical statistics
8. Scientific points that need protection
8.1. The comparative skill is an essential skill to develop thinking for preschool children. This
skill is not natural to exist but it must be guided and implemented regularly in activities such as
learning activities, fun activities, outdoor activities and afternoon activities with comparative
subjects which are diversified about size, shape, quantity, color ...
8.2. The comparative skill includes composition and logic manipulations aranged and organized
as follows: 1/ Identifying objects; 2/ Analyzing signs of objects; 3/ Classifying different and
identical signs; 4/ Confronting differences and identities; 5/ Commenting on the differences and
identities discovered.


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8.3. The activity of forming shape symbols is a favorable condition to educate comparative skills
for children. Through this activity, children are allowed to practice how to compare with other
means of comparison such as real objects, models, pictures, words and diversified comparative
signs such as: shape, size, quantity, color ... Since, help children have a positive attitude to
comparative activities, know how to apply comparative skills in other activities in preschools.
8.4. Education of coparative skills in activities of forming shape symbols for 5-6 year old children
at preschools is a necessary task in preschooleducation. In particular, teachers' educational
measures towards stimulating children's interest, coparative needs; creating opportunities for
children to actively experience and helping children master the comparative process, which has a
great influence on the education of comparative skills for 5-6 year old children through the
activity of forming shape symbols at preschools.
9. New contributions of the thesis
9.1. Supplementing the theory of comparative skills education for children aged 5-6 years through
the activity of forming shape symbols help researchers and preschool teachers have more in-depth
materials on comparative skills education for 5-6 year old children.
9.2. Provide materials on the status of comparative skill education for 5 - 6 year old children through
the activity of forming shape symbols to help preschools have a more accurate view of the
effectiveness of child education in practice and serve as a basis to adjust education process timely.
9.3. Introduce documents on the measure of comparative skill education for 5 - 6 year old
children through the activity of forming shape symbols so that help preschools consult and apply
creatively to educational conditions in their schools, contributing to improve the effectiveness of
children educational results, meeting today's social requirements.
10. Structure of the thesis
In addition to the introduction, conclusion, list of published works, list of references,
appendices, the thesis consists of 4 chapters:Chapter 1: Theoretical basis of comparative skills
education for 5-6 year old children through the activity of forming shape symbols; Chapter 2: The
current situation of comparative skills education for 5-6 year old children through the activity of
forming shape symbols; Chapter 3: Measures to educate comparative skills for 5-6 year old
children through the activity of forming shape symbols; Chapter 4: Pedagogical experiment.
Chapter 1: THEORETICAL BASIS OF COMPARATIVE SKILLS EDUCATION FOR 56 YEAR OLD CHILDREN THROUGH THE ACTIVITY
OF FORMING SHAPE SYMBOLS
1.1. Overview of research on comparative skills education for 5-6 year old children through
the activity of forming shape symbols
1.1.1. The research works on comparisons and comparative skills of preschool children
There are many domestic and foreign studies that have been interested in children's
comparative skills early. These studies have shown the relationship between comparison with
other thinking manipulations as well as research on the characteristics of developing this skill in
children.


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1.1.2. The research works on the activity of forming shape symbols of preschool children
The researches on activities of forming shape symbols have shown the cognitive
characteristics of preschool children in shape symbols, based on which the content and method of
guiding the activity of forming shape symbols are established.
1.1.3. The research works on comparative skills education for 5-6 year old children through
the activity of forming shape symbols
In research as well as in practice, the issue of comparative skills education for children aged
5-6 years old has not been studied much. There have been authors who proposed a number of
measures to educate comparative skills for children such as: using games, playing situations,
sudden appearance of objects and especially using teaching materials. These measures have
stimulated children's comparative interest, that is, impacted on the internal components of the
comparative skill. However, the problem of finding specific measures to optimize the education
process of comparative skills for children has not been mentioned. This is the gap that the thesis
aims to.
1.2. Comparative skills of preschool children
1.2.1. The concept of comparative skills of preschool children
* Concept of comparison: Comparison is the process of using the mind to determine the
similarity or difference, uniformity or heterogeneity, equality or inequality between cognitive
objects (things, phenomenas).
* Concept of skill: Skill is conscious, technical and resulted actions that are made based on
the knowledge and experience inherent in certain conditions.
* The concept of comparative skill: Comparative skill is an action that is conscious,
technical, and resulted made to determine the similarity or difference, uniformity or heterogeneity,
equality or inequality between objects, phenomenas based on the knowledge and experience
inherent in certain conditions.
1.2.2. Comparative skill structure of preschool children
Consists of 5 manipulations: 1/ Identifying objects; 2/ Analyzing signs of objects; 3/
Classifying different and identical signs; 4/ Confronting differences and identities; 5/
Commenting on the differences and identities discovered
1.2.3 Mechanism of forming comparative skills of children aged 5-6 years
The development of comparative skills of 5-6 year old children through the activity of
forming shape symbols is determined on the psychological basis is stages of intellectual action
forming of P. Ia. Ganperin. Based on the specific components and parameters of the action, he
studied, established and described the steps of an intellectual action from outside to inside.
Step 1: Establishing the orientation basis of the action
Step 2: Action with objects or materializing
Step 3: Action to speak loudly without using objects
Step 4: Action with a whisper
Step 5: Taking short action with inner words


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The development of children’s comparative skills is divided into two main stages: primitive
form and formal form.
1.3. Activity of forming shape symbols of children aged 5-6 years old at preschools
1.3.1. Concept of shape symbol
* Concept of symbol: Symbol is a picture of things and phenomena that arise in our minds
when there is no direct impact on our senses. Moreover, the symbol is also the result of
processing and generalizing the images of previous perceptions, is the product of previous
sensory perception so there is no perception there is no symbol.
* Concept of shape: Shape is an image of an object, distinguishing it from another.
* Concept of shape symbol: shape symbol is the product of processing and generalizing the
image of the shape of the object that the people previously perceived is stored and recreated in
human consciousness.
1.3.2. Characteristics of developing shape symbols of 5-6 year old children 1.3.3. Content of
forming shape symbols for 5-6 year old children
1.3.4. The process of organizing and guiding the activity of forming shape symbols for 5-6 year
old children at preschools
Stage 1: Accumulating shape symbols for children anytime, anywhere
Stage 2: Teaching children knowledge, skills to recognize and distinguish geometric figures
Stage 3: Practice, strengthening knowledge, skills to recognize and distinguish
geometric figures
Stage 4: Applying knowledge, skills to recognize, distinguish geometric figures and skills to
determine shapes of objects into new conditions and circumstances
1.4. Comparative skills through the activity of forming shape symbols of children aged 5-6
years at preschools
1.4.1. The concept:Comparative skill through the activity of forming shape symbols of preschool
children is a conscious, technical and resulted action taken to determine the similarity or
differentness, the equal or unequal of the math signs among geometric figures based on
knowledge capital and experience had already hadin certain conditions
1.4.2. Expressions of comparative skills of 5-6 year old children through the activity of forming
shape symbols
1. Performing fully operations
2. Comparative manipulations are performed flexibly
3. Time to perform the comparative task
4. Accurate exactly and fully the similar and different characteristics of comparative objects
5. Present clearly, coherently, explain the comparative results in words
1.4.3. The development of comparative skills through the activity of forming shape symbols of
children aged 5-6 years
Children aged 3-4 years begin to recognize and distinguish some flat geometric figures such
as: circle, square, triangle, rectangle but the children can’t compare to find similarities and
differences between these geometric figures. Children aged 4-5 years have the ability to compare


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flat geometric figures together to see their similarities and differences through the characteristics
of the line around the shapes, through the number of edges, angles as well as the length of the
edges. Children aged 5-6 years have the ability to compare cubes together such as compare
spherical blocks and cylindrical blocks, square blocks and rectangular blocks to see their featured
characteristics as well as to see similar and different signs between blocks. When compare
geometric figures, children learn to base on basic signs such as the number of angles, edges of the
images or shapes and the number of faces of each block ... through which the children recognize
the geometric figures as standard images to compare shape of objects.
1.5. Education of comparative skills for children aged 5-6 years through the activity of
forming shape symbols at preschools
1.5.1. Concept: Education of comparative skill through the activity of forming shape symbols of
preschool children is a process of pedagogical impact purposefully, planned of pedagogies to
children to effectively implement comparative actions and manipulations to determine the
similarity or differentness, the equal or unequal of the math signs among geometric figures based
on knowledge capital and experience had already had in certain conditions
1.5.2. Meaning of educating comparative skills for children aged 5-6 years through the activity
of forming shape symbols
- Educating comparative skills through the activity of forming shape symbols aims at
promoting the cognitive process and develop children's thinking
- Educating comparative skills through the activity of forming shape symbols helps
children's language develop
- Educating comparative skills through the activity of forming shape symbols creates
opportunities to train other skills for children
1.5.3. The content of comparative skills education for for children aged 5-6 years through the
activity of forming shape symbols
- Developing children's awareness of comparative skills through the activity of forming
shape symbols
- Forming and developing in children comparative actions and manipulations through the
activity of forming shape symbols
- Educating children's attitudes to comparative skills through the activity of forming shape
symbols
1.5.4. Forms, methods and means of educating comparative skills for children aged 5-6 years
through the activity of forming shape symbols
- Forms: In order to educate comparative skills for 5-6 year old children in through the
activity of forming shape symbols, we need coordinate comparative forms: personal, in small
groups (5-6 year old children) and the whole class.
- Methods: Method of practice and experience; Method of visual - illustrations; Method of
using words; Method of example - evaluation
- Means: Educating comparative skills for children through the real objects, simulators,
pictures, symbols


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1.5.5. Education process of comparative skill for 5-6 year old children through the activity of
forming shape symbols
Just like organizing the implementation of pedagogical process, the education of
comparative skills for children takes place in 3 stages:
* Stage 1: Preparation
* Stage 2: Implementation of the set plan: (apply the selected measures to implement the
set purpose)
- Educating comparative skills for children on learning activities
- Educating comparative skills for children outside school hours
* Stage 3: Evaluation the children’s comparative results, this is the basis for developing
the next plan.
1.5.6. Factors affecting the education of comparative skills for 5-6 year old children through
the activity of forming shape symbols
* Subjective factors
- The development of mentality, physiology of children
- The activeness and initiative of children themselves
* Objective factors
- Children's operating environment
- Educational measures of teachers in organizing activities of forming shape symbols
Conclusion of chapter 1
The comparative skill is an essential skill to develop thinking for preschool children. This
skill is not natural to exist but it must be guided and implemented regularly in activities such as
learning activities, fun activities, outdoor activities and afternoon activities.
The comparative skill includes composition and logic manipulations aranged and organized
as follows: 1/ Identifying objects; 2/ Analyzing signs of objects; 3/ Classifying different and
identical signs; 4/ Confronting differences and identities; 5/ Commenting on the differences and
identities discovered.
The activity of forming shape symbols is a favorable condition to educate comparative skills for
children. Through this activity, children are allowed to practice how to compare with other means of
comparison such as real objects, models, pictures, words and diversified comparative signs such as:
shape, size, quantity, color ... Since, help children have a positive attitude to comparative activities,
know how to apply comparative skills in other activities in preschools.
Comparative skills through the activity of forming shape symbols of 5-6 year old children
are shown on the following aspects: Performing fully operations; Performing comparative
manipulations logically; Time to perform the comparative task; Properly describing the
comparative results in words.
Education of comparative skills for children aged 5-6 years old through the activities
of forming shape symbols is influenced by objective and subjective factors such as teachers,
children and the environment. These three factors have a reciprocal relationship with each
other during the process of forming shape symbols and have a great impact on the
comparative skill education for children. Determining the meaning, contents, forms,
methods and means of educating comparative skills for children is the basis for surveying
the reality as well as developing measures for educating comparative skills for children.


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Chapter 2: THE CURRENT SITUATION OF COMPARATIVE SKILLS EDUCATION
FOR 5-6 YEAR OLD CHILDREN THROUGH THE ACTIVITY
OF FORMING SHAPE SYMBOLS
2.1. Organizing a survey of the situation
2.1.1. Survey aims
Assessing the real situation of preschool teachers' awareness about comparative skills,
assessing the comparative skills of children through activities of forming shape symbols and the
reality of educating comparative skills for 5-6 year old children through activities of forming
shape symbols in preschools today. On that basis, propose some measures to educate comparative
skills for children.
2.1.2. Survey contents
- The reality of the content of the program of comparative skills education through the
activity of forming shape symbols for children aged 5-6 years.
- The reality of teachers' awareness about the comparative skills education through the
activity of forming shape symbols for children aged 5-6 years at preschools
- The reality of using the measures of the comparative skills education through the activity
of forming shape symbols for children aged 5-6 years at preschools
- The reality of the comparative skills of children aged 5-6 years through the activity of
forming shape symbols at preschools
2.1.3. Survey objects
* The survey sample is teachers: The survey is conducted on 150 preschool teachers
teaching 5-6 year old grades in Hanoi, Hai Phong, Hai Duong, Ninh Binh and Hung Yen.
* The survey sample is 5-6 year old children: The thesis selects 120 children aged 5-6
years at preschools in the provinces mentioned above.
2.1.4. Survey tools:
* The thesis examines the current situation of the comparative skills education through the
activity of forming shape symbols for children aged 5-6 years at preschools in quantitative and
qualitative aspects.
- A tool for quantitative research is a sample of preschool teacher survey forms
- A tool for qualitative research is interview cards
* Assessing the the current situation of the comparative skills of children aged 5-6 years
through the activity of forming shape symbols, the survey tool is 5 types of exercises with levels
increasing in number of comparative objects with various comparative signs and each type of
exercises are performed with comparative facilities that are real objects, simulated objects,
pictures and words (total of 20 exercises);
2.1.5. Survey methods:
- Investigation by questionnaire
- Interview
- Attend lectures
- Research products


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2.1.6. Methods of data processing
Survey results are calculated and processed by statistical math. From the quantitative
results we draw qualitative comments and conclusions.
2.1.7. Principles and scales of rating
* Principles of rating
- The adequacy of skills: is the minimum number of necessary operations that the children
must perform to solve the comparative missions
- The proficiency of skills: is the children can perform comparative manipulations quickly
and accurately. The proficiency level of skills is reflected in making mistakes or not making
mistakes, as well as making a few or lots of mistakes in implementing manipulations of
comparative skills.
- The flexibility of skills: is a stable, sustainable and creative expression when conducting
comparative manipulations in different conditions but still achieve the desired results. Not imitate,
not be rigid.
- The effectiveness of skills: expressing in that the children can detect and express exactly
the similar and different characteristics of comparative objects according to the task required.
* Scale of rating
The rating levels of each principle are quantified into the following points:Level 1: Poor (1
point); Level 2: Weak (2 points); Level 3: Average (3 points); Level 4: Fairly (4 points); Level 5:
Good (5 points)
The total score of each exercise is assessed as following: Poor: Total score of each exercise ≤ 4;
Weak: 4 12 We carried out the measurement of children's comparative through 5 types of exercises with
20 measuring exercises. The data collected are summarized in 2 directions:First: Summarize the
points that each child achieved in all 5 principles in each exercise, then calculate the average score
of each exercise; Second: Summarize the points of each principle in all 20 exercises then
calculate the average score of each principle.
2.2. Results and analysis of results
2.2.1. Results of surveying the current situation of comparative skill education through the
activity of forming shape symbols for 5-6 year old childrenat the preschool
* Actual situation of the content of comparative skill education program through the
activities of forming shape symbols for children aged 5-6 years old at preschools
Through the study of the "Preschool Education Program" and the textbooks and materials
that have the content of forming shape symbols, we realize that the documents have clearly and
fully defined the contents of the shapes that need to be formed for children. However, the content
of comparative skill education for children through this activity is rarely mentioned. Children are
taught this skill only through 2 contents: distinguish the sphere from cylinder, square and
rectangular.


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* Actual situation of using forms to educate comparative skills for children aged 5-6 years
old through the activities of forming shape symbols.
Level
Regularly
Occationally
Never
FORM
Amount
Ratio Amount
Ratio
Amount
Ratio
(%)
(%)
(%)
Operation individually
76
50,7
74
49,3
0
0
Operation in group
118
78,7
30
20
2
1,3
Operation in class
42
28
103
68,7
5
3,3
The survey results show that the majority of teachers often use the form of operation in
small groups (accounting for 78.7%), 20% at occasional rate and only 1.3% never use this form.
Operation individually is the second priority form selected by teachers. The number of teachers
using this form at a regular rate is 50.7% and occasionally is 49.3%, no teachers is not using this
form of activity. For the whole class activity, there is 28% of teachers use it regularly, 68.7%
occationally and 3.3% teachers never use this form.
* Teachers' awareness about measures to educate comparative skill for children through
the activities of forming shape symbols.
Level of using
Or
Regularly Occationally
Rarely
din
Measures
Amo Ratio Amo Ratio Amo Ratio
al
unt
(%) unt
(%) unt
(%)
Planning to organize activities of forming
1
128 85,3
22
14,7
0
0
shape symbols.
Creating problematic situations to
2
28
18,7
76
50,7
46
30,7
stimulate children’s comparative interest.
Using suggestive questions to guide
3
45
30
87
58
18
12
children on the comparative tasks
Usinglearning games to help children
4
134 89,3
16
10,7
0
0
practice comparative skills
Using the exercises to check and assess
5
54
36
72
48
24
16
the children's comparative performance.
Usingsample actions combining with
6 instructions to teach children how to 107 71,3
43
28,7
0
0
compare.
Flexibly grouping when organizing
7
82
54,7
68
45,3
0
0
activities of forming shape symbols.
Creating a safe, comfortable atmosphere
8
127 84,7
23
15,3
0
0
for children during the comparative task.
Praising children for comparative
9
98
65,3
34
22,7
18
12
symptoms
Diversifyingcomparative objects and
10
23
15,3
45
30
82
54,7
comparative medias.
Applying comparative skills in other
11
31
20,7
38
25,3
81
54
activities.


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The survey results show that teachers often pay attention to the common impact measures
when organizing activities of forming shape symbols such as: Planning to organize activities of
forming shape symbols; Flexibly grouping when organizing activities of forming shape symbols.
Teachers also pay attention to the impact measures to educate children's comparative skills
through activities of forming shape symbols such as: Using sample actions combining with
instructions to teach children how to compare; Using suggestive questions to guide children on
the comparative tasks. However, these measures do not go into the purpose of educating
children's comparative skills through activities of forming shape symbols but only at the level of
providing comparative knowledge and experience, while the children's skills are only acquired
when children be able to apply that knowledge and experience into various practices. There are
many specific measures of teaching comparative skills through activities of forming shape
symbols for children that are rarely used by teachers such as: Creating problematic situations to
stimulate children’s comparative interest; Diversifying comparative objects and comparative
medias; Applying comparative skills in other activities
* Teachers' awareness about the means of educating comparative skills for children through
the activities of forming shape symbols.
Level
Regularly
Occationally
Never
Comparative
Amount
Ratio Amount
Ratio Amount
Ratio
means
(%)
(%)
(%)
Real objects
125
83,3
25
16,7
0
0
Models
138
92
12
8
0
0
Pictures
30
20
105
70
15
10
Speeches
2
1,3
56
37,3
92
61,3
The survey results show that the majority of teachers often use comparative means as
models and real objects. In the type of comparative mean that is pictures there is a relatively large
difference in the level of use (only 20% of teachers use this mean regularly). Speeches is the type
of comparative mean that is least used by teachers. Only 1.3% of teachers use this mean at the
regular level, most teachers never use this type of comparative mean (61.3%).
* Teachers' awareness of children's comparative skills expression through the activities of
forming shape symbols
Comparative skills expression
Amount Ratio (%)
Comparative operations are fully performed
71
47,3
Selecting the way to compare appropriately to comparative
105
70
conditions and circumstances
Time of performing comparative missions
45
30
Fully and accurately detecting similar and different characteristics
136
90,7
of comparative objects
Interpretingcomparative results verbally
33
22
Flexible applicating the comparative skill in different situations
47
31,3
and ambiences
All the comments above.
32
21,3


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The results show that the preschool teachers have some certain knowledge about children's
comparative skills expression through the activities of forming shape symbols. However, each
teacher evaluates the expressions differently. This shows that the teachers' awareness about
children's comparative skills expression is not synchronized and not focused on the characteristic
expressions of the comparative skill.
2.2.2. Survey results of the current level of comparative skills through the activity of forming
shape symbols of 5-6 year old children at preschools.
2.2.3.1. The current situation of children’s comparative skills according to the exercises
Type of
exercise

Name of exercise

Comparing by real
Compari objects
ng 2
Comparing by models
Comparing by pictures
objects
Comparing by words
Comparing by real
Compari objects
ng 3
Comparing by models
Comparing by pictures
objects
Comparing by words
Comparing by real
Compari objects
ng over 3 Comparing by models
Comparing by pictures
objects
Comparing by words
Compari Comparing by real
objects
ng 2
Comparing by models
object
Comparing by pictures
groups
Comparing by words
Compari Comparing by real
objects
ng 2
Comparing by models
object
Comparing by pictures
groups
Comparing by words

Levels of children’s comparative skill (%)
Below
Excellent Good Average
Weak
Average

X

S

20,83

38,33

40,83

0,00

0,00

13,65

3,08

18,33
22,50
15,00

35,83
41,66
33,33

45,83
35,83
39,16

0,00
0,00
12,50

0,00
0,00
0,00

13,37
13,91
12,51

3,10
3,09
3,43

4,16

22,50

52,50

18,33

2,50

10,86

3,24

6,66
10,00
4,16

24,16
25,00
22,50

50,83
45,83
39,16

15,83
17,50
26,66

2,50
1,60
7,50

11,13
11,43
10,18

3,33
3,63
3,79

3,33

20,83

54,16

17,50

4,16

10,78

3,39

5,00
9,16
5,00

21,66
23,33
20,83

52,50
50,00
40,83

17,50
15,83
25,00

3,33
1,66
8,33

10,81
11,28
10,08

3,36
3,47
3,75

0,00

23,33

47,50

25,00

4,16

10,28

3,36

0,00
0,00
0,00

22,50
20,83
16,66

45,83
41,66
35,00

22,50
31,66
29,16

9,16
5,83
19,16

9,93
9,65
8,58

3,48
3,28
3,54

0,00

22,50

40,00

26,66

10,83

9,70

3,69

0,00
0,00
0,00

20,83
18,33
15,00

47,50
43,33
33,33

24,16
35,00
32,50

7,50
3,33
19,16

9,75
9,66
8,42

3,25
3,16
3,43

The survey results of the current situation of children according to the exercises
showed that the majority of 5-6 year old children have comparative skills at moderate level
(from 9 to 12 points). The type of exercise to compare 2 subjects with the highest score
because comparison 2 subjects is the content specified in the preschool education program.
The score of 4 exercises of this type reaches a maximum of 20 points, the lowest score is 6
points. The type of exercise with the lowest score is the type of exercise to compare 2 object
groups and compare 3 object groups. In each type of these exercises, the number of objects
that the children need compare is relatively large (in each group, there may be multiple


15

objects of the same type or different types), so the children need enliven in performing
comparative manipulations to solve the comparative mission in the shortest time. The
highest score of the type of this exercise is at good level with 16 points and the lowest score
is 4 points. Thus, it can be seen that the comparative skills of children groups are still low.
2.2.3.2. Current situation of children’s comparative skills according to the principles
Expression level (%)
X
Below
Principles
Rating
Excellent Good
Average
Weak
Average
Completeness
15,83
20,83
47,5
11,66
4,16
3,32
1
Flexibility
4,16
18,33
51,66
13,33
12,5
2,41
3
Proficiency
2,5
6,66
35,8
30
25
2,32
4
Effectiveness
11,66
30,83
37,5
12,5
7,5
3,26
2
The survey results of 20 exercises showed that the principles of comparative skills are
expressed at the medium and weak levels. In those, the principles for flexibility and proficiency
have the lowest score. This suggests that it is necessary to instruct the children on how to compare
and the comparative sequence so that the children can compare quickly and detect the similar and
different characteristics of the objects accurately and completely.
Conclusion of chapter 2
Survey of children's comparative skills through the system of exercises and principles
show that, in general, children's comparative skills are still focused on average and weak levels,
some exercises are still relatively low and uneven, requiring to have change and better education.
Most teachers are aware of the importance comparative skill education through activities
of forming shape symbols for 5-6 year old children at preschool as well as having certain
knowledge about the comparative skillexpresionsof children in their activities. However, through
the survey, each teacher assesses the comparative skill expresions differently because the teacher's
awareness of the comparative skill expresions is inconsistent and has not focused on the
characteristic expressions of the comparative skill.
Preschool teachers have more or less used measures to educate comparative skill for
children and achieved some initial results. However, these measures have not been implemented
by the preschool teachers logically, specifically in ways that are appropriate for the goals of
children education in preschools, and have not met the requirements of renewing the educational
method to deliver cognitive development of children.


16

Chapter 3. MEASURES TO EDUCATE COMPARATIVE SKILLS FOR 5-6 YEAR OLD
CHILDREN THROUGH THE ACTIVITY OF FORMING SHAPE SYMBOLS
3.1. Principles of building measures to educate comparative skills for 5-6 year old children
through the activity of forming shape symbols
3.1.1. Principles to ensure goal
3.1.2. Principles to ensure system
3.1.3. Principles to ensure inheritance
3.1.4. Principles to ensure feasibility
3.2. Proposing groups of measures to educate comparative skills for 5-6 year old children
through the activity of forming shape symbols
3.2.1. Group of measures to stimulate needs, excitement and create conditions for children to
practice comparative skills
3.2.1.1. Measure 1: Creating a problematic situation to stimulate children’s comparative
excitement and needs
Steps to use the problematic situation to educate the comparative skills for children through
the activity of forming shape symbols
- Detecting or creating problem situations
When organize activities of forming shape symbols for 5-6 year old children, teachers set
up problematic situations to force children to seek to mobilize intellectual activities to dominate
the subjects (these cognitive problems contain a conflict between what the children already know
and what the children unknow. The problematic situation can be created by the teacher, can be
also arised in the process of children conducting comparative activities.
- Problem solving
After finding and addressing the problem that need solving, the teacher and the children
propose hypotheses and plan to solve the problem.
- Implementing a plan of problem solving
Children proceed to follow the plan. While children implement the plan, the teacher
observes the children, if the children have difficulties that cannot solved themselves, she can
suggest different ways to solve the problem. And it was her suggestions or directional questions
that forced the children to think, and have to compare, choose the appropriate solution to solve the
comparative mission.
- Evaluating implementation results
Depending on children’s knowledge and experience, teachers can create conditions for
children to evaluate their own results.
3.2.1.2. Measure 2: Enhancing the use of games to create conditions for children to practice
comparative skills
- Choice of games: In order to be able to select suitable games, teachers need to base on the
purpose, requirements, specific contents of each topic and the level of developing children’s
skills. The games need to stimulate excitement and the need for awareness, train for children with


17

the ability to sense, comparison and attention focus. The content of the games must be aimed at
strengthening the symbols of shapes, basic similarities and differences between objects and object
groups. When children play, they must use their senses actively, apply measures to survey objects
and think actively.
- Preparing toys, means and space for game organizing
- Instructing the games
The instruction of the game must ensure the children's comparative ability, cognitive
positivity and position of the subject in determining and solving tasks and situations occurring in
the game to maximize.
3.2.2. Group of measures to organizes practical experience activities of the comparative skill
through activities of forming shape symbols
3.2.2.1. Measure 1: Creating conditions for children to actively experience and implement
actively the comparative measures.
Establishing contents for children to explore and experience specifically, clearly,
developmentally, both in accordance with the content of forming shape symbols regulated in
the program and in accordance with children’s cognitive characteristics, needs, aspirations
and interests.
Selecting and using a combination of methods and forms of organizing activities of
appropriated discovering and experienced (observing, practicing, exploring through pictures,
models, real objects ... in the form of whole class , in groups, individuals ... in lessons and other
activities during the day)
Creating opportunities for children to be self-employed, self-experienced (with enough
time, place, adequate facilities ...)
In order to create good opportunities for children to self-explore and experience, first,
teachers should establish a plan to organize discoveries by identifying objects, content, methods,
means and forms of organization of discovery activities. Besides, teachers also need to prepare
facilities and choose the appropriate time to organize these activities.
3.2.2.2. Measure 2: Guide children the comparative process by combining verbal, visual, and
practical measures
Instruction the children comparative process should be conducted in the comparative
operation itself. The steps of the comparative process include: Acquiring and identifying
comparative missions; following plans and participating in planning; choosing and applying the
measure of surveying subjects; detecting similar and different characteristics. Guiding the
children to compare is helping the children know how to apply comparative measures not only to
a situation but also to other comparative situations with different comparative situations and tasks.


18

3.2.2.3. Measure 3: Guide children how to perform comparative tasks with various comparative
medias and ways
- Variety of comparative missions
- Variety of comparative means
The variety of comparative means is using different types of means such as real objects,
pictures, models, words for children to compare. Each type of mean requires different
comparative procedures and sequences. Therefore, the use of various comparative means is
synonymous with diversifying comparative measures.
- Variety of ways of comparing organization
Through the activity of forming shape symbols, teachers can organize for children to
compare in large groups (25-30 children), compare in small groups (4 - 6 children) and compare
individually.
3.2.3. Group of measures to evaluate the children's comparative results
3.2.3.1. Measure 1: Evaluating the comparative results regularly in the direction of energizing
children’s cognitive activities
In order to evaluate the children’s comparative results through the activity of forming shape
symbols (which is the actualization of the proposed objectives), certain principles must be built
and these principles must be built based on theoretical basis of comparative skills, activity of
forming shape symbols of children aged 5-6 years.
When evaluating children's comparative results, several steps are required:
- Collecting information to determine children's knowledge and comparative skills
- Comparing children’s current knowledge and skills with the previous level
- Comparing children’s current knowledge and skills with goals and requirements should be
achieved in children.
There are two ways to gather information about the children's ability to know and do when
performing comparative tasks through the activity of forming shape symbols
The first way: Observing and monitoring children's actions and manipulations regularly
during their comparative performance or see their comparative results and products in other
activities.
The second way: teachers can offer games, situations, multiple choice exercises in the form
of playing in which children have to solve a certain cognitive problem.
3.2.3.2. Measure 2: Encouraging children to evaluate each other and self-evaluate in
comparative activities
Before proceeding the evaluation, teacher and her children have to agree on the clear bases
such as the purpose, requirements and ways of operation, the manipulations, the comparation
skills that the children implement with you. On this basis, it will serve as a fulcrum for children to
compare, evaluate you and evaluate themselves, thereby adjusting their behaviors so that the
children's comparative skills are more and more mature and fluent.


19

First, let children self-comment and self-evaluate their comparative results by saying their
own feelings. Compare the results of their activities with the set objectives, self-comment on the
ability to pay attention to the work, the obtained results and self-propose ways to renew, fix,
overcome limitations and hangover in results of their activities.
Encouraging children to participate in comments and assessments their friends, through
which the children determines their friends’quality and performance. This process requires
children to discover their friends’ abilities and compare with themselves, based on the results of
the review, assessing their friends, the children self -assessing and thereby adjusting the behavior,
acting for fit.
Reviewing the results of children’s friends’ together will train them to pay attention to
their friends’ results, can comment on fair results, goodwill, educate children to be happy with
own accomplishments, their friends’ and group’s.
Conclusion of chapter 3
- Measures to educate comparative education for children are built on the basic principles as
a foundation for the direction of educating children this skill high effectively.
- The basic content of chapter 3 is to build a system of 3 groups with 7 pedagogical
measures to educate comparative skills for 5-6 year old children in the activity of forming shape
symbols. These groups of measures are determined according to the internal and external
structural components of comparative skills and based on the process of educating comparative
skills for children in the activity of forming shape symbols at pre schools. Therefore, these
groups of measures have the ability to influence children's motivation and cognitive activities in
order to educate children in the activity of forming shape symbols for children.
- The above measures are related to each other closely, interacted with each other and
supported each other in the unity of the whole process of educating comparative skills for
children. The measures are all aimed at contributing to educating comparative skills for children
in the activity of forming shape symbols. In which, the first group of measures is the basis for
changes in the children’s activities in the second group of measures, and at the same time the
teachers often check, evaluate and let children self-evaluate and evaluate each other in the third
group of measures will help children try and make more efforts in their activities to accomplish
the task. Therefore, it is necessary to synchronize the use of these groups of measures to educate
comparative skills for children in the activity of forming shape symbols.


20

Chapter 4. PEDAGOGICAL EXPERIMENT
4.1. Experimental organization
4.1.1. Experimental purpose
In order to test the feasibility and effectiveness of measures to educate comparative skills
for 5-6 year old children through the activity of forming shape symbols at preschools and
confirm the correctness of the scientific hypothesis.
4.1.2. Experimental requirements
Choosing samples of experiment and control have to be similar in terms of quantity and
conditions of learning (preschool teachers, children's awareness, facilities).
4.1.3. Experimental content
Experimentalizing the measures of educating comparative skills for 5-6 year old children
in the activity of forming shape symbols proposed in the thesis. Experimental content uses
measures synchronously and is conducted through learning activities, fun activities, outdoor
activities and afternoon activities.
4.1.4. Experimental objects, scope and time
Pedagogical experiment was conducted on 200 children aged 5-6 years of 4 kindergartens
in Hai Duong province.
Pedagogical experiment for round 1: Conducting over 50 children aged 5-6 years at Binh
Minh preschool. In which, there are 25 children in the group of control and 25 children in the
group of experiments. Experiments were conducted in the school year 2016 - 2017 in a narrow
area in order to initially explore the appropriateness of the measures of educating the children’s
comparative skilss.
Pedagogical experiment round 2: Conducting over 150 children in 3 old kindergarten
classes in 3 schools (Hoa Sen preschool, Hoa Le preschool and Le Loi preschool in cities, rural
and mountainous areas). Experiments are conducted in the school year 2017-2018 on a large scale
in order to confirm the feasibility and effectiveness of the measures to educate children 's
comparative skills.
4.1.5. Method of evaluating experimental results
4.1.5.1. Principles and tools of assessing
Assessing the children's comparative skills through exercises (Appendix 4). Refer to
evaluation principles in section 2.1.7
4.1.5.2. Conduct experiments
Round 1 was conducted to explore, edit, complete the content and measures of
experiments. Round 2 was conducted to assess the effectiveness of the implementation of the
measures that the thesis has built, confirm the correctness of the scientific hypothesis of the topic.
In both round of experiments, we proceeded with the following steps:
- Conducting input measurement
- Conducting impact pedagogical experiments
- Conducting output measurement


21

- Evaluate results of experiments
+ Ways to collect and process information
During the experiment process, we observed, monitored the children’s activities, recorded
the observation minutes of the lessons organizing the activity of forming shape symbols to
supplement the data to help analyze the children's comparative results in the measuring exercises.
Conducting the measurement of the results of children’s comparative skills through 20
measurement exercises. The results of doing the exercises are recorded in the minutes in the form
(Appendix 4). The data collected we summarized in two directions:
First: Summarizing the points that each child achieved in all 5 principles in each exercise,
then calculate the average score of each exercise.
Second: Summarizing the points of each principle in all 20 exercises, then calculate the
average score of each principle.
+ Synthesizing the data collected from the exercises and the principle of the children’s
comparative skills in both quality and quantity
In terms of qualitative: analyzing and evaluating the results of the collected data in the
minutes of observing the children's activities and the minutes of observating, recording the
children's comparative findings and results through measurement exercises.
In terms of quantitative: on the basis of the results of the assessing points, test the results of
experiments obtained by statistical math.
4.2. Analysis of experimental results
4.2.1. Experimental results of round 1
- The results of the survey on children's comparative skills according to the exercises show
that: before the experiment, the comparative skill expression of experiment groups and control
groups were similar; after the experiment, the results of the comparative skill tests according to
exercises of children in experimental group are much higher than those of control group
- Results of survey on comparative skills of children according to principles
Before the experiment, the comparative skills of the experimental groups and comtrol
groups are similar. After the experiment, there is a clear difference in the level of the comparative
skill expression in 2 groups:experimental and control, in which all principles in the experimental
group are expressed at a better level than that of the control group. Principles expressed at a low
level before the experiment such as the principle for proficiency and flexibility are significantly
improved after experiment in round 1. The level of the development of comparative skills
according to the principles in the experimental and control groups before and after the experiment
in round 1 is shown in chart 4.1


22

Chart 4.1. The level of children's development of comparative skills according to principles
in 2 groups: experimental and control before and after the experiment in round 1
- Testing the difference in results of experiment in round 1
Table of testing results of experiment in round 1
Type of exercises
tα (α =
X1
X2
n
S1
S2
t
0,05)
Comparing 2 objects
25 16,1 2,1 12,7 3,2 4,44
2,02
Comparing 3 objects
25 15,5 2,3
12
3,3 4,35
2,02
Comparing over 3 objects
25 14,3 2,5 11,4 3,6 3,31
2,02
Comparing 2 object groups
25 13,5
3
10,3 3,6 3,41
2,02
Comparing 3 object groups
25 13,2 3,5 10,1 3,9 2,96
2,02
The t-Student test showed, with 95% accuracy (α = 0.05), the results in the experimental
group were higher than the control group (t = 4,44; 4,35; 3,31; 3,41; 2,96˃ t α = 2,02). The test
results showed that the experiment has a positive impact on the children’s comparative skills. This
proves that the experimental measures we proposed are appropriate and the scientific hypothesis
is correct.
4.2.2. Experimental results of round 2
- The results of the survey on children's comparative skills according to the exercises
show that: before the experiment, the children of experiment groups and control groups
were similar. After the experiment, the results of the experimental group are much higher
than those of control group
- Results of survey on comparative skills of children according to principles
Before the experiment, the comparative skills of the experimental groups and comtrol
groups are similar. After the experiment, the comparative skills of the experimental groups is
higher than that of the control group Especially, there is a superiority in the basic principles of
proficiency, flexibility and efficiency. This proves and confirms that experiments are effective in
developing children's comparative skills.. The level of the development of comparative skills


23

according to the principles in the experimental and control groups before and after the experiment
in round 2 is shown in chart 4.2

Chart 4.2. The level of children's development of comparative skills according to principles
in 2 groups: experimental and control before and after the experiment in round 2
- Testing the difference in results of experiment in round 2
Table of testing results of experiments in round 2
Type
of
tα (α =
n
X1
S1
X2
S2
t
exercises
0,05)
Comparing 2
75
14.65
2.31
12.59
3.26
4.47
1,98
objects
Comparing 3
75
14.12
2.4
11.85
3.43
4.70
1,98
objects
Comparing
75
13.25
2.68
10.95
3.63
4.41
1,98
over 3 objects
Comparing 2
75
12.76
2.91
10.64
3.61
3.96
1,98
object groups
Comparing 3
75
12.35
3.28
10.05
3.55
4.12
1,98
object groups
The t-Student test showed, with 95% accuracy (α = 0.05), the results in the experimental
group were higher than the control group (t = 4,47; 4,70; 4,41; 3,96; 4,12˃ t α = 1,98). The test
results showed that the experiment has a positive impact on the children’s comparative skills. This
proves that the experimental measures we proposed are appropriate and the scientific hypothesis
is correct.


24

Conclusion of chapter 4
- Results of experiments in Round 1 and Round 2 show:
+ Before the experiment, the children’s comparative skills under the principles and
exercises in both experimental groups and control groups were similar. The majority of children 's
comparative skills are at the medium level, the dispersion is still large, proving that children' s
comparative skills are not equal.
+ After the experiment, the level of children’s comparatve skills in the experimental
groups is higher than the control groups. The children in the experimental groups expressed
interest in comparative activities clearly, expressed comparative skills higher, were more
stable at all exercises and more equal compared than the control groups. Thus, it can be
affirmed that the experimental measures have a positive impact on the development of
children’s comparative skills.
- The results of the two experimental rounds have confirmed the feasibility and educational
effectiveness of the measures to educate comparative skills for children and proving that the
scientific hypothesis was correct.
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
1. CONCLUSION
1.1. The comparative skill is an essential skill to develop thinking for preschool children.
The comparative skill is conscious, technical and resulted actions that are made to determine the
similarity or difference, uniformity or heterogeneity, equality or inequality between objects,
phenomenas based on the knowledge and experience inherent in certain conditions. This skill is
not natural to exist but it must be guided and implemented regularly in activities such as learning
activities, fun activities, outdoor activities and afternoon activities with comparative subjects
which are diversified about size, shape, quantity, color ... The comparative skill includes
composition and logic manipulations aranged and organized as follows: 1/ Identifying things; 2/
Analyzing signs of things; 3/ Classifying different and identical signs; 4/ Confronting differences
and identities; 5/ Commenting on the differences and identities discovered.
1.2. The reality of comparative skills through the activity of forming shape symbols of
children aged 5-6 years is not high and not synchronized. In the survey exercises, the type of
exercise comparing two subjects has the highest results and the other types of exercises have
lower results. The results of the comparative skills survey according to the principles also showed
that the proficiency achieved the lowest results. Most teachers find the need to use the measures
of educating children comparative skills. However, the reality shows that teachers have not really
paid attention to the education comparative skills for children, have not paid attention to
encouraging children to participate in comparing activities, have not created conditions for
children to experience and actively implement how to compare. Therefore, the result of
organization thí activity in preschools is not high.


25

1.3. On the basis of theoretical and practical research, the thesis offers some groups of
measures to educate comparative skills for children, including:
* Group of measures to stimulate needs, excitement and create conditions for children to practice
comparative skills
- Measure 1: Creating a problematic situation to stimulate children’s comparative
excitement and needs
- Measure 2: Enhancing the use of games to create conditions for children to practice
comparative skills
* Group of measures to organizes practical experience activities of the comparative skill through
activities of forming shape symbols
- Measure 1: Creating conditions for children to actively experience and implement
actively the comparative measures.
- Measure 2: Guide children the comparative process by combining verbal, visual, and
practical measures
- Measure 3: Guide children how to perform comparative tasks with various comparative
medias and ways
* Group of measures to evaluate the children's comparative results
- Measure 1: Evaluating the comparative results regularly in the direction of energizing
children’s cognitive activities
-Measure 2: Encouraging children to evaluate each other and self-evaluate in comparative
activities
The measures of educating comparative skills for children are used flexibly, ensuring
inheritance and promotion of strengths in current comparative skills education at preschools in
Hai Duong province. Measures affect the whole process of organizing children’s activities to
form shape symbols.
1.4. The results of pedagogical experiment at some preschools in different areas in Hai
Duong province have the same results. The comparative skills of children in the experimental
groups are higher than the control groups. The difference is meaningful. This proves that the
experimental measures have a positive impact on the development of the children’s comparative
skills. At the same time, these measures are also applicable in other children's educational
activities at preschools.
Experimental results have proved the feasibility and effectiveness of the measures of
educating comparative skills for children aged 5-6 years in the activity of formation
shapesymbols built in the thesis.
2. RECOMMENDATIONS
2.1. For preschool management levels
- Organize training and fostering preschool teachers on comparative skills and measures to
educate comparative skills for children aged 5-6 years.


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