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MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND
TRAINING

HO CHI MINH NATIONAL ACADEMY OF
POLITICS

ACADEMY OF JOURNALISM AND COMMUNICATION

VU VAN TIEN

PROCEDURE OF ORGANIZING AND IMPLEMENTING THE LINE OF
INVESTIGATIVE ARTICLES IN THE VIETNAMESE EDITORIAL OFFICES
TODAY

Speciality: Journalism
Classification: 9 32 01 01

SUMMARY OF PHD THESIS IN JOURNALISM

HANOI - 2019



The work was completed at
ACADEMY OF JOURNALISM AND COMMUNICATION

Supervisor: Assoc. Prof. PhD. Do Thi Thu Hang

Reviewer 1:

Reviewer 2:

Reviewer 3:

The thesis is defended at the PhD Thesis Evaluation Council at Academy level,
meeting at the Academy of Journalism and Communication – Hanoi
at

hour date month year 2019

The PhD thesis can be found at:
National Library, Library of Academy
of Journalism and Communication - Ho Chi Minh National Academy of Politics


1

LIST OF SCIENTIFIC WORKS PUBLISHED BY THE AUTHOR
RELATED TO THE TOPIC
1.

Vu Van Tien (2018), Barriers to investigative reporters, published by
Hanoi National University of Education.

1.

Vu Van Tien (2016), “Pure mind, sharp pen to the career,” Journal of
Journalists, Issued in September, p.39.

2.

Vu Van Tien (2016), Don’t push the electronic newspaper into the
“posting in morning – reading in afternoon – removing in
afternoon,” Journal of Journalists, Issue in September.

3.

Vu Van Tien (2015), Investigate and throw in journalism, Published
by People’s Public Security, Hanoi.

4.

Vu Van Tien (2015), Step into journalism, Published by Hanoi National
University of Education.

5. Vu Van Tien (2013), “Some principles and professional skills in
investigating and writing articles under the letters of readers”,
Journal of Education and Society, Issue in August, p.31-33.
6. Vu Van Tien (2013), "Knowledge, methods, professional skills: three
factors that bring effective articles in the investigation process
according to the readers’ order", Journal of Education and Social
Affairs, August issue, p.28-30, 33.

PREAMBLE


2

1. Reasons for choosing the topic
In modern journalistic arguments, investigative

journalism is

recognized as one of the most essential and effective tools for the journalism
to engage in direct struggle with the bad negative and imperfect things, for the
development of a society. “Investigative journalism responds to the
transparent, objective public information, potential power to make a powerful
impact on many aspects of society. The investigative action is an integral part
of the general efforts of the journalism and the whole society in the fight
against corruption, wastefulness, trade fraud, crime prevention” Mark Lee
Hunter et al., in “Story - Based Inquiry: A manual for Investigative
Journalists” (Provisional translation: "Investigation based on true story: A
handbook for investigative journalists") has considered that the particularity
of investigative journalism is an intensive journalistic activity in which “the
information is disclosed only when it ensures the rigor and perfection” and
even “after the information is authenticated and posted, the journalists are still
able to implement the extensive and intensive study. [91] Because of this
characteristic,

the

investigative

journalism

is

often

organized

and

implemented in the form of projects with articles (many terms of publication).
Investigation has a great attraction, causing attention of the most of
readers. Many newspapers such as Tuoi Tre Newspaper, Thanh Nien
Newspaper, Lao Dong Newspaper, Ho Chi Minh City Law Newspaper, Tien
Phong Newspaper, Dan Tri Newspaper, etc. have confirmed their prestige and
level, thanking to the powerful investigation report series. Thus, in the
newspapers, the investigative news, investigative reports are often placed in
critical positions, as “pin” in the overall newspaper, paid a worthy position
and cared on presentation techniques (headline, chapeau, image ...). Many
famous newspapers are now launching news contests, investigative reports to
“invite” the good writers to work at their newspapers and to attract the
readers. Many investigative articles, investigation reports have made the name
of journalists, the affection of readers for the writer as well as the press.


3

Therefore, so many editorial offices are very interested and facilitated the
reporter to conduct a line of investigative articles and investigative reports.
Many reporters, especially young reporters, want to try, experience and invest
a lot of energy in this categories.
The questions in the theory and practice of investigative journalism in
most of newspapers in our country nowadays are: How does the procedure of
organizing and implementing the line of investigative articles affect the
quality of investigative articles? How important is the development,
organization and implementation of line of investigative articles in accordance
with the procedure developed by the editorial office – as a business principle
of the editorial office? What theoretical and practical basis does the editorial
office use for developing and managing the procedure of organizing and
implementing the line of investigative articles? What steps or phases need to
be minimized in the procedure of organizing and implementing the line of
investigative articles? What are the basic conditions for the development and
implementation of the procedure of organizing and implementing the line of
investigative articles in journalism agencies? What factors affect the
perfection/change of the procedure of organizing and implementing the line of
investigative articles in a Vietnamese press agencies in the current period?
The thesis topic of “Procedure of organizing and implementing the
line of investigative articles in the Vietnamese editorial offices today ”
aims to systematize and develop the procedure of organizing and
implementing the line of investigative articles, studying the practice of this
matter in the Vietnamese press agencies, contributing to answering the
study questions mentioned above. At the same time, the thesis aims at
studying the current situation of procedure of organizing and implementing
the line of investigative articles in editorial offices in our country today,
thus proposing solutions for the procedure of organizing and implementing
the line of investigative articles in Vietnamese editorial offices in general
and in editorial offices surveyed ones in particular.


4

2. Purposes and tasks of the topic
2.1. Purposes of study
The PhD thesis studies the theory and situation of the procedure of
organizing and implementing the line of investigative articles in Vietnamese
editorial offices, thereby proposing solutions and proposals on procedure of
organizing and implementing the line of investigative articles in Vietnamese
editorial offices in Vietnamese editorial offices today.
2.2. Tasks of study
To achieve the purposes of study, the PhD thesis performs the 4 study
tasks as follows:
Firstly, systematize the theoretical and practical issues in the procedure
of organizing and implementing the line of investigative articles of press
agencies.
Secondly, analyze the status of organizing and implementing the series
of the editorial offices surveyed published in 2017.
Thirdly,

describe,

analyze

and

evaluate

the

development,

implementation and monitor of the procedure of organizing and implementing
the line of investigative articles in editorial offices.
Fourthly, propose solutions and recommendations on the procedure of
organizing and implementing the line of investigative articles in editorial
offices.
3. Subject and scope of study
3.1. Subject of study
The study subjects of the PhD thesis topic: The issue of developing,
implementing and supervising the implementation of the procedure of
organizing and implementing the line of investigative articles in Vietnamese
editorial offices today.
3.2. Scope of study
- Scope of space: In this topic, we limit the scope of study on the
procedure of organizing and implementing the line of investigative articles in


5

Vietnamese editorial offices today, with editorial offices, publishing 2 main
sessions: newspaper and electronic newspaper version. Newspapers surveyed,
including: Nhan Dan Newspaper, Hanoimoi Newspaper, Tuoi Tre Newspaper,
Ho Chi Minh City Law Newspaper, Lao Dong Newspaper, Tien Phong
Newspaper, Dan Tri Newspaper.
- Scope of time: 2017.
4. Study hypothesis and analytical framework
4.1. Study hypothesis
- The development and compliance with the procedure of organizing
and implementing the line of investigative articles is a basic and important
requirement and principle in Vietnamese editorial offices.
- If it is well and flexibly implemented stages, the contents of
organization and implementation, it will increase the professionalism of the
investigative journalism, thereby creating a foundation for managing the line
of investigative articles for press agencies.
- A number of investigative journalists and press managers are not
aware of the role of formulating and implementing the procedure of
organizing and implementing the investigative articles in the editorial
offices.
4.2. Analytical framework


6
Investigative journalism resources of editorial offices
Group of
organization
contents

Procedure of
organizing
and
implementing
the line of
investigative
articles

Investigative
journalism in
editorial
offices

Contents of the
procedure
Group of
implementation
contents

Formulating,
implementing,
and monitoring
the procedure

Các
giai
đoạn
của
quy
trình

Formulation

Implementation

Monitoring

Political, legal and ethical basis

5. Theoretical basis and study methods
5.1.Theoretical basis
- Theory on journalism and journalism work
- Theory of investigative journalism
- Sociological theory of mass media
- Human rights approach
- Theory of management science
5.2. Study methods
5.2.1. Content analysis method
- Qualitative content analysis
+ Synthesize, analyze, systemize and generalize the theory as well as works
published in newspapers, journals and practical research works of authors related to
study issue.


7

+ Using the method of analyzing the content of documents to find out the content,
meaning, main ideas of the theoretical documents and previous research works related to
the organization and implementation of the investigative journalism in general and
procedure of organizing and implementing the line of investigative articles in particular,
serve as a basis for comparing and evaluating survey results, finding scientific solutions
for research issues. The method of document research also allows PhD students to
identify and analyze the views and directions of the Communist Party of Vietnam, the
Vietnamese legal system related to investigative journalism in our country in the current
period.
- Quantitative content analysis
This method is carried out by a set of tools for coding the content of
investigative articles in 7 newspapers surveyed (Nhan Dan Newspaper, Hanoimoi
Newspaper, Tuoi Tre Newspaper, Ho Chi Minh City Law Newspaper, Lao Dong
Newspaper, Tien Phong Newspaper, Dan Tri Newspaper) to statistics a line of
investigative articles in order to quantify the indicators of content, form, way of
expressing. This is the basis for the author to study, synthesize, draw comments,
evaluate the successes and limitations, the effectiveness and contributions of the
newspapers in posting the line of investigative articles on 7 newspapers, survered in
2017.
5.2.2. Anket interview method
This method is used to survey generally the investigative journalism,
investigative journalists and the organization and implementation of line of
investigative articles in the Vietnamese editorial offices today.
Interviewees: Investigative journalists in Vietnamese editorial offices.
Quantity: Number of votes issued is 200. Number of votes received, qualified to
use is 193.
5.2.3. In-depth interview
This method is used to research and identify the overview of investigative
journalism and organizing and implementing the line of investigative articles
Vietnamese press agencies today, principles and experience in formulation and
implementation. Currently, the issues posed and suggested renovating the procedure
of organizing and implementing the line of investigative articles Vietnamese press


8

agencies today.
Subject and number of in-depth interview (IDI): 17 cases, including the following
groups:
Group 1: 7 State managers in media press, leaders of press agencies surveyed.
Group 2: 7 investigative journalists
Group 3: 3 specialists, researchers and training lecturers on investigative
journalism
5.2.4. Group discussion method
This method is used to research and identify the overview of investigative
journalism and procedure of organizing and implementing the line of investigative
articles in Vietnamese editorial offices, principles and experience in formulation and
implementation, issues given and suggestions for renewing procedure of organizing
and implementing the line of investigative articles in the present press agencies. At
the same time, there is the analysis and evaluation of the quality and effectiveness of
the line of investigative articles, as well as suggestions to the press agencies.
Quantity: 02 groups of journalists, researchers, specialists in Hanoi and Ho Chi
Minh City.
5.2.5. Case study method
- Choose 7 editorial offices to survey the current status of line of investigative
articles: Nhan Dan Newspaper, Hanoimoi Newspaper, Tuoi Tre Newspaper, Ho Chi
Minh City Law Newspaper, Tien Phong Newspaper, Lao Dong Newspaper, Dan Tri
Newspaper. We carried out a survey of 7 newspapers in terms of: fact finding, statistics
the line of investigative articles in 2017, and the procedure of organization,
implementation, in-depth interviews with leaders and investigative journalists. In order
to ensure anonymity when analyzing the research data, we coded 7 separate newspaper
editorial offices into editorial offices A, B, C, D, E, G, H according to the random order.
- Criteria for selection of study samples: We select the typical newspapers of
investigative journalism representing the South - North regions, central - local
authorities, press representatives of industry, union and mass media.
6. Theoretical and practical meanings of the topic
6.1. Theoretical meanings
If successful, the PhD thesis contributes to develop the theory of investigative


9

journalism, in-depth organizational theory, the implementation of investigative
journalism projects in general, and the series of investigative journalism in the
editorial offices in particular.
Based on studying the scientific data on the current state of the procedure of
organizing and implementing the line of investigative articles in Vietnamese editorial
offices. The topic proposes the new principles and solutions in theory of
development, implementation and supervision of the procedure of organizing and
implementing the line of investigative articles in editorial offices of our country
today, thus proposing steps and phases in the procedure of organizing and
implementing the line of investigative articles in Vietnamese editorial offices in the
trend of media convergence and multimedia today.
6.2. Practical meanings
The topic is successful, it will be a valuable reference for investigate
journalists, journalism managers, especially Newspaper editorial board when
organizing and implementing the line of investigative articles. This is also a reference
for media journalism managers, lawyers, scientists and students.
7. New contributions of the topic
- Develop the theory of investigative journalism, specifically propose a
procedure of 10-steps, 4 phases in the organization and implementation of the line of
investigative articles in Vietnamese editorial offices.
- Provide survey data on the status of line of investigative articles and the
procedure of organizing and implementing the line of investigative articles of
editorial offices of our country today.
- Propose solutions and recommendations to develop, organize, implement,
monitor, maintain or renovate the procedure of organizing and implementing the line
of investigative articles in editorial offices of our country today.
8. Structure
In addition to the introduction, conclusion, list of reference and appendices, the
thesis consists of 4 chapters.

OVERVIEW OF THE STUDY SITUATION


10

PROCEDURE OF ORGANIZING AND IMPLEMENTING THE LINE OF
INVESTIGATIVE ARTICLES IN EDITORIAL OFFICES
Researching overview of this issue in two directions: Researching the theory
and practice of investigative journalism and research direction on the creative
procedure of investigative journalistic works and the procedure of organizing and
implementing the line of investigative articles, the author of the PhD thesis gives a
general evaluation of the research works as follows:
Investigative journalism appeared quite early, is expanding rapidly worldwide
and the importance of investigative journalism is increasingly asserted. Investigative
journalism has not only stopped at the concepts, but also expanded into theory of
investigative journalism, from world press research to the fact that works in Vietnam
have also mentioned fundamental issues such as investigative journalism concept,
investigative journalism operational methods and skills; role playing, collecting
materials in investigative journalism activities; ethical issues, legal corridors related
to investigative journalists, steps to conduct the investigative articles...
The overall research results are the process of searching and analyzing information
related to the topic "Procedure of organizing and implementing the line of investigative
articles in Vietnamese editorial offices today" to give the overview of the values that
previous works achieved, as well as the starting point to define research tasks and research
orientations for the PhD thesis.
Based on the study of the above typical scientific works, it can be affirmed that
so far, there has not been any scientific work that clarifies the issue of the procedure of
organizing and implementing the line of investigative articles in Vietnamese editorial
offices today. Based on the systematization of theory and analysis of practical factors
influencing on /affecting to procedure of organizing and implementing the line of
investigative articles in press agencies, the PhD thesis builds a theoretical framework
for research issues, which focus on clarifying the theory of procedure of organizing and
implementing the line of investigative articles in the press agencies in our country
today.
Chapter 1
THEORETICAL BASIS AND PRACTICAL BASIS
MATTER OF PROCEDURE OF ORGANIZING AND IMPLEMENTING THE
LINE OF INVESTIGATIVE ARTICLES IN EDITORIAL OFFICES


11

Conducting research in chapter 1, the PhD thesis focuses on two major issues:
Theoretical basis for procedure of organizing and implementing the line of
investigative articles in editorial offices and Practical basis for procedure of
organizing and implementing the line of investigative articles in editorial offices in
which details include:
1.1. Theoretical basis for procedure of organizing and implementing the
line of investigative articles in editorial offices
The research on the theoretical basis of the procedure of organizing and
implementing the line of investigative articles in editorial offices, the PhD thesis
clarified the related research concepts such as investigation, investigative journalism,
investigative articles, line of investigative articles ... (pages 39, 45, 46). In particular,
in terms of the concept of "line of investigative articles", the author argues that the
line of investigative articles will include at least 2 investigative journalistic works and
may be accompanied with another categories, linked according to a specific
characteristics on content, focus around an issue, a topic, an audience, and often
appear on one or more issues in one or more consecutive issues of newspaper, maybe
for a number of days or for weekly, monthly or yearly period. These works reflect the
facts, phenomena, people in "problematic situations", the information has a lot of
contradictions, many contradictions, through analysis, explanation, evidence,
journalists clarifying the causes, results or development directions of that incidents,
phenomena and persons.
Regarding the concept of editorial offices, and subjects participating in the
investigation procedure, the PhD thesis has clarified that the editorial office is
another way of the press agency. According to Article 16 of the Press Law 2016,
press agencies are the mouthpiece of agencies and organizations prescribed in Article
14 of this Law, implementing one or some types of press, having one or several press
products (print, radio, television and electronic press). Subjects participating in the
investigative journalism procedure include:
(1). Authors, groups of authors of investigative journalistic works;
(2). Editorial board, especially the head of the editorial board of a newspaper /
television / radio station;
(3). The general secretary of the editorial office and the editorial office


12

secretariat;
(4). The reader or department is responsible for receiving and responding to
public feedback
(5). The professional department that manages the investigative projects (if
any) or the head of the management department of the investigative reporters
(6). Legal advice and professional consultancy department
Besides, the PhD thesis also clarified the procedure of organizing and
implementing the line of investigative articles. Accordingly, the procedure of
organizing and implementing the line of investigative articles in the editorial offices
is an official and compulsory regulation of the Editorial Board of the the editorial
office about the corresponding steps, stages, jobs and job position; order and
coordination between subjects when organizing and implementing the line of
investigative articles in order to meet the objectives of the editorial offices. In
essence, this is the procedure of organizing and implementing the investigative
projects with the output of the line of investigative articles published to the public. In
addition, in this content, the PhD thesis also clarifies related issues such as content,
method, steps in the procedure of organizing and implementing the line of
investigative articles.
In addition, in order to clarify issues related to the theoretical basis of the
research issue, the PhD thesis has pointed out the following issues: The role of
investigative journalism, the line of investigative articles and the procedure of
organizing and implementing the line of investigative articles; Content, issues of
formulating, implementing, and monitoring the procedure of organizing and
implementing the line of investigative articles; Principles and requirements for
procedure of organizing and implementing the line of investigative articles in the
editorial offices. These are all core concepts and issues for the PhD thesis to conduct
a survey of the next steps.
1.2. Practical basis of the procedure of organizing and implementing the
line of investigative articles in editorial offices
Researching on the practical basis of the procedure of organizing and
implementing the line of investigative articles in editorial offices, the PhD thesis has
pointed out the main issues such as: Factors affecting the procedure of organizing and


13

implementing the line of investigative articles in editorial offices; Investigative
journalism in the world; Investigative journalism in Vietnam.
Among the factors affecting the procedure of organizing and implementing the
line of investigative articles in editorial offices, the PhD thesis has clearly defined the
contents such as: The Party's views and guidelines related to investigative journalism. ;
Vietnam's legal system related to investigative journalism; Political, economic and social
factors; Strategy, awareness, capacity, mechanism and resources of the editorial offices.
These are important factors for the PhD thesis to organize the survey in the following
sections.
In addition, under this part, the thesis also shows the practical basis of editorial
offices in Vietnam and the world. These contents have strengthened good bases for
the thesis to survey and evaluate the research results more favorable.
Sub-conclusion of chapter 1
In summary, in chapter 1, in order to implement well the research case, the
PhD thesis presented the theoretical and practical basis of the research issue. In
particular, on the theoretical basis, the PhD thesis has explored the basic theoretical
systems directly related to the research topic, clarified the content, the scope of some
basic concepts as well as the way of using the concept in research issue. At the same
time, the PhD thesis considers the role of investigative journalism in social life as
well as the role of the procedure of organizing and implementing the line of
investigative articles in editorial offices, as well as the requirements in the procedure
of organizing and implementing the line of investigative articles in all aspects is to
provide basic knowledge about the Party's views and guilines, the legal system
related to the press.
Practical basis for raising and solving practical issues of the procedure of
organizing and implementing the line of investigative articles in present Vietnamese
press agencies. Factors affecting the procedure of organizing and implementing the
line of investigative articles include: the legal undertakings and policies of the Party
and the State on investigative journalism, the legal system related to the investigative
journalism (Press Law, Civil Law, Criminal Law, Economic Law, etc.); The
appearance of investigative journalism in the world as well as in Vietnam.


14

The above theoretical and practice basis requires a specific, detailed and
complete procedure of organizing and implementing the line of investigative articles
that will support and create a frame for the investigative journalists to implement
tasks more conveniently to minimize operational difficulties. On the other hand, these
are the basis for conducting research and analyzing survey data on the actual situation
of posting the line of investigative articles, the current status of the procedure of
organization and implementation and withdrawing conclusions, proposing solutions
for research issues given in the next chapters.
Chapter 2
CURRENT STATUS OF LINE OF INVESTIGATIVE ARTICLES
IN VIETNAMESE EDITORIAL OFFICES TODAY
Conducting research in chapter 2, the PhD thesis focuses on four major issues:
Introduction of newspapers surveyed; Contents of the line of investigative articles;
Methods for posting the line of investigative articles; Evaluating the status of
organizing and implementing the line of investigative articles according to the survey
field.
2.1. Giới thiệu các tờ báo thuộc diện khảo sát Introducing the newspapers
surveyed
In this part, the PhD thesis has introduced the following contents: the year of
establishment, organizational structure, number of publications, pages, categories,
issues, and generalizing the strengths of conducting the line of investigative articles
of Nhan Dan Newspaper, Hanoimoi Newspaper, Tuoi Tre Newspaper, Ho Chi Minh
City Law Newspaper, Tien Phong Newspaper, Dan Tri Newspaper.
2.2. Introducing the newspapers surveyed
Among the 5 basic content groups of the investigative journalism, the line of
investigative articles in 7 newspapers mentioned the most about the topic of
investigating social-life crimes. Anti-corruption investigations and investigations of
economic crimes and trade frauds are similar rate. The lowest rate belongs to the
content of investigating historical secrets or important figures of public interest.
Regarding the theme and topic of the line of investigative articles (section 2.2.1), the
PhD thesis has specific evidence.
Table 2.1: Comparison of themes/ topics of the line of investigative articles among 7 newspapers (%)


15
Newspaper Newspaper Newspaper Newspaper Newspaper Newspaper Newspaper
A
B
C
D
E
G
H

Content
1. Anti-corruption
investigations
2. Investigations of
economic crimes and
trade frauds
3. Investigations to detect
environmental
violations
4. Investigations of
social-life crimes
5. Investigations of
historical secrets or
important figures of
public interest
6. Other themes/ topics

16.7

23.1

22.2

16.7

28.5

33.3

14.3

25

15.3

22.2

16.7

16.7

33.3

14.3

8.3

7.6

11.1

0

16.7

0

14.3

33.3

30.7

33.4

50

38.1

33.3

57.1

0

7.6

0

0

0

0

0

16.7

15.7

11.1

16.6

0

0

0

Source: Survey by the author in 2017

In addition, the system of data and evidence (section 2.2.2) has been surveyed,
synthesized and confirmed by the PhD thesis, the use of materials and data in the line
of investigative articles is extremely important. They act as evidence, contributing to
the persuasion of the arguments, reasoning and opinion of the press. According to the
survey, the highest rate of using photographs of the scene, providing witnesses or
figures and statistics. Legal documents are the basis for making opinions, conclusions
on the level of violations, or confirming the seriousness of the issue to be reflected at
a lower proportion.
Table 2.2: Comparison of evidence factors
in the line of investigative articles between 7 newspapers (%)
Newspaper Newspaper Newspaper
Newspaper
Newspaper D Newspaper E Newspaper G
A
B
C
H

1. Photos taken at the
scene of the incident
2. Numbers, statistics
3. Legal documents
4. Declaration of
witnesses
5. Other factors

14.3

26.1

27.6

16.7

22.2

11.1
10.6

10.9
15.2

21.0
11.7

17.8
0

22.7
16.4

12.7

21.7

21.0

16.7

28.9

51.3

26.1

25.3

48.8

9.8

13.2

20.9

9.3
0
12.5

19.1
13.4
18.2

65

28.4

Source: Survey by the author in 2017

The statistics in the investigative articles are often studied and verified carefully to
identify the true figures behind the virtual figures.
Figure 2.1: Source of information supply for all investigative articles (%)


16
No clear basis

Series 1, from the
complaint letter of
Series 1, from
the person
private
sources,
affected by the
the
general
misconduct, 25.6
public, interested
people, 20.5

Series 1, from
detailed legal
document, 2.6

Series 1, from
the misleading
statistics and
reports of
organizations,0

Source: Survey by the author in 2017

2.3. Methods for posting the line of investigative articles
Regarding the method of posting the line of investigative articles, the PhD
thesis has conducted surveys of two contents: quantity (section 2.3.1) and frequency
(section 2.3.2):
- Quantity:
Table 2.3: Number of investigative articles in 7 newspapers surveyed
Editorial offices
investigative
articles
Line of
investigative
articles
Percentage of the
line of
investigative
articles /
investigative
articles

Newspaper
A

Newspaper
B

Newspaper
C

Newspaper
D

Newspaper
E

Newspaper
G

Newspaper
H

63

46

29

29

45

7

49

14

16

11

7

9

4

7

22.2%

34.8%

37.9%

24.1%

20%

57.1%

14.3%

Source: Survey by the author in 2017

- Frequency:
Figure 2.1: Number of posting issues of line of investigative articles (%)


17
Series1, 4 issues or
more, 15.4, 15%

Series1, 3
issues, 23.1,
23%

Series1, 2 issues, 61.5,
62%

Source: Survey by the author in 2017
Table 2.3: Comparison of number of posting issues of the line of
investigative articles among 7 newspapers
All 7
Newspaper Newspaper Newspaper Newspaper Newspaper Newspaper Newspaper
newspapers
A
B
C
D
E
G
H

1.
Two
issues
2.
Three
issues
3.
Four
issues or more

58.3

61.5

55.6

100

57.1

100

57.1

61.5

16.7

30.8

22.2

0

42.9

0

28.6

23.1

25.0

7.7

22.2

0

0

0

14.3

15.4

Source: Survey by the author in 2017

The results show that the frequency of the line of investigative articles has
increased at some time points when the society has more pressing issues. About 60%
of the line of investigative articles lasts the two posting issues. Especially, 15.4%
lasts from four issues or more.
- Categories:
Table 2.4: Categories used in the line of investigative articles
Newspaper
A

Newspaper
B

Newspaper
C

16.3

8.7

17.9

5.3

articles
Reportage

3.8

27.2

10.8

6.6

articles
Investigative

70.4

59.9

53.6

Analysis,

Newspaper
D

Newspaper
E

Newspaper
G

Newspaper
H

commentary

articles

67.7

47.8

28.5
67.7

42.8


18
Investigative

5.4

2.0

15.7

4.1

2.2

20

33.3

25.6

33.3

10.7

reportage
articles
Other

14.7

18

categories
Source: Survey by the author in 2017

- The author's role is shown in the line of investigative articles:
Table 2.5: Comparison of author information presented in the line of investigative
articles among 7 newspapers (%)
Newspaper Newspaper Newspaper Newspaper Newspaper Newspaper Newspaper

a- About the 1. An author
individual

2. Group of

and

authors

collective
roles

3.

Unknown

A

B

C

D

E

16.7

7.7

33.3

100

28.6

83.3

92.3

55.6

0

57.1

0

0

11.1

0

14.3

G

66.7
33.3

H

All 7
newspapers

55.6

41.0

33.3

53.8

11.1

5.2

0
1. Personal

b- About
using
names and
pseudonyms

pseudonyms
2. Refer

91.7

53.8

88.9

100

57.1

100

53.8

79.5

8.3

46.2

11.1

0

42.9

0

46.2

20.5

collectively
to as the
group of
reporters
Source: Survey by the author in 2017

2.4. Evaluating the current status of organization and implementation of
the line of investigative articles according to the survey field
2.4.1. Evaluating the current status of organization of the line of
investigative articles according to the survey field
To be able to analyze the organization activities of the line of investigative
articles only through content analysis is not easy. Based on the objective factors
shown in each line of investigative articles and each article, the author analyzes the
organization of the the line of investigative articles through criteria on the ability and
quality of the line of investigative articles achieved in all 7 newspapers. The results


19

are obtained at a relative level. All 17 evaluation indicators have a low score being 5
scores. These scores are calculated and aggregated through SPSS data processing
software that the author uses to analyze quantitative data sets with the help of
sociologists.
In terms of: Skills in using newspaper language, Logic of dividing the issues of
the line of investigative articles, Language of investigative journalistic works. Most
of the 7 newspapers have pretty good quality or the best quality. These are factors that
evaluate the operation of the line of investigative articles. The groups of criteria
shown lowest is to meet the legal requirements of investigative journalistic works.
Figure 2.2: Evaluation of organization of the line of investigative articles (%)
Skills in using journalistic language
Logic of dividing the issues of the line of investigative
articles
Language of investigative journalistic works
Satisfy the requirements of newspaper ethics and
accountability of investigative journalism
Content: discovery, ground, fact, theoretical point
Interactivity with sources of information, characters
Labor quality of investigate journalists
Outline of investigated newspaper works
Select the appropriate category
Theme, topic
Satisfy the requirements of objectivity, multi-dimension in
identification and analysis, evaluation of events
Impact effectiveness of line of investigate articles
Quality and reasonableness of evidence in the
investigation
Satisfy the in-depth requirements identifying, analyzing,
evaluating events, issues
Satisfy requirements on source of information and safety
of source of information supplied to investigative
newspaper
Interactive ability to public newspaper
Satisfy requirements on the legality of the investigative
journalism work

Source: Survey by the author in 2017

2.4.2. Evaluating the current status of implementation of the line of
investigative articles according to the survey field
Table 2.6: Evaluating the implementation of the line of investigative articles according to the survey
field(%)


20
No. Evaluation content

Newspaper
A

Newspaper
B

Newspaper
C

Newspaper
D

Newspaper
E

1.

5.0

4.7

4.5

4.0

4.75

2.

3.

4.

5.
6.

7.

8.

9.

Themes, topics
Content:
discoverability,
arguments,
demonstration,
points
Meeting the
requirements of
objectivity, multidimensional in
identifying and
analyzing,
evaluating events,
characters, issues
Meeting the
requirements of the
in-depth of
identifying and
analyzing,
evaluating events,
characters, issues
Labor quality of
investigative
journalists
Quality and validity
of evidence cited in
the investigation
Meeting the legal
requirements of
investigative
journalistic works
Meeting the
requirements of
journalistic ethics
and social
responsibility of
investigative
journalism
Meeting the
requirements of
information sources
and the safety of the

5.0

4.92

5.0

4.92

4.92

4.83

4.25

4.78

3.48

4.86

3.2

3.52

4.75

4.38

4.13

4.75

4.5

3.88

4.0

4.0

4.0

4.0

3.0

3.0

Newspaper
G

Newspaper
H

3.8

4.3

3.8

4.1

3.9

4.2

3.9

4.7

3.9

4.3

3.1

4.2

3.0

3.7

3.8

4.4

2.9

3.1

5.0

5.0

4.75

5.0

4.75

5.0

5.0

4.95

4.75

4.0

5.0

4.92

3.14

4.0

3.0

4.75


21

10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.

information source
provided to the
investigative
journalism
Interoperability
with information
sources and
characters
Choosing the right
categories
Interoperability
with the press
public
Skills in using
journalistic
language
Layout of
investigative
journalistic works
Language of
investigative
journalistic works
Logic of dividing the
issues of the line of
investigative articles
Effective impact of
the line of
investigative articles

4.92

3.37

4.75

4.0

5.0

5.0

3.58

4.5

4.0

5.0

5.0

4.83

5.0

4.92

5.0

4.17

3.68

5.0

5.0

4.63

5.0

4.12

3.88

4.88

4.63

4.88

4.63

4.14

4.0

4.0

4.0

4.0

5.0

4.0

3.8

4.2

3.5

4.1

3.8

3.5

3.9

3.9

3.8

4.0

3.8

4.1

4.3

4.5

3.4

4.1

4.75

5.0

4.75

5.0

5.0

4.38

Source: Survey by the author in 2017

2.4.3. Evaluating the current situation to meet the requirements of the
procedure of organizing and implementing the line of investigative articles in
editorial offices
Figure 2.3: Evaluating journalistic skills shown in the line of investigative articles (%)


22
Skills of arranging the issues and the line of investigative
articles
Skills of exploiting and collecting information
Professional skills of investigative journalists
Content organization skills of the line of investigative
articles
Skills of topic selection and detection
Communication security skills
Information source access and protection skills
Skills in analyzing records and documents
Skills in using legal means in the investigation
Skills of setting up and running an investigation team
Teamwork skills
Skills of role-playing and handling special situations
Skills of big data usage and multimedia applications in
surveys
Skills in using social networking in the investigation

Source: Survey by the author in 2017

When comparing between 7 newspapers, newspaper E is still recognized for
the highest professional capacity in the line of investigative articles.
Table 2.7: Comparison of evaluating journalism skills as shown in the line of investigative
articles between 7 newspapers (%)
No.

1
2

3

4

Professional
skills of
investigative
journalism
Skills of topic
selection and
detection
Skills of setting
up and running
an investigation
team
Professional
skills of
investigative
journalists
Information

Newspaper
A

Newspaper
B

Newspaper
C

Newspaper
D

Newspaper
E

Newspaper
G

Newspaper
H

5.0

4.26

4.44

4.0

4.75

4.0

4.6

4.92

2.11

2.11

2.0

2.0

4.0

2.1

4.24

4.44

4.44

4.0

5.0

4.0

4.3

4.92

3.44

3.44

3.0

4.5

4.0

3.7


23

5

6

7

8

9

10

11
12

13

14

source access
and protection
skills
Skills of
exploiting and
collecting
information
Skills in
analyzing
records and
documents
Skills in using
legal means in
the
investigation
Skills of roleplaying and
handling special
situations
Skills in using
social
networking in
the
investigation
Skills of big
data usage and
multimedia
applications in
surveys
Communication
security skills
Content
organization
skills of the line
of investigative
articles
Skills of
arranging the
issues and the
line of
investigative
articles
Teamwork
skills

4.92

4.56

4.56

4.0

5.0

4.0

4.2

4.67

2.78

2.78

4.0

4.75

4.0

2.8

4.91

2.44

2.44

3.0

5.0

3.0

2.3

2.53

1.89

1.89

3.0

1.75

2.6

2.8

5.0

2.44

2.44

4.0

2.0

1.7

2.5

3.0

1.56

1.56

2.0

3.2

1.1

1.6

5.0

4.67

4.67

4.0

5.0

4.1

4.7

4.82

4.67

4.67

3.0

5.0

3.3

4.6

5.0

4.67

4.67

3.0

5.0

4.8

4.1

4.0

2.11

2.11

2.0

4.33

2.0

3.4

Source: Survey by the author in 2017

Sub-conclusion of chapter 2
Chapter 2 of the PhD thesis has conducted a survey of the current situation of
the line of investigative articles in editorial offices in 2017, through the investigation
data of the anket questionnaire survey, to produce specific quantitative figures,


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