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Slide multinational management 3e cullen ch12

Chapter 12
International Negotiation and CrossCultural Communication

Copyright© 2004 Thomson Learning All rights reserved


Learning Objectives
•• Understand
Understand the
the basics
basics ofof spoken
spoken and
and nonverbal
nonverbal
communication
communication
•• Understand
Understand the
the basic
basic international
international negotiation

negotiation
processes
processes
•• Understand
Understand the
the basic
basic tactics
tactics ofof international
international
negotiations
negotiations
•• Recognize
Recognize and
and respond
respond toto the
the “dirty
“dirty tricks”
tricks”
Copyright© 2005 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved


Learning Objectives
•• Know
Know the
the difference
difference between
between the
the problem-solving
problem-solving and
and
competitive
competitive approaches
approaches
•• Identify
Identify the
the personal
personal characteristics
characteristics ofof the
the successful
successful
international
international negotiator
negotiator

Copyright© 2005 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved


International Negotiation
••
••
••

Process
Process ofof making
making business
business deals
deals across
across cultures
cultures
Precedes
Precedes any
any multinational
multinational project
project
Successful
Successful negotiation
negotiation requires
requires successful
successful
communication
communication
•• Negotiators
Negotiators must
must understand
understand all
all components
components ofof
culturally
culturally different
different communication
communication styles
styles

Copyright© 2005 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved


Language and Culture
•• Whorf
Whorf hypothesis:
hypothesis: theory
theory that
that language
language determines
determines the
the
nature
nature ofof culture
culture
•• All
All languages
languages have
have limited
limited sets
sets ofof words
words
•• Words
Words provide
provide the
the concepts
concepts ofof understanding
understanding the
the world
world
•• Restricted
Restricted word
word sets
sets constrain
constrain the
the ability
ability toto understand
understand
the
the world
world

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High- and Low-Context
Languages
•• Low-context
Low-context language:
language: people
people state
state things
things directly
directly and
and
explicitly
explicitly
•• Most
Most northern
northern European
European languages
languages including
including
German,
German, English,
English, and
and the
the Scandinavian
Scandinavian languages
languages
•• High-context
High-context language:
language: people
people state
state things
things indirectly
indirectly
and
and implicitly
implicitly
•• Asian
Asian and
andArabic
Arabic languages
languages
Copyright© 2005 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved


Exhibit 12.1: Country Differences in
High-Context and Low-Context
Communication

Copyright© 2005 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved


Basic Communication Styles
•• Direct
Direct communication:
communication: communication
communication that
that comes
comes toto
the
the point
point and
and lacks
lacks ambiguity
ambiguity
•• Formal
Formal communication:
communication: communication
communication that
that
acknowledges
acknowledges rank,
rank, titles,
titles, and
and ceremony
ceremony inin prescribed
prescribed
social
social interaction
interaction

Copyright© 2005 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved


Exhibit 12.2: Cultural Differences in
Communication Styles

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Nonverbal Communication
••
••

Communication
Communication without
without words
words
Includes
Includes array
array ofof behaviors
behaviors that
that enhance/supplement
enhance/supplement
spoken
spoken communication
communication
•• Include
Include
•• Kinesics,
Kinesics, proxemics,
proxemics, haptics,
haptics, oculesics,
oculesics, and
and
olfactics
olfactics

Copyright© 2005 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved


Kinesics
•• Communication
Communication through
through body
body movements
movements
•• E.g.,
E.g., facial
facial expressions,
expressions, body
body posture
posture
•• Most
MostAsian
Asian cultures
cultures use
use bowing
bowing toto show
show respect
respect
•• No
No universal
universal code
code for
for what
what body
body movements
movements mean
mean
•• Easy
Easy toto misinterpret
misinterpret gestures
gestures

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Proxemics
•• Use
Use ofof space
space toto communicate
communicate
•• Each
Each culture
culture has
has appropriate
appropriate distances
distances for
for
communication
communication
•• The
The personal
personal bubble
bubble ofof space
space may
may range
range from
from 99
inches
inches toto over
over 20
20 inches
inches
•• North
NorthAmericans
Americans prefer
prefer more
more distance
distance than
than Latin
Latin
and
andArab
Arab cultures
cultures
Copyright© 2005 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved


Seating in a Typical Japanese Office

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Haptics or Touching
•• Shaking
Shaking hands,
hands, embracing,
embracing, or
or kissing
kissing when
when greeting
greeting
one
one another
another
•• No
No touching
touching
•• E.g.,
E.g., Japan,
Japan, U.S.,
U.S., England,
England, and
and many
many Northern
Northern
European
European countries
countries
•• Moderate
Moderate touching
touching
•• E.g.,
E.g.,Australia,
Australia, China,
China, Ireland,
Ireland, and
and India
India
•• Touching
Touching
•• E.g.,
E.g., Latin
LatinAmerican
American countries,
countries, Italy,
Italy, and
and Greece
Greece
Copyright© 2005 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved


Oculesics
•• Communication
Communication through
through eye
eye contact
contact or
or gaze
gaze
•• U.S.
U.S. and
and Canada:
Canada: people
people are
are very
very comfortable
comfortable and
and
expect
expect eye
eye contact
contact toto be
be maintained
maintained
•• China
China and
and Japan:
Japan: eye
eye contact
contact isis considered
considered very
very
rude
rude and
and disrespectful
disrespectful

Copyright© 2005 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved


The Basics of Cross-Cultural
Communication
•• Olfactics:
Olfactics: use
use ofof smells
smells as
as aa means
means ofof nonverbal
nonverbal
communication
communication
•• U.S.:
U.S.: find
find body
body odor
odor offensive
offensive
•• Arab:
Arab: consider
consider body
body odors
odors natural
natural

Copyright© 2005 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved


Practical Issues in CrossCultural Business
Communication
•• Interpreter’s
Interpreter’s role:
role: toto provide
provide aa simultaneous
simultaneous translation
translation
ofof aa foreign
foreign language
language
•• Require
Require greater
greater linguistic
linguistic skills
skills than
than speaking
speaking aa
language
language or
or translating
translating written
written documents
documents
•• Have
Have the
the technical
technical knowledge
knowledge and
and vocabulary
vocabulary toto deal
deal
with
with technical
technical details
details common
common inin business
business
transactions
transactions
•• Have
Have toto ensure
ensure the
the accuracy
accuracy and
and common
common
understanding
understanding ofof agreements
agreements
Copyright© 2005 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved


Tips for Successful Use of
Interpreters
••
••
••
••

Spend
Spend time
time with
with the
the interpreter
interpreter
Go
Go over
over technical
technical and
and other
other issues
issues with
with interpreter
interpreter for
for
proper
proper understanding
understanding
Insist
Insist on
on frequent
frequent interruptions
interruptions when
when it’s
it’s necessary
necessary
Look
Look for
for feedback
feedback and
and comprehension
comprehension by
by watching
watching the
the
eyes
eyes

Copyright© 2005 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved


Tips for Successful use of
Interpreters (cont.)
••
••

Discuss
Discuss the
the message
message beforehand
beforehand
Request
Request that
that your
your interpreter
interpreter apologize
apologize for
for your
your
inability
inability toto speak
speak inin the
the local
local language
language
•• Confirm
Confirm that
that all
all key
key components
components ofof the
the message
message have
have
been
been properly
properly comprehended
comprehended

Copyright© 2005 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved


Communication with
Nonnative Speakers
•• Use
Use the
the most
most common
common words
words with
with most
most common
common
meanings
meanings
•• Select
Select words
words with
with few
few alternative
alternative meanings
meanings
•• Follow
Follow rules
rules ofof grammar
grammar strictly
strictly
•• Speak
Speak with
with clear
clear breaks
breaks between
between words
words
•• Avoid
Avoid sports
sports words
words or
or words
words borrowed
borrowed from
from literature
literature

Copyright© 2005 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved


Communication with
Nonnative Speakers (cont.)
••
••
••
••
••
••

Avoid
Avoid words
words or
or expressions
expressions that
that are
are pictures
pictures
Avoid
Avoid slang
slang
Mimic
Mimic the
the cultural
cultural flavor
flavor ofof the
the nonnative
nonnative speaker’s
speaker’s
language
language
Test
Test your
your communication
communication success
success
Repeat
Repeat basic
basic ideas
ideas using
using different
different words
words when
when your
your
counterpart
counterpart does
does not
not understand
understand
Confirm
Confirm important
important aspects
aspects inin writing
writing
Copyright© 2005 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved


Avoiding Attribution Errors
•• Attribution:
Attribution: process
process by
by which
which we
we interpret
interpret the
the meaning
meaning
ofof spoken
spoken words
words or
or nonverbal
nonverbal exchanges
exchanges
•• Attribute
Attribute meaning
meaning based
based on
on our
our taken-for-granted
taken-for-granted
cultural
cultural expectations
expectations
•• Easy
Easy toto make
make mistakes
mistakes ofof attribution
attribution
•• Need
Need toto observe
observe carefully
carefully
•• Avoid
Avoid subtleties
subtleties ofof aa foreign
foreign language
language
•• Avoid
Avoid complex
complex nonverbal
nonverbal behaviors
behaviors
Copyright© 2005 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved


International Negotiation
••
••

More
More complex
complex than
than domestic
domestic negotiations
negotiations
Differences
Differences inin national
national cultures
cultures and
and differences
differences inin
political,
political, legal,
legal, and
and economic
economic systems
systems
•• Steps
Steps inin international
international negotiation
negotiation
•• Preparation,
Preparation, building
building the
the relationship,
relationship, exchanging
exchanging
information,
information, first
first offer,
offer, persuasion,
persuasion, concessions,
concessions,
agreement,
agreement, and
and post
post agreement
agreement
Copyright© 2005 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved


Exhibit 12.3: Steps in International
Negotiations

Copyright© 2005 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved


Step 1: Preparation
••
••
••
••
••
••
••
••

Determine
Determine ifif the
the negotiation
negotiation isis possible
possible
Know
Know what
what your
your company
company wants
wants
Know
Know the
the other
other side
side
Send
Send the
the proper
proper team
team
What
What isis the
the agenda?
agenda?
Prepare
Prepare for
for long
long negotiation
negotiation
What
What isis the
the environment
environment like?
like?
Plan
Plan aa strategy
strategy
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