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MWH''''s Water Treatment - Principles and Design, 3d Edition

Index

A
Absorbance, 18, 26–28, 904
Absorption, 392, 439, 846, 848–849,
1034–1036. See also Light
absorption; Photon absorption
Absorption clarifiers, 692–693
Acanthamoeba castellani, 131, 142–143
Acetone, 1425
Acid, 226, 1380–1381
Acid–base reactions, 226, 268–271
A/C pipe, see Asbestos-cement pipe
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
(AIDS), 140
Actiflo process, 693–694
Action spectrum, 998–999
Activated alumina, 194, 1657, 1658,
1670, 1694
Activated carbon, 11, 1123, 1125–1127,
1611–1612. See also Granular

activated carbon (GAC);
Powdered activated carbon (PAC)
Activated silica, 578
Activation energy, 226, 256–257
Activation polarization, 1727
Active layer, 1336, 1343
Activity, 226
Activity coefficients, 226, 240–243
Adenoviruses, 119, 120, 129–130
AdOx model, 1463–1466
Adsorbability, 1134–1135
Adsorbate, 1119, 1120
Adsorbed dose, 67
Adsorbent, 392, 1118, 1120
Adsorbent particle density in an
absorber (ρs ), 1118
Adsorbent-phase concentration, 1180
Adsorbent surface area per volume of
bed, 1208

Adsorption, 11, 190, 195, 197,
1119–1253
applications of, 1122–1124
carbon, 6
and charge neutralization, 557–558
chemical, 1120–1121, 1131, 1133
definition of, 392, 1119
factors involved in, 1131–1132
with GAC, see Granular activated
carbon
gas, 1157–1159
historical development of,
1121–1122
interfacial equilibria for, 1128
and interparticle bridging, 558–560
isotherm, see Adsorption isotherm
liquid, 1147–1154
materials for, 1124–1128
NOM removal with, 1502
with PAC, see Powdered activated
carbon
phenomena of, 1120–1121
physical, 1120–1121, 1133–1134
PPCP removal with, 1611–1612
radionuclide removal via, 1605–1606
reactors using, 293
surface chemistry and forces
involved in, 1131–1133
Adsorption isotherm, 1135–1169
BET, 1146–1147
determination of, 1136–1139,
1143–1145
and Dubinin-Radushkevich
equation, 1157–1159
equilibrium, 1135–1169
Freundlich, 1141–1145
Langmuir, 1271–1273

MWH’s Water Treatment: Principles and Design, Third Edition
John C. Crittenden, R. Rhodes Trussell, David W. Hand, Kerry J. Howe and George Tchobanoglous
Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

and multicomponent equilibrium,
1154–1157
and Polanyi potential theory,
1147–1154
Adult diarrhea rotavirus, 125–126
Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs),
195, 459, 462, 1417–1479
application in water treatment, 190
assessing feasibility of, 1432
by-products of, 1425–1426
and carbonate species, 1426–1427
definition of, 458, 1416
estimating performance of, 1418,
1421–1424
factors affecting, 1426–1431
Fenton’s reactions, 1477
hydrogen peroxide/ozone process,
1441–1455
hydrogen peroxide/UV light
process, 1455–1472
of MTBE, 1423–1424
and NOM, 1428–1430
ozonation, 1432–1441
ozone/UV light, 1473
and pH, 1427–1428
photocatalysis with titanium dioxide,
1473–1477
PPCP removal, 1609–1610
and reactivity of parent component
with hydroxyl radical, 1431
and reduced metal ions, 1430–1431
sonolysis, 1478–1479
types of, 1418
UV reactor used for, 525
Advection, 399–400
Aeration, 10, 11, 195, 1036–1060
advantages/disadvantages of,
1058–1059

1869


1870

Index

Aeration (continued)
application in water treatment, 190
DBP removal with, 1504
definition of, 1034
diffused, 1106–1107
and gas–liquid equilibria,
1038–1050
oxidation of iron and manganese by,
1560–1561
for radon removal, 1603–1604
rate of mass transfer for, 443
selection of equipment for,
1059–1060
in situ, 197
types of, 1037–1038
Aerators:
aspirator-type, 1053, 1057
cascade, 1052, 1054
diffusion-type, 1056–1057
droplet, 1058–1059
mechanical, 1058, 1059, 1107
multiple-tray, 1052, 1054–1056
spray, 1051, 1100–1105
thin-film, 1058–1059
Aerobic (term), 74
Aeromonas hydrophilia, 110–112
Aggregate characteristics, 25–42
Aggregate water quality indicators, 18
Agitation, 288, 363
Agriculture, 59
AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency
syndrome), 140
Air:
density, 1857–1859
viscosity, 1859
Air flotation, dissolved, see Dissolved air
flotation (DAF) systems
Air loading (DAF systems), 706–707
Air scour systems, 728, 791
Air stripping, 195, 210, 1035–1036
advantages/disadvantages of,
1058–1059
classification of, 1050–1053
definition of, 392, 1034
and gas-liquid equilibria, 1038–1050
low-profile, see Low-profile air
strippers
packed tower, see Packed tower air
stripping
reactors using, 293
removal of chlorination by-products,
1504
selection of equipment for,
1059–1060
spray-tower, 1105–1106
two-film model of, 439
types of, 1037

Air-to-water ratios, 1064–1066, 1090,
1098
Air treatment, 210–211
Air-water contactors, 1036–1037
Alachlor, 59
Aldehydes, 1488, 1490
Aldicarb, 59
Aldicarb sulfone, 59
Aldicarb sulfoxide, 59
Aldoketoacids, 1490
Algae, 62, 80, 143, 145–150
characteristics of, 78
ecology/nomenclature of, 145
enumeration of, 149, 151
and filter clogging, 149, 150
removal of, 196
and trophic level, 145, 147–148
Algal blooms, 146, 149
Alkalinity, 18, 50, 570
Allochthonous bacteria, 94–95
Allowable recovery, 1377–1379
Alpha (particle) radiation, 66
Alternative disinfectants, 195,
1500–1501
Altona, Germany, 5, 731
Alum, 4, 562–564
Alumino-silicate scales, 1777–1778
Aluminum, properties of, 1715
Aluminum hydroxide, 273–274
Alum sludge, estimating volume of,
1637–1638
Ambient air, 974
Ambient atmospheric pressure, 53
Amebiasis, 136
American National Standards Institute
(ANSI), 808
American Water Works Association
(AWWA), 201, 204, 808, 879, 885,
908
Ammonia, 957–961
addition of, during ozonation,
1516–1518
chlorine reaction with, 499
Ammonium sulfate, 960–961
Amoebic dysentery, 134–135
AMU (atomic mass unit), 55
Amy, Joseph, 4
Anaerobic (term), 74
Analcite, 1267
Ancient world, water treatment in, 4,
731, 1703
Ancylostoma duodenale, 144
Anhydrous ammonia, 957–960
Anions, 45–47
Anisotropic turbulence, 364
Anode/anodic reactions, 458, 470,
1708, 1710, 1718, 1723–1724

Anoxic (term), 74
ANSI (American National Standards
Institute), 808
Anthracite–sand biofilters, 802–803
Anthrax, see Bacillus anthracis
Anthropogenic chemicals, 6–7
Anthropogenic contaminants, 3, 11, 51
Antibiotics, 100–101, 107, 115
Antiscalants, 1380–1381
AOC, see Assimiliable organic carbon
AOPs, see Advanced oxidation
processes
Apparent particle density, (ρa ), 1118
AquaDAF unit, 719–720
Aqua Pellet system, 1687
Aqueducts, 4
Aqueous (term), 229
Aqueous solution extraction, 1128
Archaea, 76
Array (of RO units), 1336, 1344
Arrhenius’ equation, 254, 1270
Arsenic:
chemical properties of, 1536–1537
drinking water with elevated,
1534–1537
in residuals, 1689–1690
Arsenic removal, 194, 1534–1544
and chemical properties of arsenic,
1536–1537
coagulation processes, 1538–1540
ion exchange, 1542–1544
membranes, 1544
sorption processes, 1538, 1541–1542
treatment strategies for, 1538–1544
Asbestos-cement (A/C) pipe, 1703,
1704, 1707, 1780
Ascaris lumbricoides, 144
Asiatic cholera, 4–5, 84, 85, 92,
176–177
Aspirator contactors, 1034, 1053, 1057
Assimiliable organic carbon (AOC),
56, 57, 1486, 1512
Astroviruses, 128–129
Asymmetric membrane, 820, 1343,
1349
Asymmetric structure, 1336
Asymptomatic diseases, 85, 86, 88
Atherosclerosis, 1534
Atmospheric pressure, 53, 1859
Atom, fundamental properties of,
65–66
Atomic mass unit (AMU), 55
Atomic number, 1280
Atomic weights (table), 1863–1866
Atrazine, 59, 1165–1166, 1171–1172
Attachment efficiency (rapid
filtration), 769–770


Index
Augustus, Emperor, 99
Australia, 13
Autochthonous bacteria, 94
Autotrophs, 74
AWWA, see American Water Works
Association
Axial flow mixers, 613–615

B
Bacillariophyta, 204
Bacillus anthracis, 92, 115–117
Bacillus cereus, 93
Bacillus subtilis, 1011, 1013
Backmixing, 334, 376
Backwash:
bed expansion and porosity in,
751–755
chemically enhanced, 828, 880
definition of, 728
delivery systems, 791–792
in diatomaceous earth filtration, 808
forces on particles in, 748–749
intermixing in, 757
and multimedia filters, 756–757
rapid filter during, 735, 798
removal of fine particles in, 756
stratification in, 755–756
Backwash hydraulics, 748–757
Backwashing, 1252, 1253, 1319
biologically active filters, 803–804
granular activated carbon, 1252,
1253
membrane filtration design for,
879–880
rapid filter design for, 790–793
and resins, 1284
Bacteria, 5, 6, 77, 94–118. See also
specific bacteria, e.g.: Escherichia coli
characteristics of, 78
and corrosion, 1736–1738
membrane filtration of, 849
pH environment of, 80–81
removal of, 196
size of, 77
terrorism in water supplies, 115–118
viable but nonculturable, 154–155
Bacterial disease, 109–115
Bacterial pathogens, 109–115
classic waterborne, 95–101
modern waterborne, 102–109
Bacteriological control, 6–7
Baffle/baffling, 617–620
DAF clarification system, 714–715
effluent permeable, 672, 673
for improved reactor performance,
350
Baffled channels, 627–630

Bag filtration, 728, 808
Balantidium coli, 131, 142
Ballasted flocculation, 1661
Ballasted sedimentation, 693–694
Band gap energy, 1475–1476
Basicity, 573–574
Basins. See also Sedimentation
basins/tanks
DAF clarification system, 713–716
earthen, 664
equalization, 1659–1660
flocculation, 12
width of, 713, 715
BAT, see Best available technology
Batch operation, 433
Batch reactors, 288, 290–292,
967–968, 1182
Batch system, 392
Bayer-Lewatit upflow fluidized system,
1304
BDCM (bromodichloromethane),
1489
BDOC, see Biodegradable dissolved
organic carbon
Beds:
expansion of, 751–755
in parallel, 1200, 1202–1204
porosity of, 1118, 1193
series, 1198–1202, 1206
Bed porosity, (ε), 1118
Bed volumes per hour (BV/h), 1315
Beer–Lambert law, 26, 511–512,
1000–1001
Belt filters, 1683–1685
Bench-scale tests, 1309–1317,
1440–1441
Beneficial use, 166
Beneficial-use designation step,
169–170
Benzene:
diffusion coefficient for, 409–410
mass transfer coefficient for,
429–430
Best available technology (BAT), 166,
174, 201, 1634
Best practicable control technology
(BPT), 1634
Beta (particle) radiation, 66
BET (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller)
isotherm equation, 1146–1147
Binary exchange component systems,
1290–1292
Biocolloids, 546
Biodegradable dissolved organic
carbon (BDOC), 57, 1486, 1512
Biodegradable organic matter (BOM),
801, 1168–1169

1871

Biodosimetry, 904, 1004–1006
Biofilms, 801, 803–804
Biofiltration, 190, 1502–1503
Biological denitrification, 194,
1592–1595
Biological fouling, 53, 1382–1383
Biologically active filtration, 801–804
Biological processes, 10
Biological warfare, 92, 118
Bioterrorism, 115–118
Biot number, 1178, 1214
Blending, 363
below microscale, 375
definition of, 288
design of equipment for, 363,
376–380
devices for, 375–376
initial, 333
for process control, 380–382
rapid, 372–375
time required for, 370–375
uniformity of, 368–370
Blocking filtration laws, 863–867
‘‘Blue baby syndrome,’’ 1591–1592
Blue-green algae, 78, 145, 146
Boiling, 3, 10
Boiling point:
of organic contaminants, 53
of water, 21
BOM (biodegradable organic matter),
801, 1168–1169
Boundary layer models, 419–422, 428
BPT (best practicable control
technology), 1634
Braces, 229
Brackets, 229
Brackish water, 14, 1341, 1381
Brasses, 1765–1767
Breakpoint, 1316
Breakpoint chlorination, 904
Breakthrough, 734–735
Breakthrough curve, 1217–1218,
1316–1317
Breakthrough profile, 1119, 1161
Brines:
disposal of, 1599–1600
ion exchange, 1627, 1655–1656,
1669
management of, 1656–1658,
1669–1670
solid sorbent, 1656–1658
sorbent, 1627
Brine concentrators and crystallizers,
1402
Bromamine, 1518–1519
Bromate, 475, 1450, 1486, 1512–1515,
1519–1520


1872

Index

Bromide, 475, 1426, 1496–1498,
1518–1519
Brominated by-products, 1426
Bromodichloromethane (BDCM),
1489
Bromoform, 1489, 1496–1498
Brown, Robert, 397
Brown algae, 146
Brownian motion, 553, 861
definition of, 392
discrete particle settling, 650–652
molecular diffusion, 396–397, 401
Brownian velocity, 404
Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET)
isotherm equation, 1146–1147
Bubble rise velocity, 704–705
Bubble size, 704
Bubble tanks, 294
Buchner funnel, 1638–1639
Budd, William, 84, 99
BV/h (bed volumes per hour), 1315
By-products of water treatment,
1416–1479. See also Residuals
of AOPs, 1425–1426
chloramine, 1504–1508
chlorine, 1494–1504
chlorine dioxide, 1508–1512
historical overview, 1487–1489
known, 1489–1491
ozone, 1512–1520
regulatory requirements for, 1489,
1491–1494

C
CA, see Cellulose acetate
Cake filtration, 846, 847, 849–850
Cake information, 1374
Calcite, 1569
Calcium carbonate, 272–273,
1751–1782
Calcium carbonate precipitation
potential (CCPP), 1776–1777
Calcium carbonate saturation buffer
intensity, 1777
Calcium carbonate scale, 1700,
1772–1777
Calcium removal, single-stage selective,
1582–1585
Calcivirus, 119, 120, 126–128
Caldwell–Lawrence (CL) diagrams,
1579
Calgon ISEP system, 1304–1306
California Department of Health
Services, 1507
California Institute of Technology, 170
California State Water Pollution
Control Board, 170

California State Water Resources
Control Board, 170
Camp–Stein root-mean-square velocity
gradient, 365–367
Campylobacter jejuni, 103–107
Cancer, 108, 1534
Capacity index, 1776
Captive bubble contact angle, 840
Carbofuran, 59
Carbon adsorption, 6
Carbonate hardness, 1530, 1568
Carbonate ions, 1426–1427
Carbon dioxide, 233
Carbonic acid, 1585–1586
Carbon preparation (in RSSCT),
1243–1250
Carbon residence time (CRT),
1173–1174
Carbon usage rate (CUR), 1119,
1192–1196
Carboxylic acids, 1490
Carcinogens, 13
Carcinogenic criteria, 171–173
Carthage, 4
Cartridge filtration, 728, 808
Cascade aerators, 1052, 1054
Case studies:
Gibson Island Advanced Water
Treatment Plant
(Queensland, Australia),
1825–1833
ion exchange process design,
1319–1329
Lostock Water Treatment Works
(Manchester, United
Kingdom), 1812–1819
North Cape Coral Water Treatment
Plant (Florida, United
States), 1806–1812
North Clackamas County Water
Commission Water
Treatment Plant (Oregon,
United States), 1841–1848
River Mountains Water Treatment
Facility (Nevada, United
States), 1819–1825
Sunol Valley Water Treatment Plant
(California, United States),
1833–1841
Cast iron, 1703–1704, 1706–1707
Cast iron–mortar lined pipe, 1704
Catalysis, 229
chemical reactions, 232–234
photocatalysis, 1416, 1473–1477
and rate constant, 254–257
Catalyst, 226
Catalytic oxidation, 459, 1421

Cathode/cathodic reactions, 458, 470,
1708, 1710, 1718, 1723–1724
Cathodic protection, 1700
Cations, inorganic, 45–47, 49
Cationic polymers, 576
Caustic soda softening, 1573–1574
CCC, see Critical coagulation
concentration
CCL (Drinking Water Contaminant
Candidate List), 186
CCP (concrete cylinder pipe), 1704
CCPP (calcium carbonate precipitation
potential), 1776–1777
CDC (Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention), 106, 114
CEB (chemically enhanced backwash),
828, 880
CECs (contaminants of emerging
concern), 186
Cellulose acetate (CA), 841, 842,
1350–1351
Cement-based materials, dissolution of,
1778–1783
Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention (CDC), 106, 114
Centerline discharge mixers, 378
Centrate, 1631
Centrifuges, 1685–1686
Ceramic membranes, 841, 842
Cerium, 1706
CFD, see Computational fluid dynamics
Chain-and-flight-type sludge collector,
673, 674
Chalix, 1569
Challenge testing, 850–851
Channels:
baffled, 627–630
open-channel systems, 997
predicting dispersion in, 345–349
Charge neutralization, 557–558
Charles’ law, 64
Chelsea Water Works Company, 731
Chemical actinometry, 1004–1005
Chemical adsorption, 1131, 1133
Chemical conditioning, 1627
Chemical contaminants, 181, 185
Chemical denitrification, 1592
Chemical disinfection, 190,
1486–1487. See also By-products
of water treatment
Chemically enhanced backwash
(CEB), 828, 880
Chemical neutralization, 190
Chemical oxidation, 190
Chemical precipitation, 190,
1570–1575, 1663
Chemical purification, 10


Index
Chemical reactions, 228–279
acid–base, 268–271
catalysis of, 232–234
complexation, 275–278
conversion in, 235–237
equilibrium, 237–243
kinetics of, 251–262
and mass transfer, 447–451
mechanisms of, 231–232
oxidation–reduction, 278–279
precipitation–dissolution, 272–275
rate constants of, 254–262
rate law/order of, 252
rate mechanism for, 262–267
rate of, 251–252
reaction sequence of, 230–231
relative rates of, 252–254
stoichiometry of, 233–235
symbols used in, 229
terminology for, 226–227
thermodynamics of, 243–251
types of, 228–230
in water treatment, 267–279
Chemical reduction, see Reduction
Chemisorption, 1120–1121
Chick, Harriet, 912–916
Chick model, 924
Chick’s law, 912–917
Chick–Watson model, 912–917,
921–923, 925–926, 930
Chimney, 989
Chloramines, 375, 908, 943–945,
961
Chloramine by-products, 1504–1508
and chemistry of formation,
1505–1507
formation control for, 1507
removal of, 1507–1508
Chlorate, 500, 1508–1510
Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride
(CPVC) pipe, 1705
Chlorination, 5, 6, 940–964
alternatives to, 1500–1501
with ammonia, 957–961
by-products of, see Free-chlorine
by-products
with chlorine dioxide, 961–964
and combined chlorine, 943–945
continuous, 6
design issues for, 48
to form DBPs, 374–375
forms of, 946
and free chlorine, 940–943
gas, 949–951
liquid, 946–948
with sodium hypochlorite, 952–957

Chlorine (Cl2 ), 5, 13, 197, 491,
496–499
with ammonia, 499
application of, as oxidant, 498–499
forms of, 946
hydrolysis of, 449–451, 485–487
iron/manganese oxidation using,
1561–1563
liquid, 946–948
ozonation and preoxidation with,
1519
physical/chemical characteristics of,
496–497
predominance area diagrams for,
482–490
recognition of benefits of, 1487
taste/odor problems with, 462
Chlorine by-products, see Free-chlorine
by-products
Chlorine dioxide (CIO2 ), 197, 491,
497, 500
applications of, as oxidant, 500–501
chlorination, 961–964
and color removal, 463–464
as disinfectant, 1500
iron/manganese oxidation using,
1562
ozonation and preoxidation with,
1519
physical/chemical characteristics of,
500
Chlorine dioxide by-products,
1508–1512
and chemistry of formation,
1508–1510
formation control for, 1510
removal of, 1510–1511
Chlorine residuals, 111
Chlorine species, 484–490
Chlorite, 500, 1508–1510
Chloroacetic acid, 1428–1430
Chloroform, 1487–1488, 1496–1497
Chlorophyta, 146
Cholera, 3–6, 84, 92. See also Asiatic
cholera
Chromate, 9
Chromaticity, 42
Chromophores, 458, 519
Chronic hepatitis, 123
Chrysophyta, 146
CIP (clean-in-place) cycle, 830
Circular pipe plug flow reactor, 291
Circular sedimentation tanks,
657–658, 677–679
Cistern, 4
Clarifiers:
absorption, 692–693

1873

reactor, 688–690
sludge blanket, 690–692
solids contact, 687–693
tube and lamella plate, 680–687
upflow, see Circular sedimentation
tanks
CL diagrams, 1579
Clean-bed head loss, 744–748
Cleaning, 880, 1097, 1403
Cleaning solutions, reverse osmosis,
1669
Clean-in-place (CIP) cycle, 830
Closed reactors, 295
Closed-system model, 338–340, 345
Closed-vessel systems, 995–997
Clostridium botulinum, 93
Clostridium perfringens, 93
CMBRs, see Completely mixed batch
reactors
CMFRs, see Completely mixed flow
reactors
Coagulants, 544, 557
inorganic, 562–573
jar-testing of, 578–582
precipitation of, 1630
recovery of, 1688–1689
reduction of, 582–583
synthetic organic, 543
Coagulant aids, 542, 577–578
Coagulant sludges (coagulation
sludges), 1642–1648
chemical properties of, 1647
components of, 1639–1640
estimating quantities of, 1643–1647
physical properties of, 1647–1648
Coagulation, 5, 10, 194, 195, 197,
557–590
aids to, 577–578
alternative techniques for, 582–583
application in water treatment, 190
and color removal, 463
and DAF performance, 703
definition of, 542, 544
design issues for, 544
of dissolved constituents, 583–590
for DOC removal, 586–590
enhanced, 195, 542, 584–590, 1502
inorganic metallic, 562–573
and jar-testing, 578–582
mechanisms of, 557–561
and NOM, 583–586
organic polymers, 574–577
oxidation as a aid in, 464
prehydrolyzed metal salts, 573–574
process of, 544–545
radionuclide removal via, 1604
reactors using, 293


1874

Index

Coagulation (continued)
removal of dissolved inorganics, 590
theory of, 557–561
Coagulation pretreatment, 877–878
Coagulation sludges, see Coagulant
sludges
Coarse-media flocculators, 630
Coarse screening, 192
CoCoDAFF unit, 720–721
Co-current flow, 392
Co-current operation, 1299–1300
Co-current settlers, 684–685
Coefficient of variation (COV), 288,
368–369
Coions, 1267
Coliform test, 3, 13, 151–153
Collimated beam apparatus, 516–518
and dose response curve, 1010–1012
UV dose determination, 1006–1014
Collins–Selleck model, 921–924, 930
Collision frequency, 592–593
flocculation of, 600, 602
fractals of, 606–608
Collision theory, 255
Colloids, 18
Colloidal constituents, 31, 168
Colloidal particles, 642
Colloidal stability, 864
Color, 41–42
control of, 197
removal of, 463–464
of water, 18, 41–42
Columns:
analysis of, 1195–1196
design of, 1317–1319
number of, 1325
Combined chlorine, see Chloramine
Combined chlorine residual, 904
Combined reactions, 474–475
Comma bacillus, 5
Community Water Supply Survey
(CWSS), 177–178
Completely mixed batch reactors
(CMBRs), 292, 297, 298, 305–310
definition of, 288
and half-life, 306, 309–310
mass balance in, 305–306
reaction rates in, 306
Completely mixed flow reactors
(CMFRs), 292, 297–298, 318–323,
1066, 1161
contaminant removal in, 311–312
improving performance of, 344,
349
mass balance in, 310–311
modeling reactions in ideal,
310–323

performance of, 526, 1188–1189
photolysis rate for, 514–516
with recycle, 321–322
residence time/volume required for,
318–321
in series, 301–304
tanks-in-series analysis of, 312–313
time to achieve steady state in,
314–316
tracer curves from, 299–301
unsteady-state analysis of, 313–314
Complexation reactions, 275–278
Complex species, 226
Compliance with regulations, 174–175
Comprehensive performance
evaluation/composite correction
program (CPE/CCP), 204
Compression settling (Type IV), 642,
645
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD),
324, 985–986, 1004
Concentrate, 1336, 1337
Concentrate management, 1400–1402
Concentrate reverse osmosis, 1627
Concentrate stream, 1346
Concentration, 213, 1316
Concentration gradient, 395, 398
in boundary layer models, 419
graphical analysis of, 433–438
for mass transfer at interfaces, 415,
417
Concentration polarization (CP),
1336, 1368–1374, 1727–1728
Concentration polarization mass
transfer coefficient, 1370–1371
Concentration profile, 1161–1162
Concrete, 1778–1779
Concrete cylinder pipe (CCP), 1704
Conditioning, 213, 1627, 1678–1680
Conductance, ionic, 410–411
Conducting electrolytes, 1708, 1710
Conductivity, 18, 21, 51, 1750, 1752
Conductor, 1708, 1710
Conduits, see Water conduits
Conjugate base, 226
Conservative constituents, 288
Conservative tracers, 295
Constant-diffusivity RSSCT design,
1243
Constant pattern, 1215, 1219
Constant pattern homogeneous
surface diffusion model
(CPHSDM), 1220–1221
of GAC performance, 1222–1226
and impact of NOM on GAC
performance, 1231–1236

Constituents of water, see Inorganic
chemical constituents; Organic
chemical constituents
Constituent removal. See also Softening
arsenic, 194, 1534–1544
emerging constituents, 1531
iron and manganese, 464–465,
1544–1554
nitrate, 1591–1601
nontraditional constituents,
1531–1534
radionucleotides, 1601–1606
Contact filtration, 728
Contact modes, 433–434
Contactor or adsorber density, (ρf ),
1119
Contact time:
free-chlorine, 1501
and PAC performance, 1170, 1172
reactors used for, 94
Contaminants. See also Natural organic
matter (NOM)
anthropogenic, 3, 51
chemical, 185
emerging, 8–9
in public water supplies, 3–8
release of, 1767–1772
removal of, 311–312
reverse osmosis to remove, 1341
unregulated, 185–187
Contaminants of emerging concern
(CECs), 186
Continuous chlorination, 5, 6
Continuous contact operation, 393
Continuous-flow reactors, 290, 291,
310–323, 968–972
Continuously pressurized water
systems, 5
Continuous operation, 433–434
Controlling precipitate, 1097
Control volume, 289, 296–297,
400–401
Conventional filtration, 736
Conventional lime softening, 207, 209
Conventional oxidation, 458–459
Conventional treatment, 3, 193, 196,
204–206, 728
Conversion, reactant, 226, 235–237
Conversion factors, 1851–1856
Copper, 1702
bacterial corrosion of, 1737
corrosion potential, 1730,
1732–1734
as plumbing material, 1707,
1711–1712
properties of, 1715
Copper hydroxide, 275–278


Index
Copper-induced pitting, 1757–1758
Copper sulfate, 196–197
Copper tubing, 1704, 1760–1763
Corrosion, 1701–1792
cement-based materials, 1778–1783
contaminant release from,
1767–1772
definition of, 1700, 1702
electrokinetics of, 1714–1725
electrolytic, 1701, 1749
estimating rate of, 1718
and free energy, 1708
galvanic, 1701, 1750–1752
inhibition of, 1700, 1734–1736
localized, 1701, 1746–1749
microbiologically induced,
1736–1738
mixed-potential model of, 1714,
1724–1736
Pourbaix diagrams of, 1710–1713
and scale formation, 1772–1778
testing of, 1788–1792
thermodynamics of, 1708–1713
treatment for, 1783–1788
uniform, 1701
Corrosion cell, 1700, 1708, 1710
Coulombic attraction, 1131, 1133
Coulombic repulsion, 1131, 1133
Countercurrent flow, 393
Countercurrent operation, 1301
Countercurrent packed tower, 1034
Countercurrent settlers, 683–684
Counterions, 542, 555, 557, 1264
Coupling, reverse osmosis, 1359
Coupon test, 1789–1790
COV (coefficient of variation), 288,
368–369
CP, see Concentration polarization
CPE/CCP (comprehensive
performance evaluation/
composite correction program),
204
CPHSDM, see Constant pattern
homogeneous surface diffusion
model
CPVC (chlorinated polyvinyl chloride)
pipe, 1705
Creeping flow, 743
Crete, 4
Crevice corrosion, 1701
Crick, F. H. C., 82
Criteria, water quality, 166
Criteria development step (regulatory
process), 170–173
Critical coagulation concentration
(CCC), 542, 555, 557
Critical current density, 1740

Critical potential, 1740
Cross-current settlers, 685
Cross flow, 393
Cross-flow filtration, 820, 834–837
CRT (carbon residence time),
1173–1174
Cryogenic oxygen generation system,
976
Cryptosporidiosis, 140–142
Cryptosporidium spp., 13, 130, 133, 134,
138–142, 151, 153, 808, 826, 850,
875, 1013, 1014, 1631
Cryptosporidium muris, 139
Cryptosporidium parvum, 77, 133,
139–140, 732, 844, 849, 907, 929,
931, 997–999
Crystalization, 1627, 1664, 1665
Ct values, 904, 924, 930–932
Culture-based viability evaluation,
154–155
Cunningham correction factor,
403–404
CUR (carbon usage rate), 1119,
1192–1196
Current density, 1701
CWSS (Community Water Supply
Survey), 177–178
Cyanobacteria, 77, 145, 146, 1163
Cyanogen halides, 1488, 1491
Cyanzine, 59
Cysts, 74, 135–137, 153, 196

D
Da (dalton), 55, 820
Dacthal, 59
DAF systems, see Dissolved air flotation
systems
DAF (dissolved air flotation)
thickening, 1674
Dalton (Da), 55, 820
Damk¨ohler number, 351, 352, 354
Dankwerts boundary condition, 1209,
1210
Darcy, Henry, 744
Darcy flow, 743–745
Darcy’s law, 1638
Davies equation, 241
DBC (direct bacterial count), 155
DBCM (dibromochloromethane),
1489
DBPs, see Disinfection by-products
DBPFP, see Disinfection by-product
formation potential
Dead-end (transverse) filtration, 820,
835, 837
Decay rate, 905
Deep-bed monomedia filters, 737

1875

Deep-well injection, 1627, 1667–1669
DE (diatomaceous earth) filtration,
807–808
Degassers, 978
Demineralization, 14
Demistor, 1056
DENIPOR process, 1593, 1594
Denitrification:
application in water treatment, 191
biological, 194, 1592–1595
bromate removal by, 1519–1520
chemical, 1592
definition of, 1530
DENITROPUR process, 1593
Dense membrane, 1336
Dense sludge, 1661
Densideg dense-sludge process, 693
Density:
of air, 1857–1859
of resin beads, 1282–1283
of water, 21
Density currents, 642, 694–699
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), 81–83,
997–999
Depth, effective, 670
Depth filtration, 728, 730, 758–759,
771–780
Desalination, 13, 1339–1341
Design analysis, 1089–1090
Desorption, 393, 1034–1036
Destabilization, 542
Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, 1737
Detachment, rapid filtration, 780
Detention time, 195, 682
Dewatering:
definition of, 1627
filter press, 1682–1683
mechanical, 213, 1681–1686
DFHSDM (dispersed-flow
homogeneous surface diffusion
model), 1214
DFM, see Dispersed-flow model
DFPSDM (dispersed-flow pore and
surface diffusion model), 1214,
1238
Diarrhea, 99, 100, 102–109, 112, 113,
115, 117, 124–126, 128–129, 137,
140
Diatoms, 146
Diatomaceous earth, 728, 807–808
Diatomaceous earth (DE) filtration,
807–808
Diatomaceous earth sludges,
1650–1651
Dibromochloromethane (DBCM),
1489
Dicamba, 59


1876

Index

Dichloroethene, 465–468
1,2-Dichloropropane, 59
Dielectric constant (ε), 21
Differential settling, 591–592
Diffused aeration, 1106–1107
Diffused air, 1056–1057
Diffuser walls, 631–633
Diffusion. See also Homogeneous
surface diffusion model (HSDM)
and Brownian velocity, 397
definition of, 289, 393
dispersed-flow pore and surface
diffusion model, 1214, 1238
film, 1175
molecular, 396–404
and nonideal flow, 334
particle, 763–764
plug flow pore and surface diffusion
model, 1213–1220
pore surface diffusion model,
1174–1176
reverse osmosis, 1351–1353
sheer-enhanced, 861
solution–diffusion model,
1357–1358
and temperature, 404
Diffusion coefficients, 404–415
definition of, 393
for electrolytes, 407, 410–412
gas-phase, 412–415
ion-exchange, 1297
for large molecules/particles,
405–407
liquid-phase, 405–412
and mass transfer coefficients,
429–433
for oxygen, 412
relating to kinetic energy, 401
for small neutral molecules, 407–410
for solutes in gases and liquids, 398
sources for, 404
surface, 1220
Diffusion contactors, 1034
Diffusion-type aerators, 1056–1059
Diffusivity, 393
Dimensionless time, 1211
Dimethylamine, 1505
Dimethylhydrazine, 1505
Dinoflagellates, 146
Dinophyta, 146
Dioxane, 1425
Dioxin, 59
DIP (ductile iron pipe), 1704
Dipole attraction and repulsion, 1133
Dipole–dipole attraction, 1131, 1133
Dipole–induced dipole attraction,
1131

Dipole moment, 21, 52–53
Direct bacterial count (DBC), 155
Direct filtration, 193, 205–206, 729,
736
Direct integrity monitoring, 883–884
Direct viable count, 155
Discrete particles, 642
Discrete particle (Type I) settling:
definition of, 642
ideal, 652–653
principles, 645–652
in sedimentation basins, 652–658
velocity of particles, 645–650
Disease, see Waterborne disease
Disinfectants:
alternative, 195, 1500–1501
declining concentration of chemical,
927–928
and PAC performance, 1164–1165
Disinfection, 196, 905–1017
application in water treatment, 191
by-products from, see By-products of
water treatment
chemical, 1486–1487
with chlorine, see Chlorination
contact time used in, 294
definition of, 904
historical perspective on, 906–908
kinetics of, see Disinfection kinetics
methods of, 908–911
organic compounds formed during,
59
with ozone, see Ozone disinfection
reactors using, 293
reverse osmosis used in, 1400
with ultraviolet light, see Ultraviolet
light disinfection
and waterborne disease elimination,
6
Disinfection by-products (DBPs). See
also By-products of water
treatment
definition of, 905, 1486
and enhanced coagulation, 584
formation of, 374–375, 464,
1487–1488
regulations related to, 181, 185
removal of, 195
Disinfection by-product formation
potential (DBPFP), 463–464,
1206
Disinfection contactor design, 979–991
over-under baffled contactors,
987–991
pipeline contactors, 980–981
serpentine basin contactors,
982–987

Disinfection kinetics, 912–932
Chick’s law of, 912–914
Chick–Watson model of, 912–917
classical, 912–916
Collins–Selleck model of, 921–923
contemporary models of, 917–923
and disinfection effectiveness,
929–930
dispersion and t10 concept, 939
dispersion in, 937–938
model comparisons for, 923–926
in nonideal reactors, 932–939
parameters for, 925–926
Rennecker–Mari˜
nas model of,
918–920
SFM model of, 933–937
temperature influence on, 928–929
Disk and disklike particles, 34
Dispersed air, 1057
Dispersed-flow homogeneous surface
diffusion model (DFHSDM), 1214
Dispersed-flow model (DFM),
336–345
and open/closed systems, 338–341
performance of, 526–527
of reactive system, 350–353
Dispersed-flow pore and surface
diffusion model (DFPSDM), 1214,
1238
Dispersion:
definition of, 289
disinfection kinetics, 937–938
and nonideal flow, 334–335
in pipeline contactor, 980–981
predicting in a channel, 345–349
and t10 , 939
Dispersion numbers, 982–984
Disposal:
of liquid streams, 1660, 1662
of residuals, 1402–1403
of semisolid residuals, 1689–1694
Dissolved air flotation, 642
Dissolved air flotation (DAF) systems,
196, 701–721
and air loading, 706–707
application in water treatment, 191
basin layout and geometry for,
713–716
bubble size/rise velocity, 704–705
design considerations for, 712–721
design example of, 710–712
factors affecting, 703–712
float removal in, 718–719
floc-bubble aggregate rise velocity,
704–705
and floc–bubble attachment,
709–712


Index
and floc-bubble separation zone, 712
and floc characteristics, 703–704
minimum volume of gas, 707
proprietary units, 719–721
recycle systems in, 716–717
saturation concentration of air in
water, 708–709
subnatant removal in, 718
Dissolved air flotation (DAF)
thickening, 1674
Dissolved constituents, 32–33, 168
Dissolved gases, 168, 210
Dissolved inorganics, 590
Dissolved organic carbon (DOC),
55–57, 60–61, 586–590
Dissolved organic matter (DOM),
862–863
Dissolved solids, 583–590, 1096–1097
Dissolved substances, 1000–1001
Distillation, 193, 1664
Divinylbenzene (DVB), 1268, 1269,
1275, 1276, 1284
DL (longitudinal dispersion
coefficient), 980
DLVO theory, 553, 555
DMF, see Dispersed-flow model
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), 81–83,
997–999
DOC, see Dissolved organic carbon
Dolomieu, Deodat de, 1569
Dolomite, 1569
DOM (dissolved organic matter),
862–863
Donnan potential, 1268, 1279
Dosages:
metal-salt, 570–571
permanganate, 508–509
polymer, 576
reduced concentration vs. PAC,
1186–1187
for UV light/hydrogen peroxide
oxidation, 1465–1466
Dose:
from collimated beam, 1006–1014
for pathogenicity, 88–90
radioactive, 67
of UV light, 930–931, 997, 1000,
1006–1014
Dose equivalent, 67
Dose-response curve, 905, 1010–1012
Drag coefficient, 646–647
DR (Dubinin–Radushkevich)
equation, 1157–1159
Drift velocity, 1296
Drinking Water Contaminant
Candidate List (CCL), 186

Drinking water supply, 5. See also Water
treatment
Driving force, mass transfer, 415,
435–436
Droplet aerators, 1058–1059
Droplet air-water contactors, 1034,
1050
Drug resistance, 100–101, 107, 115
Drying beds, 1677–1678
Dual-media filters, 737
Dubinin–Radushkevich (DR)
equation, 1157–1159
Ductile iron, 1703–1704, 1706–1707
Ductile iron pipe (DIP), 1704
Dunlingsen, Robley, 4
Duodenal ulcers, 107
DVB, see Divinylbenzene
Dynamic viscosity, 22
Dysentery, 100–101
Dystrophic lakes, 147

E
E. coli, see Escherichia coli
EaggEC (enteroaggregrative E. coli),
102–104
Earthen basins, 664
EBC (equivalent background
concentration), 1167–1168
EBCT, see Empty-bed contact time
EBCTLC (empty-bed contact time of
the full-scale column), 1138–1139
EBCTSC (empty-bed contact time of
the rapid small-scale column),
1138–1139
Eberth, Karl, 5, 84, 99
EC (electrical conductivity), 51
Echovirus, 119, 120
Eckert pressure drop, 1076–1078
Eddy size, 364–365, 375
EDL, see Electric double layer
EDR (electrodialysis reversal), 1663
EDSTAC (Endocrine Disruptor
Screening and Testing Advisory
Committee), 187
EE/O, see Electrical efficiency per log
order
Effective size (ES), 729, 738–739,
1283
Effluent concentration, 1468–1472
Effluent permeable baffle, 672, 673
Effluent water quality, 781
Egg, 74
Egypt, 4
EHEC (enterohemorrhagic E. coli),
102–105
EH –pH predominance area diagrams,
482–490

1877

EIEC (enteroinvasive E. coli), 102–105
Einstein, Albert, 401
Electrical conductivity (EC), 51
Electrical efficiency per log order
reduction (EE/O):
definition of, 1416
for photolysis, 529–532
for UV light/hydrogen peroxide
oxidation, 1466, 1468
Electrical potential:
determining equilibrium constant
from, 475–477
evaluating free-energy change and,
over concentration range,
478–482
and free-energy change, 471–474
impact of pH on, 477–478
Electrical resistance method, 1790
Electric double layer (EDL), 542, 550,
553–557
Electrochemical cell, 470
Electrode kinetics, 1708
Electrode potentials, 469–482
assessing reaction feasibility with
respect to, 470–471
determining whether reaction will
proceed, 471–482
mechanistic description of, 470
Electrodialysis reversal (EDR), 1663
Electrohydraulic cavitation, 1421
Electrokinetics, 550–551, 1714–1725
Electrolytes:
conducting, 1708, 1710
diffusion coefficients for, 407,
410–412
polyelectrolytes, 545, 574
Electrolytic corrosion, 1701, 1749
Electron acceptor, 458, 466
Electron beam irradiation, 1421
Electron donor, 458, 466
Electronic particle size counting,
36–37
Electronic resources, 1867
Electron microscope (EM), 119, 128
Electroosmosis, 550
Electrophoresis, 550–552
Electrostatic attraction, 1135
Electrostatic repulsion, 552
Elementary reactions, 226, 232
Ellipsoid particles, 34
El Tor cholera epidemic, 98–99
Elution curves, 1314–1315
EM (electron microscope), 119, 128
Emerging constituents, 1531
Emerging contaminants, 8–9
Emerging organic compounds, 59


1878

Index

Empty-bed contact time (EBCT), 804,
1119, 1191–1192, 1195–1196,
1264, 1299
Empty-bed contact time of the full-scale
column (EBCTLC ), 1238–1239
Empty-bed contact time of the rapid
small-scale column (EBCTSC ),
1238–1239
Endemic, 74
Endocrine disruptors, 166, 185, 187,
1606
Endocrine Disruptor Screening and
Testing Advisory Committee
(EDSTAC), 187
Endopore, 74
Energy recovery, 1403–1405
Engineering properties of water, 21–22
Enhanced coagulation, 195, 542,
584–590, 1502
Enhanced Coagulation Guidance
Manual, 584
Enhanced softening, 1530
Enmeshment, 542, 559–561
Entamoeba spp., 131–132, 134–136
Entamoeba dispar, 132, 135
Entamoeba histolytica, 131, 134–136
Enteric (term), 74
Enteric disease, 85–86, 120
Enteroaggregrative E. coli (EaggEC),
102–104
Enterobacteriaceae spp., 100–102
Enterocolitis, 108–109
Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC),
102–105
Enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), 102–105
Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC),
102–104
Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC),
102–104
Enterovirus, 119, 120, 130
Enthalpy of formation (DHf ), 22
Enthalpy of vaporization (DHv ), 22
Entrophic lakes, 147
Environmental engineering, 27–28,
395
EPA, see U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency
EPEC (enteropathogenic E. coli),
102–104
EPICS (equilibrium partitioning in
closed systems), 1043
Epidemics, 74, 87, 91–92, 98, 100–101,
123–124, 176–177
EPI (Estimation Programs Interface)
Suite, 1045
Equilibrium chemical reactions,
237–243

Equilibrium constants, 238, 475–477
Equilibrium isotherm, 1119,
1135–1169
Equilibrium line, 434, 436
Equilibrium partitioning in closed
systems (EPICS), 1043
Equilibrium state, 246
Equipment movement, sedimentation
basin performance and, 700
Equivalent background concentration
(EBC), 1167–1168
ES, see Effective size
Escherich, T., 5, 105, 152
Escherichia spp., 77
Escherichia coli (E. coli), 5, 77, 90,
102–105, 152–154
Estimation Programs Interface (EPI)
Suite, 1045
ETEC (enterotoxigenic E. coli),
102–104
Ethylene thiourea (ETU), 59
Euglenas, 146
Euglenophyta, 146
Eukaryotic cells, 77
Eutrophic lakes, 145, 147–148
Evans diagrams, 1723, 1739–1740
Evaporation, 1164, 1664, 1665
in drying beds, 1677–1678
solar, 1164, 1665
Ewald, Paul, 83, 98, 107
Excess lime-sofa ash, 1581
Excess lime softening, 1580
Excess lime split-stream process,
1578–1579
Exchange capacity, 1275–1277
Exchange current density,
1718–1721
Exemptions, 175
Exit age distribution, 326
Expanded-bed upflow reactor, 291
Extinction coefficient, 1416
Extracting phase, 393, 434–438
Extraction, 6

F
FA (fulvic acid), 55
Facultative organisms, 74
Facultative parasite, 109
Faraday, Michael, 1739
Faraday constant, 411
Faraday’s law, 509, 1710, 1714–1715,
1718
FBR (Filter Backwash Recycle Rule),
185
FBT (flat-bladed turbine), 618
Fecal coliform test, 153

Fecal–oral route (disease
transmission), 74, 86, 87, 101, 109,
121, 130, 134–136, 142, 143
Feed-and-bleed strategy, 832–834
Fenton’s reactions, 1420, 1477
Fermentation test, 6
Fermentation tube method, 5
Ferric chloride, 566–567
Ferric sulfate, 566–567
Ferrochlor process, 5
Ferrous ion, 1510–1511
Fiberglass-reinforced plastic pipe
(FPR), 1704
Fibroid chemosorbents, 1657, 1694
Fick’s first law, 397–398, 400, 418, 447
Fick’s second law, 400–401, 1177
Films, 1736–1746
passive, 1739–1741
on stainless steel, 1741–1743
Film diffusion, 1175
Film model (mass transfer at
interfaces), 417–418
Filters, 4
algae clogging of, 149, 151
belt, 1683–1685
gravity belt, 1683–1685
membrane, 14, 830–833
mixed-media, 757
multimedia, 756–757
performance of, 770–771
pressure belt, 1683–1685
Filter Backwash Recycle Rule (FBR),
185
Filter beds, 794–796, 1313
Filter media, 737–743
biologically active filtration, 802–804
characteristics of membrane, 842
diatomaceous earth, 807–808
grain shape of, 739–741
granular bed porosity of, 742
greensand filtration, 807
material density of, 741–742
material hardness of, 742
membrane, 844–851
properties of membrane, 839–840
rapid, 737–738, 785
retention rating of membrane,
844–846
size/uniformity of, 738–739
slow sand, 743
specific surface area of, 742–743
structure of membrane, 841,
843–844
Filter press dewatering, 1682–1683
Filter run, 734–735, 781
Filter support media, 793–794
Filter underdrains, 793–794


Index
Filtration:
cake, 846, 847, 849–850
cross-flow, 834–837
dead-end, 835, 837
definition of, 729, 822–823
depth, 758–759, 771–780
direct, 193
granular, see Granular filtration
in-line, 193
inside-out, 834–836
membrane, see Membrane filtration
micro-, 193, 208, 1338
nano-, 193, 207, 1338–1339
outside-in, 834–836
radionuclide removal via, 1604
rapid, see Rapid filtration
rate of, 783–784
reactors using, 293
transverse, 835, 837
ultra-, 193, 1174, 1338
vacuum, 1681–1682
and waterborne disease elimination,
6
Filtration rate, 729, 744, 798
Fines, 175, 756
First-order reactions:
DFM calculation for, 352–353
irreversible, 447–449
Fixed-bed ion exchange process:
operation, 1302–1303
rate-controlling step, 1297–1299
Fixed frame of reference, 399
Fixed-orifice nozzles, 717
‘‘Flashing,’’ 30
Flat-bladed turbine (FBT), 618
Flat-sheet membranes, 829
Floating materials, 168
Float removal, 718–719
Floc:
breakup of, 607–608
characteristics of, 613, 703–704
definition of, 544
settling velocity of, 670
Floc blanket reactor (FBR), 1173
Floc–bubble aggregates, 704–705
Floc–bubble attachment, 709–712
Floc–bubble separation zone, 712
Floc carry over effect, 672
Flocculant aids, 542, 578
Flocculant settling (Type II), 642, 645,
654–655
Flocculation, 293, 294, 544–545, 578,
610–633
aids to, 578
alternative methods of, 610–613
application in water treatment, 191
ballasted, 1661

collision frequency functions for,
602
definition of, 542, 544
design issues for, 544
by differential settling, 601
and floc breakup, 607–608
fractal models of, 602–607
macroscale, 593–598
mechanisms of, 590–592
microscale, 594–596, 600
and particle collisions, 592–593
process of, 545
reactors using, 293
spherical particle models for reactor
design, 609–610
of spherical particles in a linear flow
field, 593–602
of spherical particles in nonlinear
flow field, 602
theory of, 590–610
velocity gradients for, 364
Flocculation basin, 12
Flocculators:
depth/shape of, 618–621
design features in, 631–633
diffuser walls of, 631–633
with horizontal paddle wheels,
621–627
hydraulic, 627–630
inlet-outlet arrangements for, 631
size of, 631
with vertical-shaft turbines, 613–621
with vertical turbine turbines,
613–621
Flotation, 1627
Flotation thickening, 1674, 1675
Flow. See also Nonideal flow
co-current, 392
countercurrent, 393
creeping, 743
cross, 393
Darcy, 743–745
fluid, 398–399
Forchheimer, 743, 745–746
horizontal, 669–671
mass, 398–399
nonideal, see Nonideal flow
rate of, 1316
return, 1627
supernatant, 1628
underflows, 1628
upflow (radial flow), 689
Flow control:
granular media, 744–757
membrane filtration, 834–838
Flow equalization, 191, 1659–1660
Flow pattern, 687

1879

Flow rate, 1299
Flow reactor, 289
Flow-through reactors, 968–972
Flow-through system, 393
Fluid flow, 398–399
Fluid–fluid process, 393
Fluidized-bed contactors, 1189
Fluidized-bed reactor, 1130
Fluid–solid process, 393
Fluorescence, 57
Fluoride, 194
Flux, 395, 399
Food contamination, 84
Food poisoning, see Gastroenteritis
Forchheimer flow, 743, 745–746
Formation potential, 1486
Fouling, 854–874
bench-scale evaluation, 869,
873–874
biological, 1382–1383
definition of, 820
irreversible, 858
and low-profile air strippers, 1098
mechanisms for, 856–857, 863–867
membrane fouling index, 868–873
metal oxide, 1381–1382
natural organic matter, 862–863
particulate, 860–862, 1374–1376
and resins, 1285
resistance-in series model of,
858–859
reverse osmosis, 1374–1376,
1381–1383
reversibility of, 857–858
FPR (fiberglass-reinforced plastic
pipe), 1704
Fractals:
collision frequency of, 606–608
dimension of, 604–606
flocculation models using, 602–607
shape/size of, 603–604
Fractal theory of particle formation,
603
Fraction of target compound
destruction, 1437
Frames of reference, fixed and relative,
399–400
France, 4, 13
Franciscella tularensis, 92, 115, 116, 118
Franklin, Benjamin, 1716
Free chlorine, 940–943
Free-chlorine by-products, 1494–1504
and chemistry of formation,
1494–1498
estimating formation of, 1498–1499
formation control, 1500–1504
removal of, 1504


1880

Index

Free-chlorine contact time, 1501
Free-chlorine residual, 905
Free energy, 244–247
and corrosion, 1708
definition of, 226
at equilibrium, 246–247
of formation, 245, 247
of reaction, 245–246
Free-energy change, 245–246
and electrical potential, 471–474
evaluating, and electrical potential
over a concentration range,
478–482
temperature dependence of,
247–251
Free-energy driving force, 1776
Freezing, 1627, 1680
Fresh water, 14, 1400
Freundlich isotherm capacity
parameter, 1229–1231
Freundlich isotherm equation, 434,
437, 1141–1145, 1151–1152,
1162, 1179
Fuel oxygenates, 9
Fuller, George W., 5, 11
Fuller’s earth, 807
Fulvic acid (FA), 55
Fundamental properties of water,
20–22
Fungi, 78

G
GAC, see Granular activated carbon
Gallionella, 1737
Galvanic corrosion, 1701, 1750–1752
Galvanized pipe, 1707, 1754–1760
Galvanized steel pipe, 1705
Gamma (ray) radiation, 66, 1421
Garnet, 737–738
Gases, 229, 1857
chemical reactions in water, 447–451
for flotation, 707
and ideal gas law, 64
kinetic theory of, 402
sources of, 32–33
viscous force, 403
in water, 63–65
Gas adsorption, 1157–1159
Gas chlorination, 949–951
Gas chromatography (GC), 6
Gaseous wastes, 1631
Gas–liquid equilibria, 1038–1050
Henry’s law, 1040–1042
Henry’s law constants, 1042–1050
vapor pressure and Raoult’s law,
1038–1040

Gas–liquid interface, mass transfer
across, 438–447
Gas-phase combustion, 459
Gas-phase diffusion coefficients,
412–415
Gas pressure drop, 1090–1091
Gastroenteritis, 92–118
Aeromonas, 110–112
Bacillus anthracis, 115–117
bacteria causing, 94–118
Campylobacter, 103, 105–107
choleric, 94, 96, 98–99
E. Coli, 102–105
forms of, 92–94
Legionella, 109–111
Mycobacterium avium, 110, 112–113
Pseudomonas, 110, 113–115
Salmonella, 96, 99–100
Shigella, 97, 100–101
tularemia, 116, 118
viral, 124–130
Yersinia, 103, 108–109
Gastrointestinal (GI) tract, 93, 99, 102,
114, 117
GBS (Guillain–Barr´e syndrome),
106–107
GC (gas chromatogaphy), 6
Gel-type resins, 1264, 1269, 1276
Genetic transfer, 83
Geo-Processors, Inc., 1401
Geosmin, 461, 462, 1159–1160, 1163,
1164
Geothite, 1768
Germ theory of disease, 5, 84, 152, 177
GFH, see Granular ferric hydroxide
GFO (granular ferric oxide), 1657,
1694
Giardia spp., 13, 130, 134, 808, 875,
1014, 1516, 1631
Giardia ardeae, 137
Giardia lamblia, 132, 136–138, 153, 732,
844, 849, 907, 930, 997, 998, 1013,
1014
Giardia muris, 137, 1003
Gibbs free energy, 245, 395, 1353
Gibson Island Advanced Water
Treatment Plant (Queensland,
Australia), 1825–1833
performance data, 1833
setting, 1825–1827
treatment processes, 1827–1832
unique design features, 1832–1833
Gilliland correlation, 422, 425
GI tract, see Gastrointestinal tract
Glasgow, Scotland, 4
Global Polio Eradication Initiative, 121

Gnielinski correlation, 422, 423,
426–427
Goal-selection step (regulatory
process), 175–176
Golden algae, 146
Gouy–Chapman diffuse layer, 550
Grain shape, 739–741
Granular activated carbon (GAC), 197,
738, 742, 1127–1130, 1189–1253,
1694
adsorption capacity for, 1162, 1163
adsorption using, 11
backwashing, 1252, 1253
beds in parallel, 1200, 1202–1204,
1206
beds in series, 1198–1202, 1206
in biologically active filtration,
802–803
column analysis example,
1195–1196
determination of specific
throughput/carbon usage
rate, 1193–1196
and hydraulic loading, 1253
methods for estimating full-scale
performance of, 1237
models of performance, 1206–1226
NOM and performance of,
1226–1236
particle size, 1252
pilot plant adsorption analysis,
1197–1198
PPCP removal with, 1612
production of, 1125–1127
rapid small-scale column tests of,
1236–1250
regeneration/reactivation of,
1127–1130
size of, 1123–1124
as sorbent, 1657
specific area for mass transfer,
416–417
terminology for, 1190–1193
uses/advantages/disadvantages of,
1251
Granular bed porosity, 742
Granular ferric hydroxide (GFH),
1657, 1670, 1694
Granular ferric oxide (GFO), 1657,
1694
Granular filtration, 5, 196, 730–808
application in water treatment, 191
bag and cartridge filtration, 808
biologically active filtration, 801–804
diatomaceous earth filtration,
807–808
greensand filtration, 807


Index
historical perspective on, 731–732
hydraulics of flow in, 743–757
media used for, 737–743
pressure filtration, 800
rapid filtration, see Rapid filtration
slow sand filtration, 804–807
Granular medium filter, 12
Graphite, 1706–1707
Grashoff number, 421
Gravimetric analysis, 34, 36
Gravity belt filters, 1683–1685
Gravity dewatering, 1677–1678
Gravity feed contactors, 1189
Gravity separation, 191, 643. See also
Dissolved air flotation (DAF)
systems; Sedimentation
Gravity thickening, 1672–1674
Grays (Gy), 67
Gray cast iron, 1703, 1706–1707
Great Lakes Upper Mississippi River
Board, 204
Greeks, ancient, 4, 1703
Green algae, 78, 146
Greensand, 1267, 1530
Greensand filtration, 807
Groundwater, 13–14
constituents found in, 168
desalination of, 1341
inorganic constituents in, 43
point source pollutants in, 56
radionuclides in, 1602
silica scaling, 1381
tastes/odors in, 62–63, 461–462
treatment trains for, 207, 210–211
Ground Water Rule (GWR), 185
Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality
(WHO), 188
Guillain–Barr´e syndrome (GBS),
106–107
Gun metals, 1765–1767
GWR (Ground Water Rule), 185
Gy (Grays), 67

H
HA (humic acid), 55
HAAs, see Haloacetic acids
HAART (highly active antiviral
therapy), 140
Half-life, 306, 309–310
Half reactions, 465–466
Haloacetic acids (HAAs), 1488–1491
chemistry of formation, 1494–1498
definition of, 1486
estimating formation of, 1498–1499
formation control, 1500–1504
removal of, 1504
Haloacetonitriles, 1490

Haloforms, 1495
Haloketones, 1490
Hamburg, Germany, 5, 731
Hardness, 49–50, 193, 207, 1530,
1568–1570
Hatta number, 448, 449
Hawksley, Thomas, 5
Hayduk–Laudie correlation, 406, 407,
410
HDPE (high-density polyethylene
pipe), 1705
Head loss, 717, 744–748, 804,
1241–1242
Health, water quality and, 3
Heat capacity (Cp or Cv ) of water, 22
Heat treatment (for sludge
conditioning), 1627, 1680
Height of a transfer unit (HTU), 1035
Helfferich number, 1264
Helicobacter pylori, 8, 107–108
Helmholtz layer, 549–550
Helminths, 75, 78, 80, 143, 144, 849
Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS),
104
Henry’s law/Henry’s law constant, 434,
440, 706, 940, 1046–1050
estimation of, 1044–1045
factors influencing, 1046–1050
sources of, 1042–1044
and thermodynamics, 247
units for, 1041–1042
HENRYWIN program, 1045
Hepatitis, 120, 122–124
Hepatitis A, 88–92, 119, 122–124, 152
Hepatitis B, 122–123
Hepatitis E, 123–124
Hepatitis X, 123
Herbicides, 59, 195
HERO (high-efficiency reverse
osmosis) process, 1401, 1663
Heterodispersed suspensions, 34
Heterogeneous reactions, 226, 230
Heterotrophs, 75, 801
HFF modules, 1348
HFMB process, see Hollow-fiber
membrane bioreactor process
High-density polyethylene pipe
(HDPE), 1705
High-efficiency reverse osmosis
(HERO) process, 1401, 1663
Highly active antiviral therapy
(HAART), 140
High-pressure membranes, 196
High-rate sedimentation, 679–691
ballasted sedimentation, 693–694
solids contact clarifiers, 687–693

1881

tube and lamella plate clarifiers,
680–687
Hindered settling (Type III), 645
area for solids thickening, 662–664
definition of, 643
limiting flux rate, 661–662
solids flux analysis, 659–661
Hippocrates, 4, 122, 731
Hippocrates sleeve, 4
Hirschfelder–Bird–Spotz correlation,
412
Hitness model, 172
HIV, 140
Hold-down systems, 1302–1303
Hollow-fiber membranes, 828, 829,
1371
Hollow-fiber membrane bioreactor
(HFMB) process, 1594, 1595
Hollow-fine-fiber (HFF) modules, 1348
Homogeneous membrane, 820
Homogeneous reactions, 226, 230
Homogeneous surface diffusion model
(HSDM), 1174–1189. See also
Constant pattern homogeneous
surface diffusion model
(CPHSDM)
for batch reactors, 1182
and C(t)/C0 vs. PAC dosage,
1186–1187
dispersed-flow, 1214
Ds from, 1184–1186
and PFR vs. CMFR performance,
1188–1189
plug flow pore and surface diffusion
model, 1213–1220
Hookworm, 144
Horizontal flow rectangular
basins/tanks, 669
Horizontal-flow velocity, 670–671
Horizontal paddle wheel flocculators,
611–612, 614, 621–627
Hot air regeneration, 1129
HSDM, see Homogeneous surface
diffusion model
HTU (height of a transfer unit), 1035
Hudson, New York, 5
Human adenovirus, 120
Human caliciviruses, 126–128
Humics, 1226, 1228
Humic acid (HA), 55
HUS (hemolytic uremic syndrome),
104
Hydrated lime, 1571
Hydrated radii, 1280
Hydraulics:
of flow in membrane filters, 851–854
granular media, 744–757


1882

Index

Hydraulics (continued)
systems development for water
treatment, 211, 213–217
Hydraulic characteristics of reactors,
293
Hydraulic float removal, 719
Hydraulic flocculators, 611–613,
627–630
Hydraulic-jet flocculators, 630
Hydraulic loading, 1240–1242, 1253
Hydraulic residence time, 289
HydroDarco B American Norit, 1164
Hydrofoils, 617
Hydrogen, reduction of, 483–484
Hydrogen bonding, 18, 20, 21, 1131
Hydrogen ion concentration, see pH
Hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ), 491, 497,
501–502, 1419, 1420
absorption of UV light, 1460–1463
applications of, as oxidant, 501–502
dosage selection, 1465–1466
oxidation power of, 473–474
photolysis of, 510–511
properties/chemical characteristics
of, 501–502
redox reaction of, with
dichloroethene, 467–468
Hydrogen peroxide/ozone process,
1441–1455
disadvantages of, 1449–1450
dosages for, 1443
elementary reactions for, 1443–1446
example of, 1450–1455
simplified model for, 1447–1449
Hydrogen peroxide/UV light
oxidation process, 1455–1472
elementary reactions, 1455–1459
estimating effluent concentration,
1468–1472
NOM and compound type,
1467–1468
reactor performance, 1459–1463
simplified model vs. data on,
1463–1467
Hydrogen sulfide, 1399–1400
as odor problem, 62
removal of, 463
Hydrolysis (of chlorine), 485–487
Hydrophilic particulates, 546
Hydrophilic surface, 840
Hydrophobic fractions, 57
Hydrophobicity, 839, 840, 864
Hydrophobic surface, 840
Hydroxyl radicals (HO •), 459, 1418,
1422–1424
definition of, 1416

in hydrogen peroxide/UV light
oxidation process, 1456
production of, from NOM,
1435–1440
production of, from OH− ,
1432–1435
reactivity of parent component with,
1431
Hypereutrophic lakes, 148
Hypobromous acid, 1496
Hypochlorite ion, 488–490
‘‘Hypochlorite Treatment of Public
Water Supplies’’ (George
Johnson), 5
Hypochlorous acid, 487–488

I
Ideal absorbed solution theory (IAST),
1154–1156, 1167, 1168
Ideal gas law, 64, 1041
Ideal reactors, 292, 297–304
CMBR, 297–299
CMFR, 297–298
CMFRs in series, 301–304
continuous-flow, 310–323
PFR, 298, 299
tracer curves for, 299–301
IESWTR (Interim Enhanced Surface
Water Treatment Rule), 185
Illinois State Water Survey (ISWS),
1788–1790
Ilmenite, 737–738
Immiscible liquids, 168
Immune system, 107, 112
Impellers, 613–619
Impingement attack, 1761–1762
Inactivation, 905
Inclination angle, tube and plate
settlers, 687
Indirect integrity monitoring, 881–883
Inert materials (sludge management),
1680
Infilco-Dergamont, 719
Inflammatory gastroenteritis, 93, 94
Injection manifolds, 717
Inlets, serpentine basin contactors, 985
Inlet energy dissipation
(sedimentation basins), 699–700
In-line filtration, 193, 205–206, 729,
736
Inorganic chemical constituents,
42–51
major, 43–47
minor and trace, 44, 47–48
water quality indicators, 44, 48–51
Inorganic coagulants, 543, 562–573
Inorganic metal coagulant, 543

Inorganic particles, shapes of, 34
Inorganic salts, precipitation of,
1376–1382
Inside-out filtration, 834–836
In situ aeration, 196
Instantaneous reversible reactions,
447, 449
Integrated Design and Operation of Water
Treatment Facilities (Kawamura),
204
Integrity monitoring, 881–885
direct, 883–884
indirect, 881–883
repair of modules, 885
sonic testing, 884–885
Intensity of segregation, 369, 371
Intensity set point, UV, 996, 997
Intensive properties, 395
Interception, particle, 762
Interfaces, mass transfer at, 415–430
boundary layer models, 419–422
common correlations for, 422–427
correlations and diffusing species,
427–430
enhancement by chemical reactions,
447–451
film model of, 417–418
penetration and surface renewal
model of, 418–419
surface area for mass transfer,
416–417
Interim Enhanced Surface Water
Treatment Rule (IESWTR), 185
Intermediate products, 232
Intermixing, backwash, 757
International System (SI) of units, 67
International Union of Pure and
Applied Chemists (IUPAC)
convention, 469
International water quality standards
and regulations, 188
Interparticle bridging, 558–560
Interstate carriers, 6
Interstate Quarantine Act, 177, 180
Intestinal anthrax, 117
Intestinal roundworm, 144
Intraparticle diffusion, 1264
Intraparticle flux, 1175–1176
Intraparticle mass transfer rate,
1297–1299
Invasive gastroenteritis, 93–94
Ion exchange (IX), 11, 193–195,
1265–1329
application in water treatment, 191
Bayer-Lewatit upflow fluidized
system, 1304


Index
binary component systems of,
1290–1292
bromate removal by, 1519
Calgon ISEP, 1304–1306
co-current, 1299–1300
constituent removal via, 1596–1600,
1604
countercurrent, 1301
definition of, 1264
design of, 1307–1310
engineering properties of,
1275–1281
equilibrium development for,
1285–1295
evolution of, 1265–1268
fixed-bed, 1302–1303
for iron/manganese removal, 1564,
1567
kinetics of, 1295–1299
and mass transfer rate, 412
mechanisms for, 1267–1268
MIEX magnetic resin, 1306–1307
mixed-bed, 1301–1302
multicomponent systems of,
1293–1295
natural materials for, 1266–1267
NOM removal by, 1503
physical properties of, 1280–1285
process design case study for,
1319–1329
radionuclide removal via, 1604
reactors using, 293
regeneration steps of, 1299–1303
selectivity in, 1277–1281, 1286–1288
separation factors for, 1288–1290
softening with, 1576
synthetic materials for, 1267–1274
UPCORE, 1303–1304
Ion exchange brines, 1655–1656, 1669
Ion exchange column design,
1324–1326
Ion exchange kinetics, 1295–1299
Ion exchange process design,
1307–1310
bench- and pilot scale studies,
1309–1317
column design in, 1317–1319
preliminary process analysis,
1309–1311
process definition, 1307, 1308
treatment goals/objectives, 1309
Ion exchange process design case
study, 1319–1329
design summary for, 1325, 1329
development of full-scale design
criteria, 1324

laboratory/pilot plant studies,
1320–1324
preliminary process analysis, 1320
problem definition, 1320
treatment goals/design criteria,
1320
Ion exchange resins, 1694. See also
Synthetic ion exchange resins
coagulant reduction of, 583
macroreticular, 1269–1270
microreticular, 1269
SBA exchange resin, 1265,
1275–1277, 1280, 1282–1283,
1285, 1291–1292, 1294, 1300,
1302, 1309, 1312, 1313, 1543
as sorbents, 1657
strong acid cation, 1265
types/characteristics of, 1309
Ion flux, 1296–1297
Ionic conductance, 410–411
Ionic constituents, sources of, 32–33
Ionic fractions, 57
Ionic radii, 1280
Ionic species, 1131–1133
Ionic strength, 238–242
definition of, 227
effect of, on double-layer thickness,
555
and Henry’s law constants,
1048–1049
and iron oxidation, 1552
and rate constants, 258
Iron, 1702
cast, 1703–1704, 1706–1707
chemical properties of, 1547–1548
as coagulant aid, 562–565
and corrosion, see Corrosion
ductile, 1703–1704, 1706–1707
galvanized, 1707, 1754–1760
hydrogen peroxide/UV light
oxidation, 1460–1461
occurrence of, in water supplies,
1545–1546
as odor problem, 62–63
oxidation of, 476–477, 494–495,
498, 502–504, 506–507,
1548
properties of, 1715
quenching reaction rate due to,
1430–1431
removal of, see Iron removal
Iron and lime process (softening), 5
Iron bacteria, 81
Iron pipe, 1752–1754, 1767–1768
Iron removal, 210–212, 464–465,
1544–1554
air oxidation, 1560–1561

1883

and chemical properties of iron,
1547–1548
chlorine dioxide oxidation, 1562
chlorine oxidation, 1561–1563
ion exchange process, 1564, 1567
and kinetics of iron oxidation,
1549–1554
lime treatment, 1568
membrane process, 1567
ozone oxidation, 1564
potassium permanganate and
greensand filtration,
1562–1566
stabilization process, 1567–1568
treatment strategies, 1558,
1560–1568
Irreversible fouling, 858
Irreversible reactions, 229
definition of, 227
first-order, 447–449
half-life for, 306, 309–310
ISEP system, 1304–1306
Isomorphous replacement, 547
Isotropic turbulence, 364
ISWS (Illinois State Water Survey),
1788–1790
Italy, 5
IUPAC (International Union of Pure
and Applied Chemists)
convention, 469
IX, see Ion exchange

J
Jar test, 543, 578–582, 1159–1160
Jersey City (New Jersey), 5, 906
Johnson, George, 5
John Wiley & Sons website, 1867

K
Kenics static mixer, 378
Ketoacids, 1490
Kinematic viscosity, 22
Kinetics, 251–262
electrode, 1708
ion exchange, 1295–1299
and metallic corrosion, 1714–1725
rate law/reaction order, 252
reaction rate, 251–252
relationship between reaction rates,
252–254
Kinetic energy, 401–402
Kinetic theory of gases, 402
KMnO4 , see Potassium permanganate
Koch, Robert, 5, 80, 84, 906
Koch static mixer, 378
Kozeny coefficient, 744–745


1884

Index

L
Laboratory studies, 1321
Lagoons, sludge, 1674–1676,
1692–1693
La Hire, Philippe, 4
Lakes, 14, 145, 147–148
Lamella plate clarifiers, 680–687, 1661
detention time, 682
process configuration, 682–686
process selection, 687
settling characteristics and surface
loading rate, 680–682
solids removal, 682
Lamp power, 1467
Lamp power einsteins, 524
Land application (water treatment
plant residuals), 1692
Landfilling, 1690–1692
Langelier, Wilfred F., 1772, 1774
Langelier saturation index (LSI), 1380,
1701, 1774–1776
Langmuir isotherm equation,
1140–1145
Large molecules/particles, diffusion
coefficients for, 405–407
Lavoisier, Antoine-Laurent, 491–492
Lawrence, Massachusetts, 5, 731
Leachate/leaching, 1267, 1627
Lead, 1707, 1711, 1715
Lead Contamination Control Act of
1988, 180, 1707, 1765
Lead pipe, 1705
Lead release, 1770–1772
Lead solder, 1763–1765
Lead-tin solder, 1746
Lead tubing, 1763
LeBas method, 407
Le Chatelier’s principle, 237
Legionella pneumophila, 109–111
Legionnaire’s disease, 111
Length-to-width ratio, 671–672
Leucite, 1267
LFER (linear free-energy relationship),
261–262
Ligands, 227, 275–278
Light absorption:
by multiple compounds, 518–519
ultraviolet light, 463, 512–513,
520–521
Light-scattering patterns, 29–30
Lignite-based activated carbon,
1126–1127
Lime, hydrated, 1571
Lime precipitation sludges, 1648–1650
chemical properties of, 1650
estimating quantities of, 1648–1649
physical properties of, 1649–1650

Lime recovery, 1688
Lime sludge pelletization, 213,
1687–1687
Lime-soda softening, 193, 1573,
1579–1591
Lime softening, 194, 195, 207, 209,
1572, 1575
conventional, 207, 209
excess, 1580, 1587–1591
parallel, 1578
radionuclide removal via, 1605
reactors using, 293
single-stage, 1580
Lime treatment, 1568
Limiting flux rate, 661–662
Limiting salt, 1336, 1376–1380
Linear free-energy relationship
(LFER), 261–262
Linear model with no threshold, 172
Linear polarization resistance (LPR)
method, 1790–1792
Liquid adsorption, 1147–1154
Liquid chlorine, 946–948
Liquid oxygen, 974–975
Liquid phase, 229
Liquid-phase diffusion coefficients,
405–412
for electrolytes, 407, 410–412
for large molecules and particles,
405–407
for oxygen, 412
for small neutral molecules,
407–410
Liquid-phase mass balance around a
differential element, 1068–1069
Liquid-phase mass transfer,
1218–1219, 1297–1299
Liquid streams, residual, 1659–1662
Liquid wastes, 1630–1631
Localized corrosion, 1701, 1746–1749
Locational running annual average
(LRAA), 1486, 1491, 1492
Logistic model, 172
Log removal value (LRV), 217–218,
846
London, England, 3, 4, 731
Long Beach, California, 1759
Longitudinal dispersion coefficient
(DL ), 980
Long Term 1 Enhanced Surface Water
Treatment Rule (LT1ESWTR),
185
Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water
Treatment Rule (LT2ESWTR),
185, 850–851, 875, 881, 883,
1015–1017

Lostock Water Treatment Works
(Manchester, United Kingdom),
1812–1819
performance data, 1819
setting, 1812–1813
treatment processes, 1813–1815
unique design features, 1815–1819
Louis XIV, King of France, 1703
Low-MW organic by-products, 1512,
1520
Low-pressure reverse osmosis, 197
Low-profile air strippers, 1052, 1058,
1097–1100
advantages/disadvantages of, 1098
description of, 1097–1098
design of, 1098–1100
example of, 1098–1100
LPR (linear polarization resistance)
method, 1790–1792
LRAA, see Locational running annual
average
LRV (log removal value), 217–218,
846
LSI, see Langelier saturation index
LT1ESWTR (Long Term 1 Enhanced
Surface Water Treatment Rule),
185
LT2ESWTR, see Long Term 2
Enhanced Surface Water
Treatment Rule
Lumen, 820

M
m (molality), 23
M (molarity), 23, 24
MAC (Mycobacterium avium complex),
110, 112–113
McCabe–Thiele diagrams, 434, 1063,
1066–1067. See also Operating
diagrams
Machined nipple test, 1789–1790
Macroflocculation, 545, 591, 593–598
Macropores, 1125–1127
Macroreticular ion exchange resin,
1269–1270
Macroreticular resin, 1264, 1269–1270
Magnesium, 407, 1706
Magnesium bicarbonate recovery,
1688–1689
MAI (Mycobacterium avium intercellulare),
110, 112–113
Manganese:
chemical properties of, 1553, 1555
occurrence of, in water supplies,
1553
as odor problem, 62–63


Index
oxidation of, 479–482, 495,
498–499, 503–504, 506–508,
1553–1560
Manganese removal, 194, 207,
210–211, 464–465, 1553–1560
air oxidation, 1560–1561
chlorine dioxide oxidation, 1562
chlorine oxidation, 1561–1563
ion exchange process, 1564, 1567
and kinetics of manganese
oxidation, 1553–1560
lime treatment, 1568
membrane process, 1567
ozone oxidation, 1564
potassium permanganate and
greensand filtration,
1562–1566
stabilization process, 1567–1568
treatment strategies, 1558,
1560–1568
Man-made contaminants, see
Anthropogenic contaminants
Manure, 104
Marker-based integrity tests, 883
Marshall, Barry, 107
Mass balance analysis:
in CMBRs, 305–306
in CMFRs, 310–311
definition of, 289
in GAC performance models,
1206–1209
liquid-phase mass balance around a
differential element,
1068–1069
in PFRs, 316–317
in reactors, 295–297
and simplified rate laws, 1448
Mass burnoff, 1125–1126
Mass concentration, 24
Mass flow, 398–399
Mass flux, 395, 398–399
Mass spectrometer, 6
Mass transfer, 392–451
across gas–liquid interface, 438–447
concentration gradient evaluation,
433–438
correlation for, 422–430
definition of, 393
design of systems controlled by,
430–433
determining phase that controls rate
of, 442–443
enhancement by chemical reactions,
447–451
flux, 395
fundamental equation for, 395–396

at interfaces, see Interfaces, mass
transfer at
in ion exchange, 1297–1299
molecular diffusion, see Molecular
diffusion
rate of, see Diffusion coefficients
terminology for, 392–394
Mass transfer coefficient, 415–416
and diffusing species, 443–446
relating diffusion coefficient and,
429–433
theoretical basis for predicting, 418
using oxygen as reference
compound, 446–447
Mass transfer correlations:
common forms of, 422–427
determination of, 396
and diffusing species, 427–430
Mass transfer limited, 394
Mass transfer rate constant, 1080–1086
Mass transfer zone (MTZ), 1190–1191,
1241–1242
Maximum contaminant levels (MCLs),
166, 173–175, 1489
Maximum contaminant level goals
(MCLGs), 166, 173, 175–176
Mean residence time, 289
Mechanical aerators, 1058, 1059, 1107
Mechanical contactors, 1035
Mechanical dewatering, 1681–1686
Mechanical float removal, 718–719
Mechanical methods, 13
Mechanical separation, 10
Mecoprop, 59
MED (multieffect distillation), 1341
Median infectious dose, 88, 89
Melting point of water, 21, 22
Membranes:
asymmetric, 820, 1343, 1349
cellulose acetate, 1350–1351
ceramic, 841, 842
dense, 1336
flat-sheet, 829
high-pressure, 196
hollow-fiber, 828, 829, 1371
homogeneous, 820
nanofiltration, 1336
polyamide, 1350–1351
reactors using, 293
semipermeable, 821, 1337
spiral-wound, 1371, 1386
thin-film composite, 1349
thin-film composite RO, 1349
track-etched, 829
tubular, 829
water permeating hollow-fiber, 828
Membrane array design, 1384–1398

1885

Membrane concentrate, 1653–1655,
1662–1669
deep-well injection of, 1667–1669
methods of thickening, 1663–1665
surface water disposal of, 1666–1667
ultimate disposal methods for,
1666–1669
Membrane element, 1336
Membrane filters, 14, 830–833,
851–854
Membrane filtration, 193, 196–197,
822–892, 1663–1664
with absorption, 848–849
application in water treatment, 191
with cake formation, 849–850
challenge testing, 850–851
with coagulation pretreatment,
877–878
configurations of, 829
definition of, 822–823
design of, see Membrane filtration
design
equipment and operation, 827–838
flow direction during, 834–836
and flow regime, 834–838
historical perspective of, 825–826
hydraulics of flow, 851–854
for iron/manganese removal, 1567
material chemistry, 841–842
material properties, 838–841
materials for, 844–851
mechanisms of, 846–849
microorganisms, 849–850
non–pressure-driven, 825
operating characteristics of, 830
and permeate flux, 851–854
rapid granular filtration vs., 838
rejection and log removal, 846
reverse osmosis vs., 823, 824,
1338–1339
with straining, 846–849
submerged configuration of,
832–834
technologies for, 12, 13
treatment train for, 205, 208
types of, 822–823
Membrane filtration design, 874–892
backwashing component of,
879–880
cleaning component of, 880
and integration with other treatment
processes, 876–878
and integrity monitoring, 881–885
operating parameters for, 886–888
performance criteria for, 875–876
pilot testing, 885–888
posttreatment component of, 880


1886

Index

Membrane filtration design (continued)
pretreatment component of, 879
and residual-handling, 890
Membrane Filtration Guidance Manual,
834, 884
Membrane fouling, see Fouling
Membrane fouling index, 868–873
Membrane permeability, 854
Membrane resistance coefficient, 852,
853
Membrane softening, 207, 209
Membrane washwater, 1627
Mesopores, 1125, 1126
Mesotrophic lakes, 145, 147–148
Metabolism, 75
Metal ions, 275–278, 562–573,
599–601
Metallic corrosion. See also Corrosion
electrokinetics of, 1714–1725
thermodynamics of, 1708–1713
Metal oxide fouling, 1381–1382
Metal salts, prehydrolyzed, 573–574
Methemoglobinemia, 1591
Methylisoborneal (MIB), 461, 462,
1159, 1163, 1164, 1170
Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), 9,
1423–1425, 1531
Metolachlor, 59
Metribuzin, 59
MF, see Microfiltration
MFI (modified fouling index),
1374–1376, 1395
MIB, see Methylisoborneal
Microbial constituents, regulations on,
181, 185
Microbiologically induced corrosion,
1736–1738
Microbiology, 76–77
Microconstituents, 186
Microfiltration (MF), 193, 208, 1338
Microfiltration pilot plant, 889
Microflocculation, 545, 591, 594–596
Microorganisms, 73–155
algae, 143, 145–151
bacteria, see Bacteria
and biomolecular revolution, 81–83
characteristics of classes of aquatic,
78
gastroenteritis causing, see
Gastroenteritis
helminths, 143, 144
membrane filtration, 849–850
and microbiological water quality,
74–75
monitoring for presence of
pathogenic, 151–155

oxidation-reduction potential/pH
of, 80–81
and pathogens in drinking water,
83–94
physical characteristics of, 77–80
protozoa, see Protozoa
viruses, see Viruses
Micropollutants, 1169, 1226, 1228
Micropores, 1126
Microreticular ion exchange resin,
1269
Microscope, 4
Microscreening, 192, 196
Middelkerke, Belgium, 5, 906
MIEX process, 15, 1306–1307, 1503
MIEX resin, 583, 1306–1307
Minerals, dissolved, 14
Minimum air-to-water ratio, 1064–1066
Minoan civilization, 4
Mississippi River, 5
Mixed beds, 1301–1302
Mixed-media filters, 737, 757
Mixed-potential corrosion model,
1714, 1724–1736
Mixed-potential diagram, 1721–1724
Mixed-potential theory:
concentration polarization in,
1727–1728
definition of, 1701
exchange current density in,
1718–1721
limitations of, 1728–1734
polarization/electrical current
relationship in, 1715–1718
Mixers:
definition of, 289
design of, 376–380
engineering data for, 375–376
Mixing, 362–382, 571
agitation, 363
application in water treatment, 191
blending, 363
blending below microscale, 375
Camp–Stein root-mean-square
velocity gradient, 365–367
definition of, 289
devices for, 375–376
process control, 380–382
reactors used for, 293–294
and scale of turbulence, 365
terminology for, 288, 289
and turbulence, 363–365
uniformity/time scales in, 368–375
Modeling reactor performance, 522
Modified fouling index (MFI),
1374–1376, 1395
Mohawk River, 5

Moisture content, 1282–1283
Molality (m), 23
Molarity (M), 23, 24
Molecular diffusion, 396–404
Brownian motion, 396–397
Fick’s first law, 397–398
Fick’s second law, 400–401
in fixed and relative frames of
reference, 399–400
in presence of fluid flow, 398–399
Stokes–Einstein equation, 401–404
Molecular techniques (Henry’s law
constant), 1044–1045
Molecular weight, 22, 52, 88, 1280
Molecular weight cutoff (MWCO), 820,
844–845, 1351, 1610–1611
Molecular weight distribution, 57
Mole fractions, 23, 24
Monochloramine, 258–261, 1488
Monodispersed suspensions, 34
Monomedia filters, 737
Morbidity ratio, 75
Mortality ratio, 75, 92, 93
MS2 bacteriophage, 1010
MSF (multistage flash) distillation,
1341
MTBE, see Methyl tert-butyl ether
MTZ (mass transfer zone), 1190–1191,
1241–1242
MUG test, 153
Multicomponent equilibrium,
1154–1157
Multicomponent exchange systems,
1293–1295
Multieffect distillation (MED), 1341
Multimedia filters, 756–757
Multiple-barrier concept, 166, 218–219
Multiple hearth furnace, 1130
Multiple reactions, 231
Multiple-tray aerators, 1052,
1054–1056
Multistage flash (MSF) distillation,
1341
Multistage stripping tower, 1066–1067
Municipal wastewater discharges, 59
Municipal water treatment plant, 4
Musa, Antonius, 99
MWCO, see Molecular weight cutoff
Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC),
110, 112–113
Mycobacterium avium intercellulare
(MAI), 110, 112–113

N
N (normality), 25
Naegeria fowleri, 133, 142–143


Index
Nanofiltration (NF), 193, 207,
1338–1339, 1503–1504,
1662–1663
Nanofiltration membrane, 1336
Nanomaterials, 186
Nanoparticles, 9, 166, 187
Nanotechnology, 187, 188
NASBA (nucleic acid sequence-based
amplification), 155
National Academy of Sciences (NAS),
153–154, 171–173
National Drinking Water Advisory
Council (NDWAC), 173
National Interim Primary Drinking
Water Regulations (NIPDWR),
179, 181, 182
National Pollutant Discharge
Elimination System (NPDES),
1652, 1666
National Primary Drinking Water
Regulations (NPDWR), 174, 175,
179, 181–185
National Secondary Drinking Water
Regulations (NSDWR), 61, 179,
181
Natural organic matter (NOM),
53–56, 543, 571, 1165–1170
adsorption for removal of, 1502
adsorption of, 1122
advanced oxidation processes,
1428–1430
chemistry of, 54–55
chlorination to form DBPs, 374–375
chlorine by-product formation,
1494–1498
and coagulation, 583–586
and color of water, 463
definition of, 18
effect of, on water quality, 54
and enhanced coagulation, 1502
hydrogen peroxide/UV light
oxidation, 1462–1463,
1467–1468
ion exchange for removal of, 1503
measurement/classification of,
55–56
oxidation of, 504
ozone/biofiltration for removal of,
1502–1503
and performance of GAC,
1226–1236
reaction of chlorine with, 1488
reduction of, before chlorine
addition, 1501–1504
removal of, 195
and reverse osmosis, 1341,
1503–1504

Natural organic matter fouling,
862–863
Natural radionucleotides, 1530
Natural treatment systems, 1663
NDMA, see N -Nitrosodimethylamine
NDPT (nondestructive performance
tests), 851
NDWAC (National Drinking Water
Advisory Council), 173
Necator americanus, 144
Nephelometric turbidity units (NTUs),
29
Nernst equation, 472, 1721
Nernst–Haskell equation, 406, 407,
410, 412
Nernst–Planck equation, 406
Net driving pressure, 1363
Neutral species, 32–33, 1134–1135
Newton, Issac, 646
New York State Board of Health, 5, 177
NF, see Nanofiltration
Nice, France, 5
Nickel, 1715
NIPDWR, see National Interim Primary
Drinking Water Regulations
Nitrates:
occurrence of, in water supplies,
1591–1592
removal of, 194, 1591–1601
solubility of, 1591
Nitrification, 191
Nitrosamines, 1491
NLVs (Norwalk-like viruses), 124–125,
127–128
NMWL (nominal molecular weight
limit), 844
N -Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), 8,
9, 186–187, 512–513, 527–529,
1486, 1488, 1531
No-adverse-effect dosage, 173
Nollet, Jean Antoine, 1342
NOM, see Natural organic matter
Nominal molecular weight limit
(NMWL), 844
Noncarbonate hardness, 1530, 1568
Noncarcinogenic criteria, 173
Nonconservative constituents, 289
Nonconservative tracers, 295
Nonconstant-diffusivity RSSCT design,
1243
Nondestructive performance tests
(NDPT), 851
Nongastrointestinal viruses, 120–124
Nonideal flow, 333–350
application of RTDs/t10 concept,
344–346
causes of, 333–335

1887

dispersed-flow model of, 336–341
dispersion as, 335–336
improving, 345–349
models used to describe, 335–344
tank-in-series model of, 341–344
types of, 333
Nonideal reactors, 292
disinfection kinetics, 932–939
performance modeling of, 350–355
performance of, 526–529
tracer curves for, 323–333
Noninflammatory gastroenteritis,
92–94
Nonpathogenic E. histolytica, 135
Non–point source pollutants, 56
Nonthermal plasma, 1421
Nontraditional constituents,
1531–1534
Normality (N), 25
Normalization concentration, 325–326
Normalized time, 324–325
Noroviruses, 8
North Cape Coral Water Treatment
Plant (Florida, United States),
1806–1812
performance data, 1811
setting, 1806–1807
treatment processes, 1808–1811
unique design features, 1811, 1812
North Clackamas County Water
Commission Water Treatment
Plant (Oregon, United States),
1841–1848
performance data, 1847
setting, 1841–1843
treatment processes, 1843–1846
unique design features, 1846–1847
Norwalk-like viruses (NLVs), 124–125,
127–128
Nozzles, fixed-orifice, 717
NPDES (National Pollutant Discharge
Elimination System), 1652, 1666
NPDWR, see National Primary
Drinking Water Regulations
NSDWR, see National Secondary
Drinking Water Regulations
NTUs (nephelometric turbidity units),
29
Nuchar SA-20 Westvaco, 1164
Nucleic acid sequence-based
amplification (NASBA), 155
Number of transfer units (NTUs), 1035

O
Ocean, 14
Odor(s), 61–63
adsorption of, 1123


1888

Index

Odor(s) (continued)
control of, 63, 197, 461–462, 1123
factors affecting, 1162–1163
in groundwater, 62–63
oxidation of, 461–462, 499, 504, 508
PAC control of, 1160
prevention of, 63
sources of, 62–63
in surface waters, 62
Off-gas treatment, 978–979
Oligomesotrophic lakes, 148
Oligotrophic lakes, 145, 147–148
OM, see Organic matter
Onda correlation, 422, 424
180◦ turns, in serpentine basin
contactors, 985–987
Online production factor, 889–890
Onsite oxygen generation, 976
Oocysts, 75, 138–142, 153
Open-channel systems, 997
Open reactors, 295
Open-system model, 338, 340–341, 345
Operating cycle (slow sand filtration),
805–806
Operating diagrams, 433–438
analysis using, 436–438
contact modes, 433–434
development of, 434–436
Operating line, 434–435
Operation patterns of reactors,
290–292
Opportunistic pathogens, 86–87,
112–114, 142
Order of reaction, 252
Organic by-products, 1159
Organic chemical constituents, 51–61
classification of, 52–53
definition of, 52
from human activities, 56–59
municipal waste water as, 59
natural, 53–56
oxidation of trace, 465
quality indicators for, 59–61
regulation of, 178
sources of, 53
synthetic, 56
water-disinfection formation of, 59
Organic matter (OM):
analysis of PAC performance for
removal of, 1160–1163
and PAC performance, 1165–1170
shapes of, 34
Organic polymers, 574–577
Organic solvent extraction, 1129
Organic wastewater contaminants
(OWCs), 185
Orica Limited Company, 1306

Oropharyngeal anthrax, 117
Orthokinetic flocculation, 545, 591
Orthophosphates, 1759–1760,
1785–1787
Osmosis, 823, 1336, 1353–1357. See also
Reverse osmosis
Osmotic pressure, 1337
Outlets, serpentine basin contactors,
985
Outlet currents (sedimentation
basins), 700
Outlet structure (rectangular
sedimentation basins), 672, 673
Outside-in filtration, 834–836
Outside peer review, 173–174
Overall cycle time, 1326
Overall reactions, 231–232
Over-under baffled contactors,
987–991
OWCs (organic wastewater
contaminants), 185
Oxidants, 13, 490–509
applications of, 460–461
chlorine as, 498–499
chlorine dioxide as, 499–501
as coagulation aid, 464
definition of, 227, 458
hydrogen peroxide as, 501–502
iron/manganese removal with,
464–465
oxygen as, 491–496
ozone as, 502–505
and PAC performance, 1164–1165
permanganate as, 505–509
for taste/odor control, 462
water treatment applications for,
460–465
Oxidation, 194, 197, 458–532. See also
Advanced oxidation processes
(AOPs)
air, 1560–1561
of bromide to bromate, 475
by-products of, see By-products of
water treatment
chlorine, 1561–1563
with chlorine dioxide, 1562
as coagulation aid, 464
and color removal, 463–464
definition of, 458, 459
in greensand filtration, 807
of iron, 464–465, 476–477, 498,
502–504, 506–507
of manganese, 464–465, 479–482,
495, 498–499, 503–504,
506–508
of NOM, 504
ozone, 1511, 1564

photolysis as, see Photolysis
PPCP removal with, 1611
reactors using, 293
of sulfide, 498, 502, 504
of tastes/odors, 499, 504, 508
of trace organic constituents, 465
in water treatment, 459–465
Oxidation potential:
for chlorine, 496
for chlorine dioxide, 500–501
for combined reactions, 474–475
for hydrogen peroxide, 473–474,
502
for oxygen, 473–474, 493
for ozone, 503
for permanganate, 505
Oxidation-reduction (redox), 458, 459,
465–468
assessing feasibility of, 471–482
balancing, 467–468
chemical reactions, 278–279
and corrosion, 1714–1715
definition of, 227
electrode potentials in, 469–482
microorganism response to, 80–81
predominance area diagram of,
482–490
rate of, 490
standard potentials (table), 1709
Oxidizing agent, 465
Oxygen (O2 ), 491–496
applications of, as oxidant, 494–496
diffusion coefficients for, 412
exchange current for zinc in acid
solution saturated with, 1721
oxidation of iron with dissolved,
476–477
oxidation power of, 473–474
physical/chemical characteristics of,
492–493
reduction of gaseous, 483
source of, for ozone disinfection,
974–978
Oxyhalides, 1490
Ozamyl, 59
Ozonation, 1432–1441
and biologically active filtration, 801
coagulant reduction for, 582–583
determination of destruction of
target compounds from
bench-scale tests, 1440–1441
fraction of target compound
destruction example, 1437
hydroxyl radical production from
NOM, 1435–1440
hydroxyl radical production from
OH− , 1432–1435


Index
O3 /UV process, 1473
PPCP removal with, 1611
time required for destruction of
target compound, 1438–1440
Ozonation system design:
and batch reactor testing, 967–968
and continuous-flow reactor testing,
968–972
and flow-through reactors, 968–972
Ozone (O3 ), 5, 197, 491, 497, 502–505,
1419–1421
chemistry of, 964–965
and color removal, 464
as disinfectant, 1500
for disinfection, 908–909
generation of, 972–973
iron/manganese oxidation using,
1564
NOM removal with, 1502–1503
oxidation of manganese with,
479–482
oxidation with, 1511
physical/chemical characteristics of,
503
reaction rate constant for
decomposition of, 307–308
Ozone by-products, 1425–1426,
1512–1520
and chemistry of formation,
1513–1515
estimating formation of, 1515
formation control for, 1515–1519
removal of, 1519–1520
Ozone decay, 965–966
Ozone demand, 965
Ozone disinfection, 964–979
off-gas treatment in, 978–979
oxygen source for, 974–978
and ozone generation, 972–973
ozone injection systems, 976–978
Ozone injection systems, 976–978

P
PAC, see Powdered activated carbon
PAC-20B Atochem, 1164
Pacini, Falipo, 4, 84
Packed-bed reactor, 291
Packed-bed upflow reactor, 291
Packed columns, 294
Packed towers, 1051, 1056, 1058
Packed tower air stripping, 1060–1097
design approach to, 1092–1093
design variables for, 1090–1092
design vs. rating analysis of,
1089–1090
height design equation for,
1068–1073

mass balance analysis for
countercurrent, 1060–1066
mass balance for multistage,
1066–1067
performance for, 1095–1097
power requirements for, 1086–1089
Packing density, 820, 828
Packing factor, 1035
Packing material, 1091–1092
PACl (prehydrolyzed alum salts),
573–574
PAC reactors, 878, 1161
Paddle flocculators, 622. See also
Horizontal paddle wheel
flocculators
Paisley, Scotland, 4
PA membranes (polyamide
membranes), 1350–1351
Pandemics, 75, 84, 98, 100–101
Parallel bed operation, 1200,
1202–1204
Parallel reactions, 227, 231
Parallel softening and coagulation,
1576, 1578
Paralytic poliomyelitis, 121
Parasites, 75. See also specific types
Paratyphoid fever, 100
Parent compound, 1431
Particles, 30–41, 546–557. See also
Particle removal; Particle size
classification of, for settling,
644–645
definition of, 18, 30–31
discrete settling of, see Discrete
particle settling
electrical double-layer compression,
553–557
electrical properties of, 546–552
fractal theory of, formation, 603
interactions of, with solvents, 546
origin of, 31
quantification of, 34–38
sedimentation basins for settling of
discrete, 652–658
shapes of, 34
sources of, 31–33
stability of, 552–554
surface characteristics of inorganic
vs. organic, 548
Particle collisions, 592–593
Particle counters, 36
Particle-counting chamber, 36
Particle-particle interactions, 553–554
Particle porosity, (εp ), 1118
Particle removal, 757–780
and depth filtration, 758–759
by detachment, 780

1889

by diffusion, 763–764
by interception, 762
phenomenological depth filtration
model of, 771–780
by sedimentation, 763
with straining, 758
total transport efficiency, 763–764
Yao filtration model of, 760–764
Particle settling:
Type I, see Discrete particle settling
Type II, 642, 645, 654–655
Type III, see Hindered settling
Type IV, 642, 645
Particle settling velocity, 643, 645–650
Particle size:
and GAC, 1252, 1314
of ion exchange resin beads,
1283–1284
size classification of, 31, 34, 35
Particle size counters, 36, 37
Particle-solvent interactions, 546
Particle stability, 552–554
Particulate fouling, 860–862,
1374–1376
Particulate matter, 14, 1001–1003
Parts per billion (ppb), 25
Parts per million (ppm), 25
Parts per million by mass (ppmm ), 25
Parts per million by volume (ppmv ), 25
Parts per trillion (ppt), 25
Passivation, 1712, 1739–1741
Passivation potential, 1740
Passive film, 1744
Passivity, 1701, 1739–1741
Pasteur, Louis, 3, 5, 84, 177
Pathogens, 13
classic waterborne bacterial, 95–101
definition of, 75, 905
in drinking water, 83–94
emerging bacterial, 109–115
infection outcomes, 88–92
mass-based toxicity of, 90
modern waterborne bacterial,
102–109
monitoring for presence of, 151–155
mortality ratios for, 92, 93
and water treatment, 87
Pathogenic E. histolytica, 135
Pathogenicity, 88–92
Pauling, Linus, 82
PBT (pitched-blade turbine), 617, 618
PCCP (prestressed concrete, steel
cylinder pipe), 1705
PCF (pressure correction factor),
1363–1367
PCR (polymerase chain reaction), 155
PDFC (pore diffusion flux), 1220


1890

Index

Peclet number, 1212, 1242
Peer review, 173–174
Pelletization, 213
Penetration model (mass transfer at
interfaces), 418–419, 428
pε–pH (EH –pH predominance area)
diagrams, 482–490
Peptic ulcers, 107
Percent transmittance, 28
Perchlorate, 9, 186, 1325
Perforated-pipe laterals, 718
Permanganate (MnO4 ), 197, 491,
505–509
Permeability, 820, 854
Permeate, 821, 828, 1337
Permeate flux, 851–854, 1388–1394
Permeate stability, 1399
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs),
185
Personal care products, see
Pharmaceuticals and personal
care products (PPCPs)
PES (polyethersulfone), 841, 842
Pesticides, 59, 195
PFHSDM (plug flow pore and surface
diffusion model), 1213–1220
PFRs, see Plug Flow Reactors
pH, 570
adjustment with H2 SO4 , 374
and adsorbability, 1134
advanced oxidation processes,
1427–1428
and coagulation, 565–566
and corrosion control, 1784–1785
and corrosion of iron pipe,
1752–1754
definition of, 18
dependence of chemical species on,
239
depression of, during ozonation,
1516
and Henry’s law constants,
1049–1050
impact of, on reduction potential,
477–478
and iron oxidation, 1551
microorganism response to, 80–81
and rate constants, 258–261
temperature dependence of,
249–251
as water quality indicator, 44, 48–49
Phaeophyta, 146
Pharmaceuticals, therapeutic vs.
environmental exposure to, 1607
Pharmaceuticals and personal care
products (PPCPs), 1606–1612
chemical properties, 1608

definition of, 166
occurrence and significance in water
supplies, 1607–1608
treatment strategies, 1609–1612
unregulated, 185, 187
Phenomenological filtration models,
771–780
development of, 771–773
optimization of, 778–780
steady-state, 773–775
Phosphates, 1785–1787
Photocatalysis, 1416, 1473–1477
Photolysis, 509–532
definition of, 1416
energy required for, 509–511
estimating, for single absorbing
solute, 511–518
of hydrogen peroxide, 510–511
and multiple wavelengths, 522–523
NDMA removal by, 527–529
in presence of multiple absorbing
compounds, 518–522
quantum yield and rate of, 513–514
quantum yield in collimated beam
apparatus, 516–518
rate of, in completely mixed flow
reactor, 514–516
titanium dioxide, 1473–1477
in water treatment, 523–532
Photons, 1416
Photon absorption, 513–514, 521
Photoreactivation and dark repair, 905,
998
Photoreactor design, 524–526
PHS, see U.S. Public Health Service
Phylogenetic tree of life, 76
Physical adsorption, 1133–1134
Physical and Chemical Quality, 17–67
Physical characteristics of water, 25–43
absorbance/transmittance, 26–28
color, 41–42
particles, 30–41
temperature, 42, 43
terminology for, 18–19
turbidity, 29–30
Physicochemical unit processes, 166,
189
PICA B PAC, 1166
Picloram, 59
Pilot testing/pilot studies, 15,
885–888, 1081–1082, 1309, 1310,
1321, 1323–1324
adsorption analysis, 1197–1198
considerations in setting up,
215–217
expectations for, 888
GAC, 1237, 1248–1250

period for, 886–887
rapid filter design, 785–786
reverse osmosis process design, 1395,
1398
self-contained units for, 888–889
system design from, 889–892
systems development for water
treatment, 214–217
Pinning, 885
Pipes, earliest, 1703. See also Water
conduits
Pipeline contactors, 980–981
Pipeline mixers, 378
Pipe sizing, 211, 213–215
Pitched-blade turbine (PBT), 617, 618
Pitting, 1747–1749
copper-induced, 1757–1758
of copper tubing, 1762–1763
definition of, 1701
from potential reversal, 1758–1759
Pitting attack, 1762–1763
Pitzer model, 1380
Plant capacity and recovery, 876
Plasmids, 83
Plastic conduit, 1702, 1707
Plate and frame filter press, 1682–1683
Platinum, 1715–1716
Platinum–cobalt solution standard, 41
PLC (programmable logic controller),
888
Plug flow pore and surface diffusion
model (PFHSDM), 1213–1220
Plug flow reactors (PFRs), 291, 292,
298, 299, 316–323
circular pipe plug flow, 291
definition of, 289
improving performance of, 349–350
mass balance in, 316–317
modeling reactions in ideal,
316–318
performance of, 526
performance of CMFRs and,
1188–1189
rectangular channel, 291
with recycle, 321–323
residence time/volume required for,
318–321
steady-state analysis in, 317–318
tracer curves from, 299–300
Plugging, 1374
Point source pollutants, 56
Poiseuille’s law, 744, 1638
Poisoning processes, 10. See also
Disinfection
Polanyi potential theory, 1147–1154
adsorption parameters derived from,
1149–1152


Index
determination of Freundlich
parameters using, 1151–1154
Polarity:
of organic substances, 52–53, 88
relative, 58
of water molecule, 20
Polarization:
activation, 1727
and electrical current, 1715–1718
Polar species, 1134
Poliomyelitis, 152
Poliovirus, 119–122
Polyamide (PA) membranes,
1350–1351
Polyelectrolytes, 545, 574
Polyethersulfone (PES), 841, 842
Polymers, 1678–1679
mixing of, 577
natural, 577
organic, 574–577
synthetic organic, 574–576
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), 155
Polymer bridging, 558–560
Polyphosphates, 194, 1786–1787
Polypropylene (PP), 841, 842, 1705
Polysulfides, 463
Polysulfone (PS), 841, 842
Polyvalent cation content, see Hardness
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), 1705, 1707
Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), 841,
842
Pontiac fever, 111
POPs (persistent organic pollutants),
185
Pore charge, 839
Pore constriction, 857
Pore diffusion flux (PDFC), 1220
Pore sizes, 1125–1127
Pore surface diffusion model (PSDM),
1174–1176
Porosity, 839
adsorbent, 1131
and backwash hydraulics,
751–755
bed, 1193
Posttreatment:
membrane filtration design, 880
reverse osmosis, 1399–1400
for reverse osmosis, 1345–1346
Potassium, 197
Potassium permanganate (KMnO4 ),
497, 505–507, 1500, 1559–1560,
1562–1566
Potential reversal, pitting from,
1758–1759
Potentiometer, 1715
Poughkeepsie, New York, 5

Pourbaix diagrams, 1701, 1710–1713
Powdered activated carbon (PAC),
197, 1159–1189, 1694
adsorption capacity for, 1162, 1163
adsorption using, 11
and atrazine adsorption examples,
1171–1172
contact time, 1171–1172
determining dosages of, 1159–1160
and disinfectants/oxidants,
1164–1165
with FBR, 1173
homogeneous surface diffusion
model, 1174–1189
location of addition, 1164–1166
and natural organic matter,
1165–1170
and organic matter, 1165–1170
performance analysis of, 1160–1173
PPCP removal with, 1612
production of, 1125–1127
size of, 1123
as sorbent, 1657
types of, 1163–1164
uses/advantages/disadvantages of,
1251
in water treatment, 1159
Powdered activated carbon-membrane
reactors, 878, 1161
Power number, 616
PP, see Polypropylene
ppb (parts per billion), 25
PPCPs, see Pharmaceuticals and
personal care products
ppm (parts per million), 25
ppmm (parts per million by mass), 25
ppmv (parts per million by volume), 25
ppt (parts per trillion), 25
Preadsorption, 1228–1229
Precipitate, 229, 559, 1097
Precipitate potential, 1096
Precipitation, 197
chemical, 1570–1575
of coagulant sludges, 1643–1644
definition of, 227
and enmeshment, 559–561
of inorganic salts, 1376–1382
reactors with recycle used for, 295
Precipitation–dissolution, 194,
272–275
Precipitation softening, 1570–1575
Precoagulation time, 1164
Precoat filtration, 729, 807–808
Predominance diagram:
for chlorine, 498
for chlorine dioxide, 500, 501
for hydrogen peroxide, 502

1891

for oxygen, 493
for ozone, 503
for permanganate, 505, 506
for redox reactions, 482–490
Preferential sorption-capillary flow
model, 1358
Prehydrolyzed alum salts (PACl),
573–574
Prehydrolyzed metal salts, 573–574
Preoxidation, 1519
Presaturant ions, 1264, 1268, 1296
Presedimentation, 664–667
Pressure:
ambient atmospheric, 53
atmospheric, 1859
and cross-sectional area/height of
tower, 1076–1080
net driving, 1363
osmotic, 1337
and permeate flux, 852–854
spreading, 1155
transmembrane, 821
vapor, 22, 1038–1040, 1045
Pressure-based integrity tests,
883–884
Pressure belt filters, 1683–1685
Pressure contactors, 1189
Pressure correction factor (PCF),
1363–1367
Pressure drop, 1326
Pressure filtration, 800
Pressure-vessel configuration, 832–833
Prestressed concrete, steel cylinder
pipe (PCCP), 1705
Pretreatment:
membrane filtration design, 879
to prevent scaling, 1380–1381
rapid filtration, 732–733
reverse osmosis, 1344, 1345,
1398–1399
Priestly, Joseph, 491
Prions, 80
Probabilistic multistage model, 172
Product mass, 234–235
Programmable logic controller (PLC),
888
Prokaryotic cells, 77
Prometon, 59
Propeller, 618
Protozoa, 78, 130–143, 849
Acanthamoeba castellani, 142–143
Cryptosporidium, 138–142
Entamoeba, 131–132, 134–136
Giardia lamblia, 136–138
Naegeria fowleri, 142–143
PS (polysulfone), 841, 842
PSA system, 976, 977


1892

Index

PSDM (pore surface diffusion model),
1174–1176
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 110, 113–115
Pseudo-steady-state (PSS) model,
1463–1466
Public health, 3
Public Health (Robley Dunlingsen), 4
Public notification, 175
Pulsator, 691, 692
Pulsed corona discharges, 1421
Pumped diffusion mixer, 12
Pumped flash mixers, 294
Pump Station Deisgn (Jones), 204
Purification, chemical, 10
PVC (polyvinyl chloride), 1705, 1707
PVDF (polyvinylidene fluoride), 841,
842

Q
QSAR (quantitative structure–activity
relationship), 261–262
Quality Criteria for Water, 170
Quality standards, see Water quality
standards and regulations
Quantitative structure–activity
relationship (QSAR), 261–262
Quantum yield:
in collimated beam apparatus,
516–518
definition of, 1416
in hydrogen peroxide/UV light
oxidation process, 1456
photolysis with titanium dioxide,
1476
and rate of photolysis, 513–514
Quicklime, 1571, 1688

R
R (roentgens), 67
Rabbit fever, see Franciscella tularensis
Rad, 67
Radial flow, 689
Radial flow mixers, 613–614
Radiation, 66
Radiation adsorbed dose (rad), 67
Radical species, 231
Radioactive particles, 65–67
Radioactivity, 67
Radionuclides, 65–67
chemistry of, 1602
definition of, 19
occurrence of, 1602
regulation of, 178
removal of, 1601–1606
Radium, 66, 195, 1603
Radium-226, 1602

Radium-228, 1602
Radon, 195, 1603
Radon-222, 1602, 1604
Rajagopalan and Tien (RT) filtration
model, 764–766
Random packing, 1035
Raoult’s law, 1038–1040
Rapid blending, 372–375
Rapid filter design, 780–796
backwashing systems in, 790–793
and clean-bed head loss, 744–748
example, 796–799
flow control in, 934–937
and negative pressure in filter beds,
794–796
performance criteria for, 780–782
pilot testing in, 785–786
process design criteria for, 782–785
residual management, 795
system components of, 793–794
Rapid filtration, 757–780
and attachment efficiency, 769–770
classifications of, 735–737
definition of, 729
depth, 758–759
detachment in, 780
effectiveness in filtration stage,
734–735
and filter performance, 770–771
granular filtration, 838
media for, 737–738
operating characteristics of, 831
particle removal in, 757–780
phenomenological depth filtration
models of, 771–780
and pretreatment, 732–733
process flow description of, 733–734
Rajagopalan and Tien model,
764–766
slow sand vs., 805
straining in, 758
Tufenkji and Elimelech model,
764–769
uniformity of media, 732
Yao model, 760–766
Rapid hydrolysis reactions, 449–451
Rapid reversible reactions, 447, 449
Rapid sand filtration, 5
Rapid small-scale column tests
(RSSCTs), 1236–1250
carbon preparation for, 1243–1250
constant-diffusivity design for, 1243
EBCT scaling, 1238–1239
hydraulic loading scaling,
1240–1242
nonconstant-diffusivity design for,
1243

operation time scaling, 1240–1242
scaling down full-scale adsorber to,
1237–1238
Rate constants:
catalysis, 254–257
chemical reactions, 254–262
determination of, 261–262
factors affecting, 254–258
and ionic strength, 258
for ozone oxidation, 504–505
and pH, 258–261
temperature, 254–257
Rate law, 252
Rate of reaction, 251–252
Rating analysis, 1089–1090
RCP (reinforced concrete pipe), 1705
RCPP (reinforced concrete pressure
pipe), 1705
RCRA (Resource Conservation and
Recovery Act), 1690, 1692
Reactant conversion, 235–237
Reactions, chemical, see Chemical
reactions
Reaction orders, 227, 360–362
Reaction rates, 251–254, 262–267
in CMBRs, 306
empirical, 266–267
for individual reaction steps,
262–264
for overall reaction, 264–266
for redox reactions, 490
Reaction rate law, 227
Reactivation:
definition of, 905
GAC, 1129–1130
UV disinfection, 998
Reactive system:
dispersed-flow model, 350–353
tanks-in-series model, 353–355
Reactivity, 1467–1468
Reactors, 290–382
batch, 288, 290–292, 967–968, 1182
completely mixed batch, 305–310
completely mixed flow, see
Completely mixed flow
reactors (CMFRs)
continuous-flow, 290, 291, 310–323,
968–972
definition of, 289
expanded-bed upflow, 291
floc blanket, 1173
flow, 289
flow-through, 968–972
fluidized, 1130
hydraulic characteristics of, 292
hydraulic-characterized, 292


Index
hydrogen peroxide/UV light
oxidation process, 1459–1463
ideal, see Ideal reactors
and mass balance analysis, 295–297
modeling performance of, 522
nonideal, see Nonideal reactors
open/closed, 295
operation-pattern based, 290–292
PAC, 1161
packed-bed, 291
performance modeling with tracer
curves, 355–362
photolysis with titanium dioxide,
1476
plug flow, see Plug flow reactors
(PFRs)
powdered activated carbonmembrane, 878, 1161
recycle, 295, 321–323
residence time/volume for, 318–321
terminology for, 288, 289
types of, 290–295
unit-operation based, 293–295
upflow sludge blanket, 1599
UV, 525, 1014–1015
Venturi, 294
Reactor clarifiers, 688–690
Recarbonation, 1530, 1574–1575
Recommended Standards for Water Works
(Great Lakes Upper Mississippi
River Board), 204
Record keeping, 174–175
Recovery, rapid-filter, 780–782, 799
Rectangular basin (horizontal flow),
689
Rectangular channel plug flow reactor,
291
Rectangular sedimentation basins,
653–656, 667–676
inlet structure of, 668–669
outlet structure of, 672, 673
settling zone of, 669–672
sludge zone of, 672–674
Rectangular tank, 664
Recycled wastewater, 1341–1342
Recycle reactors, 295, 321–323
Red algae, 146
Redox, see Oxidation-reduction
Reduced concentration, PAC dosage
vs., 1186–1187
Reducing agent, 465
Reductant, 227, 458
Reduction, 458. See also
Oxidation-reduction (redox)
bromate removal by, 1520
definition of, 458, 459
in water treatment, 460

Red water, 1767–1768
Regenerant consumption, 1319
Regenerant dose, 1316, 1317
Regeneration, 1299–1303, 1316–1319
GAC, 1129–1130
for nitrate removal, 1598–1599
requirements for, 1327–1329
Regeneration curves, 1264
Regeneration cycle time, 1328–1329
Regeneration volume, 1327
Regulatory processes, 168–176. See also
Water quality standards and
regulations
beneficial-use designation step of,
169–170
criteria development step of,
170–173
goal-selection step of, 175–176
international water quality, 188
standard-promulgation step of,
173–174
steps in, 169
Reinforced concrete pipe (RCP), 1705
Reinforced concrete pressure pipe
(RCPP), 1705
Rejection, 846–847, 1351, 1360
Relative polarity, 58
Relative quenching rate (QR ), 1416
Relative rates (chemical reactions),
252–254
Rem, 67
Removal efficiency, 217–218
Rennecker–Mari˜
nas model, 924–926,
930
Repair of modules, 885
Reporting requirements, 174–175
Reproduction:
definition of, 75
of pathogens, 88
Reservoirs:
destratification of, 197
materials used for, 1708
Residence time, 318–321
Residence time distribution (RTD),
324, 328–330
definition of, 289
for nonideal flow, 344–346
single-parameter fit for, 342–344
Residuals, 1634–1642. See also
Sludge(s)
biological properties of, 1642
chemical properties of, 1641–1642
classification of, 1629
constituents of concern in, 1631,
1633
definition of, 211, 1627

1893

environmental constraints on,
1633–1634
in filter waste washwater, 1651–1653
in ion exchange brine, 1655–1656
lime precipitation sludges,
1648–1650
in membrane concentrate,
1653–1655
physical properties of, 1634–1642
regulatory constraints on, 1634
from reverse osmosis, 1402–1403
sources of, 1629–1630
volume of, 1633
Residual-handling requirements, 890
Residual liquid streams, 1659–1662
Residuals management, 1628–1634,
1659–1695
brines and washwater, 1669–1670
definition of, 211, 1628
ion exchange brines, 1669
issues in, 1629–1634
liquid streams, 1659–1662
membrane concentrate and cleaning
solutions, 1662–1669
process selection in, 1694–1695
sludge, 1670–1689
solid sorbent brines and washwater,
1656–1658
spent solid sorbents, 1693–1694
systems development for water
treatment, 211–214
treatment processes for, 211–214
and ultimate reuse/disposal,
1689–1694
Resins. See also Ion exchange resins
estimating, 1278
gel-type, 1264, 1269, 1276
macroreticular, 1264, 1269–1270
MIEX, 583, 1306–1307
nitrate-specific, 1596–1597
surface area of, 1324
synthetic, 1265, 1267
volume of, 1324
Resin swelling, 1264
Resistance-in-series model, 858–859
Resource Conservation and Recovery
Act (RCRA), 1690, 1692
Resources, electronic, 1867
Retentate, 821, 828
Retention capabilities, 875–876
Retention rating, 821, 839, 844–846
Return flows, 1627
Reuse (semisolid residuals),
1689–1694
Reverse osmosis (RO), 11, 14, 15,
193–196, 207, 208, 1339–1405
applications for, 191, 1339–1342


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