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Multinational financial management 7th CH08

Multinational Financial
Management
Alan Shapiro

7th Edition
J.Wiley & Sons
Power Points by
Joseph F. Greco, Ph.D.
California State University, Fullerton
1


CHAPTER 8
CURRENCY FUTURES
AND OPTIONS
MARKETS

2


CHAPTER OVERVIEW

I.
II.

FUTURES CONTRACTS
CURRENCY OPTIONS

3


PART I.
FUTURES CONTRACTS
I. CURRENCY FUTURES
A. Background
1. 1972: Chicago Mercantile
Exchange
opens International Monetary
(IMM)

Market.

4


FUTURES CONTRACTS
2. IMM provides
a. an outlet for hedging currency
risk with futures contracts.
b. Definition of futures contracts:
contracts written requiring
• a standard quantity of an available currency
• at a fixed exchange rate
• at a set delivery date.

5


FUTURES CONTRACTS
c. Available Futures
Currencies:
1.) British pound 5.) Euro
2.) Canadian dollar
3.) Deutsche mark
dollar
4.) Swiss franc

6.) Japanese yen
7.) Australian

6


FUTURES CONTRACTS
d. Standard Contract Sizes:
contract sizes differ for each of
the 7 available currencies.

Examples:
Euro = 125,000
British Pound = 62,500
7


FUTURES CONTRACTS
e.

Transaction costs:
payment of commission to a
trader
f.
Leverage is high
1.) Initial margin required is
relatively low (e.g. less than
.02% of sterling
contract
value).
8


FUTURES CONTRACTS
g.

Maximum price movements
1.) Contracts set to a daily
price limit restricting
maximum daily price
movements.

9


FUTURES CONTRACTS
2.) If limit is reached, a margin
call may be necessary to
maintain a minimum margin.

10


FUTURES CONTRACTS
h. Global futures exchanges that


are competitors to the IMM:
1.) Deutsche Termin Bourse
2.) L.I.F.F.E.London International
Futures Exchange

Financial

3.) C.B.O.T. Chicago Board of Trade

11


FUTURES CONTRACTS
4.)

S.I.M.E.X.Singapore International
Monetary Exchange

5.)

H.K.F.E. Hong Kong Futures Exchange

12


FUTURES CONTRACTS
B. Forward vs. Futures Contracts
Basic differences:
1. Trading Locations
6. Settlement Date
2. Regulation
7. Quotes
3. Frequency of 8. Transaction
delivery costs
4. Size of contract
9. Margins
5. Delivery dates
10. Credit risk

13


FUTURES CONTRACTS
Advantages of
futures:

1.) Smaller
contract size
2.) Easy liquidation
3.) Well-organized
and stable
market.

Disadvantages of
futures:

1.) Limited to 7
currencies
2.) Limited dates
of delivery
3.) Rigid contract
sizes.
14


PART II
CURRENCY OPTIONS
I. OPTIONS
A. Currency options
1. offer another method to
hedge exchange rate risk.
2. first offered on Philadelphia
Exchange (PHLX).
3. fastest growing segment of
the hedge markets.
15


CURRENCY OPTIONS
4. Definition:
a contract from a writer ( the seller)
that
gives the right not the obligation
to the holder (the buyer) to buy or sell a
standard
amount of
an available
currency at a fixed
exchange rate for
a fixed time period.

16


CURRENCY OPTIONS
5. Types of Currency Options:
a. American
exercise date may occur any
time up to the expiration date.
b. European
exercise date occurs only at the
expiration date.
17


CURRENCY OPTIONS
7. Exercise Price
a.
Sometimes known as the
strike price.
b. the exchange rate at
which
the option holder can buy or
sell the
contracted currency.
18


CURRENCY OPTIONS
8.

Status of an option
a. In-the-money
Call: Spot > strike
Put: Spot < strike

b.

Out-of-the-money

c.

At-the-money

Call: Spot < strike
Put: Spot > strike
Spot = the strike
19


CURRENCY OPTIONS
9. The premium: the price of
an
option that the writer
charges

the buyer.

20


CURRENCY OPTIONS
B. When to Use Currency Options
1. For the firm hedging foreign
exchange risk
a. With sizable unrealized gains.
b. With foreign currency flows
forthcoming.
21


CURRENCY OPTIONS
2. For speculators
- profit from favorable
exchange rate changes.

22


CURRENCY OPTIONS
C. Option Pricing and Valuation
1. Value of an option equals
a. Intrinsic value
b. Time value

23


CURRENCY OPTIONS
2. Intrinsic Value
the amount in-the-money
3. Time Value
the amount the option is in
excess of its intrinsic value.
24


CURRENCY OPTIONS
4.

Other factors affecting the
value of an option
a. value rises with longer
time to expiration.
b. value rises when greater
volatility in the
exchange
rate.
25


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