MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING
THE VIETNAM NATIONAL INSTITUTE
OF EDUCATIONAL SCIENCES
PHAN THI THUY TRANG
MANAGEMENT OF PEDAGOGICAL PROFESSIONAL
TRAINING FOR VOCATIONAL
COLLEGE TEACHERS IN THE MEKONG DELTA IN THE
DIRECTION OF QUALITY ASSURANCE
Major: Education Management
Major Code: 9.14.01.14
DOCTOR OF EDUCATIONAL SCIENCES DISSERTATION SUMMARY
Ha Noi - 2019
Works to be done in:
THE VIETNAM NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF EDUCATIONAL SCIENCES
1. PROF. DR. NGUYEN LOC
2. DR. PHAN CHINH THUC
Reviewer 1: ..........................................................................................
Reviewer 2: ...................................................................................
Reviewer 3: ..........................................................................................
The dissertation is defended in front of the Institute-level Board of Examiners meeting at
The Vietnam National Institute of Educational Sciences, 101 Tran Hung Dao, Ha Noi.
At...... hour......., date......... month......... year.............
The dissertation can be found at:
Library of The Vietnam National Institute of Educational Sciences
The establishment and development of Vocational Education institutions, especially
in the Mekong Delta in the period of 2010 - 2015, has achieved some results in meeting highly
skillful human resources. Teaching staff of Vocational Education has developed in quantity
and quality step by step raised but still reveals many limitations and inadequacies, who is
imposing objective and urgent requirements to meet the needs of human resource training,
contributing to economic growth, accelerating the process of economic and labor
restructuring in the direction of industrialization and modernization, increasing labor
productivity, increasing income for workers and improving the quality of human resources in
the context of international integration.
The teaching staff is formed from many different sources:
- High school graduates are trained from technical pedagogical universities and
technical pedagogic colleges.
- University graduates from specialized technical universities (fostering career skills
and pedagogical skills) to become teachers.
- Technical staff, artisans and workers with high vocational skills from production
(being trained in pedagogical skills), mainly recruited as vocational practice teachers.
- The need to train high-quality technical human resources to meet the socio-economic
development of the country in general and the Mekong Delta in particular requires the
development of a contingent of teaching staff of Vocational Education in terms of quantity,
quality and industry structure.
In order to remedy the above situation, solutions for continuing training and fostering
pedagogical skills for teachers from different sources are concerned. General Department of
Vocational Training; MOLISA has developed and issued a framework curriculum for
pedagogical skills teaching at elementary, intermediate and college levels. At the same time,
Faculty of Vocational Education has been set up in some key vocational colleges in the
regions to train and foster Pedagogical Skills for teachers in the region.
From the above reasons, the research on the topic "Management of pedagogical
professional training for vocational college teachers in the Mekong Delta in the direction
of quality assurance" is very urgent and highly practical.
2. Objectives of the research
On the basis of theoretical research, assessing the status of fostering and management
status of pedagogical skills fostering for teachers, the studying proposes some solutions for
managing pedagogical skills training for teachers in colleges in Mekong Delta in the direction
of quality assurance.
3. Object and subject of the study
3.1 Object of the study: Pedagogical Skills training activities for teachers of colleges
in the Mekong Delta.
3.2 Subject of the study: Management of pedagogical skill training for teachers of
colleges in the Mekong Delta in the direction of quality assurance.
4. Scientific hypothesis: Management of pedagogical skill training for teachers in colleges
in the Mekong Delta is still inadequate due to the characteristics of the teachers and the need
to quickly develop human resources in the Mekong Delta in the near future. Therefore, if the
solutions for managing pedagogical skills training for teachers about developing enrollment
plans, managing the training process, evaluating outputs and innovating the operation of the
pedagogical course in the direction of quality assurance, it will contribute to improving the
efficiency of teacher management and improving the training quality of colleges in the
5. Research missions
Mission 1: Researching the theoretical basis for managing pedagogical skills training
for college teachers in the direction of quality assurance.
Mission 2: Assessing the status of management of fostering pedagogical skills for
college teachers of Mekong Delta.
Mission 3: Proposing some solutions for managing pedagogical skills training for
college teachers in Mekong Delta in the direction of quality assurance. At the same time,
conducting testing the solution and choosing a solution of Managing and evaluating the
outputs and issuing the graduation certificate applying the CIPO model in fostering
pedagogical skills for college teachers in the direction of QA.
6. Scope of the study
- Researching the theoretical basis of management of pedagogical skill training for
teachers in the direction of QA.
- Assessing the status of management of fostering pedagogical skills for colleges
teachers in the Mekong Delta.
- Proposing solutions for managing training of Pedagogical Skills for college teachers
in the Mekong Delta region to 2025 towards QA.
- Testing a solution at the pedagogical faculty of vocational training at Can Tho
Vocational College on the subject of College Teachers teaching Elementary occupations.
7. Approach and research method
7.1. Approach method:
In this study, the researcher applied the following approaches: System approach;
Quality assurance approach; Human resource development approach; Competency Approach
(output standard); Process approach.
7.2. Research method
Group of theoretical research methods; Practical research methods; Statistical
methods that handle the survey data
8. The defended thesis
- Managing Pedagogical Skills training for teachers in the direction of quality
assurance is a standardized method (in management and control) in order to develop thinking
and self-maintenance to make a difference in motivation and work efficiency. It is considered
as a new personnel management method in accordance with the requirements of innovation
in educational management.
- In order to improve the capacity of the teachers, fostering the pedagogical skill level
towards quality assurance must be paid special attention by colleges. This is one of the
decisive factors to help teachers form professional and technical knowledge, practical skills
and ethical qualities to well perform the teaching duties.
- Pedagogical Skills training should be based on performance standards and at the same
time choosing an approach based on CIPO model, ensuring that the whole training process
(Inputs, Processes, Outputs and Regulating Contexts) achieves the desired effect.
9. New contributions of the study:
- Contributing to systematizing concepts, theoretical basis of fostering pedagogical
skill management for college teachers towards QA.
- Assessing the status of management of fostering pedagogical skills for teachers at
colleges in the Mekong Delta.
- Proposing some solutions of managing pedagogical skill training for college teachers
in the direction of QA to contribute to improving the quality of teachers in colleges in the
10. Place for conducting research: The Vietnam National Institute of Educational Sciences
11. Structure of the study
Apart from the Introduction, Table of Contents, Abbreviations and List of Tables Charts, Conclusions, References and Appendices, the study consists of 3 following chapters:
Chapter 1: Theoretical basis for management of pedagogical skills training for college
teachers towards quality assurance.
Chapter 2: Status of fostering and management pedagogical skills for college teachers
of Mekong Delta towards quality assurance.
Chapter 3: Solutions for managing pedagogical skills training for college teachers in
Mekong Delta in the direction of quality assurance.
THEORETICAL BASIS FOR MANAGEMENT OF PEDAGOGICAL SKILLS
TRAINING FOR COLLEGE TEACHERS TOWARDS QUALITY ASSURANCE
1.1 Overview of Literature review
1.1.1 Foreign research works
Foreign authors have been very interested in researching issues related to quality
management, perspectives on quality, effective training methods and effective management
models. However, the works did not deeply mention the management of fostering
pedagogical skills for teachers in the direction of QA. The study inherits the domestic and
foreign research achievements on the effective management theory of education, at the same
time, the researcher combines the theory of QA model, in order to develop measures to help
manage the pedagogical skills training for college teachers in Mekong Delta in the direction
1.1.2 Domestic research works:
Research by Pham Thanh Nghi (2000) shows that, in order to be able to manage
strategies effectively, strategic thinking needs to be used and focused on: (1) Creating
organization-oriented activities; (2) Identifying areas of innovation related to the
organization's overall vision, mission, and goals; (3) Reviewing the overall orientation within
the organization's traditional operations as well as further looking in the coming years; (4)
Emphasizing on how and why, defining the strategy and implementing the strategy; (5)
Finding the organization's greatest competitive advantages compared to similar
organizations, selecting the type of students to serve and identifying funding sources .
Research by Nguyen Danh Huu (2016) identified basic pedagogical competence
groups of teachers who need to be trained and fostered for development, namely: (1) Capacity
group on ethical qualities; (2) Group of teaching and educational competencies (capacity to
diagnose; capacity of designing educational and teaching plans; capacity to organize the
implementation of education and teaching plans; capacity to supervise and evaluate the results
of teaching and educational activities; capacity to solve problems that arise in practice, the
capacity of integrated teaching, differentiated teaching, teaching for sustainable development
. In general, the research issue has attracted many domestic authors to implement.
However, the above works have not gone into research on management of fostering
pedagogical skill for college teachers.
1.2 Theory of quality and management towards quality assurance
Management is described as a program of activities undertaken by the manager to
ensure that the organization's objectives are achieved. The Management process includes the
combination of: People; Time; Work; Currency; Place; Machinery (technology); Source of
raw materials. From a functional perspective, manager performs many different activities
depending on the organization, or according to the levels of the managers. However, there
are some basic, common tasks for everyone to manage in all organizations. People often call
these most common tasks as the management function. Up to now, many management experts
agree that there are four basic management functions: Planning; Organization; Leadership /
Coordination (direction); Examining.
However, in order to perform the above functions, the organization or the manager
must ensure other resources conditions such as human, facilities, information ... these
conditions directly affect the results of management work, which is a decisive factor and lays
the foundation for the success of the organization.
Achieve organizational goals effectively
Hình 1.1. Relationship in terms of different resources of management
Source: Nguyen Loc, (2010), Management theory, University of Pedagogy
Publishing House .
Management's functions are all aimed at achieving organizational goals effectively,
while the functions have their own duties, but they affect each other in the management
process of leadership and functions. This must be based on human, financial, physical and
information resources. Without these resources, the functions will be useless to the
organization's goals, any management function is related to resources, none of the resources
does not affect function of management. Thus, in order to achieve the organization's goals
effectively, it is necessary to invest, considering the mission of the functions with the presence
of all investment resources in the organization.
From the above-mentioned approaches, it is shown that: Management is the process
of planning, organizing, leading and examining the work of its members to achieve the
organization's goals .
1.2.2 Quality concept
The concept of "quality" is perceived from many different perspectives:
a) According to absolute conception
b) According to relative conception
c) The conception of vocational training quality is based on many components: Quality
is a multidimensional concept, so when mentioning the quality of vocational training, it is
necessary to mention many different elements, directly or indirectly affecting quality.
The researcher said that: Quality of training is a dynamic, multi-dimensional, historical
concept - specifically, containing many quantitative and qualitative factors. From a different
perspective of interest, the evaluation of vocational training quality can serve different
purposes, possibly emphasizing the function of one component or the function of another.
With the most common purpose of evaluating the quality of vocational training is to analyze
and find solutions to improve the quality of training in vocational education institutions.
1.2.3 The levels of quality management:
Quality management is an effective system of unified operation of different parts of
the organization, responsible for implementing quality parameters, maintaining and
improving it to ensure production and consumption. The most economical way to satisfy the
needs of consumers (A.Feigenbaum).
Quality management is classified into 3 levels of management, specifically as follows:
Quality control, quality assurance and overall quality management. The level of quality
management is shown as follows:
(1) Quality Control (QC): In the field of training, it is controlling factors: teachers and staff,
facilities and teaching equipment, enrollment, teaching-learning methods and information (
information about education, education management and labor market information).
(2) Quality Assurance (QA): In the field of education and training, the basic factors that
need to be tested for QA are: curriculum, lecturers / teachers, facilities and teaching
equipment, organizing and managing the process of teaching, scientific research, the
relationship between schools and businesses, services for students ....
The important issue for training management under the "quality assurance" model is
to develop a standard system of quality assurance conditions for each type of school, each
level and different training professions as a basis for evaluating and managing training
quality. Researcher are particularly interested in the management model of "Quality
Assurance" in the implementation of the thesis.
(3) Total quality mangement (TQM): Nguyen Loc  introduced the definition of TQM
given by ISO 8402:1994: "TQM is one management method an organization, focusing on
quality, based on the participation of all its members and aiming at long-term success through
customer satisfaction, and benefits to all members of the organization and to the society. "
and Marsh J. as follows: “TQM is a philosophy that is accompanied by tools and processes
for practical implementation in order to achieve a culture of continual improvement
implemented by all members of the organization in order to meet and satisfy customers”.
1.2.4 Quality assurance and models of quality assurance of training and fostering
126.96.36.199. Quality assurance: Training at the institutions is the operational management
within the scope of vocational training institutions and activities with external partners to
guide and control the training quality assurance system, in order to create believe that
graduates have enough knowledge, skills and attitudes towards their goals and meet the
requirements of the labor market.
188.8.131.52 Quality assurance models
a) Management model according to Europe
b) Organizqtion Element Model - SEAMEO
c) Management model by ASEAN Union (AUN&QA ): The QA model of training
program (training program) according to AUN-QA starts from determining the needs of
stakeholders. These needs are loaded into expected learning outcomes, the model is shown in
Figure 1.5 as follows:
Sơ đồ 1.5: The QA model of training program according to AUN-QA (version 3.0)
The quality assurance of school level is included in the school's missions, tasks, targets
and goals. Version 3 of the QA model for training program according to AUN - QA includes
11 criteria: (1) Expected learning results; (2) Description of training program; (3) Structure
and content of training program; (4) Methods of teaching and learning; (5) Examining and
evaluating students (Students); (6) Teacher quality; (7) Quality of support staff; (8) Student
quality and activities to support students; (9) Infrastructure and equipment; (10) Improve the
quality; (11) Output.
The model ends with meeting the needs of stakeholders and continually improving
the QA system .
d) Quality management model according to ISO 9000:2000
e) Quality assurance model approaching CIPO of UNESCO
Also according to Nguyen Loc , American author Hoy W.K.and Miskel C.G
argues that following a quality management model includes inputs, processes and outputs
with about 21 indicators of all kinds. Academic achievement is only one of many indicators
above (see Figure 1.6).
Willingness of the
The capacity of the
Help from parents
The level of
Organization of class
Satisfaction of the
Degree of absence
The number of school
Figure 1.6: Assessing quality according to input - process – output of USA
Source: Hoy W.K.and Miskel C.G., (2001) Educational Administration (excerpt
according to ).
Quality assurance model according to SEAMEO organization with 5 elements of
management of input quality, process, result, output and efficiency; The AUN-QA model has
provided 11 QA standards for training programs with the aim of achieving expected results
for stakeholders. In particular, the labor and product management must be competent and
qualified to create quality products and the product user must actively evaluate to contribute
1.2.5 Managing pedagogical professional training for college teachers towards quality
184.108.40.206 Concept of Pedagogical Skills, fostering Pedagogical Skills for college
a) Pedagogical Skills: “Skills” According to the definition of the Vietnamese
Dictionary 1992: To be understood as a professional occupation, professional work of an
occupation. ; Pedagogy: According to the definition of the Vietnamese Dictionary 1992:
is a science of teaching and education in schools .
Thus, the term "pedagogical profession" is a professional work of teaching
profession, an educational activity and a method of teaching a specific job or subject of a
teacher. The minimum standards of the most common teachers for all occupations include the
following competencies: Professional career competence; Pedagogical career competence;
Supporting competence (information technology, Internet, foreign languages,
communication); Competence includes Knowledge, Skill, Professional Attitude and
b) Fostering the pedagogical skills for teachers: “Training” according to the
definition of the Vietnamese Dictionary 1992 is to become a competent person according to
certain standards ; Fostering: According to the definition of the Vietnamese Dictionary
1992, it is to increase the strength of the body with a tonic and to increase the capacity or
Therefore, fostering pedagogical skills is an impact process to supplement and perfect
more skills, feelings and attitudes for teachers, helping them meet the increasing demands of
society. Teachers not only have scientific knowledge of profession but also need knowledge
and skills of pedagogical skill to implement teaching method in order to improve teaching
effectiveness. Since changing to teaching modules that integrate theory and practice in
colleges, both teachers and students must actively study, foster and improve skills to meet
new training methods of the presence.
c) Fostering pedagogical skills for college teachers towards QA: “Fostering
pedagogical skills” for teachers is to develop the capacity of schools with Faculty of
Vocational Education in the trend of international integration in order to improve the quality
of training. Teacher training is a basic and important solution to ensure the successful
implementation of the process of renovating vocational education. In the context of
integration and industrial revolution 4.0, the quality of training is a top concern of colleges
in Vietnam in general and the Mekong Delta in particular. For the vocational training
institutions that have Faculty of Vocational Education, to improve the capacity of training and
fostering teachers based on the identification of the school's capacity through the indicators
of vocational education institution accreditation, Faculties of Vocational Education need to
focus on comprehensive development measures: Developing the capacity of vocational
training institution management; Developing pedagogical teaching staff; Developing training
programs for teachers; Improving the quality of teaching; Improving the capacity of scientific
research in vocational education and applying research results into practice of training and
fostering teachers; Building the environment of pedagogical vocational education and
resources. On the basis of comprehensive development of the mentioned aspects, step by step
perfect the model of management and QA to improve teacher training quality for colleges in
220.127.116.11 Some principles of quality assurance
18.104.22.168 Managing training pedagogical skills for college teachers in the direction of
At present, there are no studies mentioning the organization and management of
pedagogical training for college teachers towards quality assurance, in the context of
international integration and global change. However, organizing and managing professional
training activities for university lecturers in the direction of quality assurance requires strict
From the meaning of how to foster pedagogical skills for teachers in the direction of
QA in building and developing the training program, the researcher has generalized the
meaning of how to foster pedagogical skills for teachers in the direction of QA in the
organization and manage fostering pedagogical skills activities for college teachers in the
Mekong Delta such as: building competence for teachers in "hard skills" and "soft skills".
The method of fostering pedagogical skills for teachers in the direction of QA is a method to
make teaching activities at colleges more effective as all students of the university are
focused on education to improve and enhance results. learning compared to expected learning
outcomes, in line with the increasing demand for training high-quality human resources of
society in the context of deep, wide international integration and global change. Therefore, it
can be said that, applying fostering pedagogical skills training for teachers in the direction of
quality assurance is very useful and integrated with the world's trend in implementing
fostering pedagogical skills program for college teachers, one of the solutions contributing
to improving the quality of vocational education.
a) The process of evaluating program quality of colleges
- Self-assessment process: Conducting self-assessment according to the procedure
specified in Section 2 of Circular No. 28/2017 / TT-BLDTBXH of December 15, 2017
"Providing for the quality assurance system of vocational training institutions" as follows: 1.
Establishing a Board for self-assessment of training program quality; 2. Conducting selfassessment of the training program quality; 3. Reviewing and approving the self-evaluation
report of training program quality; 4. Publishing a self-evaluation report on the quality of the
training program and sending it to the competent authorities.
- Content of the self-assessment process: Step 1: Planning and Establishing the Selfinspection Board; Step 2: Approving; Step 3: Inspection Board meeting; Step 4: Performing
evidence collection; Step 5: Self-Inspecting the quality of training program of the units; Step
6: Collecting unit reports; Step 7: Quality inspection; Step 8: Approving; Step 9: Publish the
b) Management of pedagogical skill training in the direction of QA at the college:
In Vietnam, the application of accreditation of vocational training institutions has been started
for more than 10 years. However, this is a reverse process that does not meet the quality
assurance requirements as expected, in order to overcome this shortcoming from 2017, the
STEP has gradually implemented pilot testing of training programs. Following the Circular
No. 28/2017 / TT-BLTBXH, on December 15, 2017 of the MOLISA, the vocational
education institutions develop their own quality accreditation process for the school and the
training program is also considered as a the program of the vocational training institutions
having Faculty of Vocational Education.
At present, there is no research mentioning that QA to organize and manage fostering
pedagogical skills activities for college teachers in the Mekong Delta in particular and the
country in general, in the context of international integration and global change. However,
organizing and managing fostering pedagogical skills activities for college teachers in the
direction of QA requires also to follow the process closely. Therefore, it can be said that,
applying the management of pedagogical skill training for teachers in the direction of QA is
very useful and integrated with the world trend as one of the solutions contributing to
improving the quality of vocational education.
1.3 Teacher model and pedagogical competence structure of teachers
1.3.1 Concept of Teacher: Teachers are teachers teaching at vocational institutions
with the duties and rights specified in the Vocational Education Law (Article 55) .
According to the researcher, the general requirements for teachers are expressed in the
following key aspects: quality; qualification; pedagogical capacity. The requirement for
fostering pedagogical competence for teachers is firstly equipping them with basic,
systematic knowledge about psychology, helping teachers to form psychological research
skills and apply them to training themselves, being able to analyze, explain and understand
the psychological phenomena of students on a scientific basis. Since then determine the
appropriate teaching methods to achieve quality and effectiveness. Fostering pedagogical
skills for teachers in the direction of QA is an urgent requirement in the context of current
international integration, which is the research content of the thesis.
1.3.2 College teacher model
According to Vu Xuan Hung : Teachers are responsible for performing teaching
tasks in vocational institutions, contributing to training human resources for technical workers
directly for the national industrialization and modernization. Due to the nature and
characteristics of professional activities, teachers have very specific characteristics. They are
both educators, with qualified and capable of organizing and managing teaching and
educational activities; being a technologist-technician with a certain level of professional
knowledge and skills of a training major or profession; being a scientist capable of carrying out
and participating in research activities, technical improvements, innovation of training methods
and contents; being a manager capable of organizing and managing activities according to his
functions and duties and is also a social activist with knowledge, participation and organization
of social and community activities.
Thus, we can generalize the career model of teachers according to the following
Figure 1.8: Career model of teachers 
1.3.3 Pedagogical competence of teacher
22.214.171.124 Capacity structure of teacher: Minimum standards and core components of
the model of the most common vocational teachers for all occupations include: Professional
career capacity; Pedagogical capacity; Supporting capacity (information technology, Internet,
foreign languages, communication); Competence includes Knowledge, Skill, Professional
Attitude and Workhabit.
126.96.36.199 Structure of pedagogical competence of teacher
a) Pedagogical competence: In order to have pedagogical competence, teachers must
not only have the knowledge and skills, but also need an attitude towards the work to show
individual capacity in teaching activities. Each pedagogical student must create his or her
own capacity through active work.
b) Structure of pedagogical competence: pedagogical competence includes the
system of knowledge, skills and attitudes about pedagogical careers. Pedagogical competence
is a complex capacity, so the structure of pedagogical competence also has many different
views. However, the researcher said that: According to F.N. Gonobolin : there are 10
typical competencies, the basic of pedagogical competence is the ability to understand
students; ability to communicate learning materials; capacity to attract students; ability to
persuade people; organizational capacity; capacity to handle pedagogical situations; ability to
forecast results; creative capacity in teaching work; operational process control capacity;
competence based on interest . This is the basis for teachers to assert themselves in the teaching
c) Standard of college teachers: Circular No. 30/2010 / TT-BLĐTBXH dated
September 29, 2010 of the Ministry of Labor, War Invalids and Social Affairs providing for
teacher and vocational trainers' standards: (1) "Teacher standards" is a system of
requirements. basic requirements on political qualities, ethics, lifestyles, professional
capacity that teachers need to achieve in order to meet vocational training goals; (2) "Criteria"
is a field of standards, including requirements with relevant content demonstrating the
competence of teachers in that field. Each criterion has a number of criteria; (3) "Standards"
are the specific requirements of the criteria. There are indicators of evaluation in each
1.4. Training pedagogical skills for teachers to approach performance standards
1.4.1. The concept of training, competence, implementation competence
188.8.131.52 Fostering: According to the Vietnamese dictionary: "Fostering” in a broad
sense, is the process of education and training to shape the personality and distinct qualities
of the personality according to the chosen orientation.
Fostering Pedagogical skills for teachers is essentially fostering pedagogical
competence to supplement pedagogical knowledge, improve the quality and teaching
capacity of teachers, reaching a specified pedagogical level (level one , level two...).
184.108.40.206 Competence : “Competence” is a scientific term, with many different views
on this term. Competence is different from ability and skill. Competence is the "successful"
implementation of a "real" mission; while the ability is only potential (expectation, latent) in
individuals that have not been revealed in reality; skill is only one of the 3 main components
of competence (knowledge, skill, attitude). Therefore, it is a mistake to say that a person who
has just graduated from a good education is a competent person. According to the researcher,
competence is understood as the ability to effectively combine the knowledge and skills of
awareness and action, attitudes, emotions, values, ethics to perform tasks in the context as
well as in practice to achieve the expected goal.
220.127.116.11 Competency: “Competency” according to Bob Mansfield (1989), Competency
includes: (1) The ability to perform the entire job role or scope of work; means doing them,
not just knowing them; fulfilling the entire labor role or scope of work rather than each of
their individual skills and jobs; (2) Follow the standards expected in that job; (3) In a real
work environment, that is, with all pressures and changes related to real labor - model and
practical condition .
1.4.2 Pedagogical skill standard of teachers: Pedagogical skill standard of college
teachers show the requirements of pedagogical competence that teachers must meet. In the
process of socio-economic development and international integration, each teacher is
required to regularly study and foster to improve their qualifications in all aspects in general
and pedagogical capacity in particular and at the same time management levels must also
develop a plan for fostering pedagogical skills for teachers in the direction of QA .
1.4.3 Pedagogical skill training program for teachers according to competency
(1) Level 1 Pedagogical Training program issued under Decision No. 1672 / TH-DN
of August 18, 1992 of the Ministry of Education and Training
(2) Level 2 Pedagogical Training Program, issued under Decision 2988 / QD of
December 28, 1993 of the Ministry of Education and Training
* Comment: Regarding the content of the program, although it is called a pedagogical
training and fostering program, it actually only equips teachers with pedagogical knowledge,
not yet going into teaching, education and organization skills as well as the method of using
teaching equipment and subject teaching methods that each teacher must have, so the
teaching staff, especially the new teachers, are still very inadequate in terms of pedagogy.
(3) In 2011, in order to meet the requirements of teaching staff development, the
Ministry of Labor, War Invalids and Social Affairs issued the "Program of pedagogical
training framework for teachers and teachers of Vocational Intermediate Level, Vocational
* Comment: “Program of pedagogical training framework for teachers and teachers of
Vocational Intermediate Level, Vocational College" with objectives, time, content,
implementation method, specific requirements have contributed to the additional number of
teachers, improved the quality of teachers, contributed to the training of technical labor force
directly serving the socio-economic development of the region and the whole country.
* In order to improve the quality of teaching staff's access to international-level
pedagogy, the Ministry of Labor, War Invalids and Social Affairs and the General Department
of Vocational Training instructed the compilation of the framework curriculum and
vocational pedagogical curriculum approaching the international level.
The textbook "City & Guilds 1106 International Pedagogical Curriculum level 2"
consists of 4 lessons as follows Lesson 1: Identifying needs and assessing input; Lesson 2:
Planning and preparing lessons; Lesson 3: Teaching methods; Lesson 4: Checking the results
of the learning process.
Through the application, it shows that City & Guilds 1106 International Pedagogical
Curriculum level 2 put into training has contributed to improving the quality of pedagogy for
nuclear teaching staff at vocational colleges and vocational schools, approaching the
1.5. Applying CIPO model in managing pedagogical skills training for teaching
staff in the direction of quality assurance
1.5.1 Managing subjects: Management subjects with different management levels,
with different functions, tasks and authority in management of pedagogical skill training for
teachers are: Government, MOLISA and relevant Ministries , People's Committee of
Province, City directly under the Central Government, and Principals of Vocational Colleges.
1.5.2 Applying CIPO model in managing pedagogical skills training for teaching
staff in the direction of QA: CIPO model in management of training, fostering pedagogical
skills for teachers approaching standard competency and towards QA (shown in Figure 1.10),
including management content groups including: input management, process management,
output management and impacts of context on management of training and fostering of
1.5.3 Contents of pedagogical skill training management for college teachers to
approach CIPO model in the direction of QA: In order to orient and take initiative in the
implementation of management of fostering vocational training according to competency on
the basis of applying the CIPO model; the researcher created a matrix of management
functions and management content of pedagogical skill training according to CIPO model to
easily access the key features and core issues to be studied.
1.6. Factors affecting the management of pedagogical skills training for teachers
in the direction of QA
1.6.1 Objective factors: The mechanisms and policies of the state. Reality off SocioEconomic Development and Science-Technology
1.6.2 Subjective factors: Management apparatus and qualifications of managing and
teaching staff. Pedagogical environment, reputation and brand of the school. Mechanisms and
policies of the school in managing pedagogical skills training for teachers.
CONCLUSION OF CHAPTER 1
Management is both a science and a complex art, but it is a decisive role in achieving
the organization's goals. The thesis has analyzed the concepts and some related models of
quality management in education in general and vocational education in particular. QA in
training and fostering is a decisive factor to create products that meet practical requirements
in our country in general and the Mekong Delta in particular in terms of human resource
training in the context of market economy and international integration. With the above
viewpoint, proposing the content of management of pedagogical skill training for college
teachers in Mekong Delta in the direction of QA is approaching the process and output
oriented approach to the market towards QA.
STATUS OF MANAGEMENT OF FOSTERING PEDAGOGICAL SKILLS FOR
COLLEGE TEACHERS IN MEKONG DELTA IN THE DIRECTION OF QUALITY
2.1 Overview of socio-economy and vocational education in Mekong Delta
2.1.1 Natural geographic and socio-economic characteristics
2.1.2 Overview of vocational education in the Mekong Delta
2.2 Status of teaching staff and management of fostering pedagogical skills for college
teachers in Mekong Delta
2.2.1 Teaching staff of vocational colleges in Mekong Delta
According to the Report on "Development of education, training and vocational
training in provinces in the Mekong Delta in the period of 2011 - 2015, development
directions for the period of 2016 - 2020" of September 2015 of the Ministry of Education and
Training and the Ministry of Labor, War Invalids and Social Affairs. In the Mekong Delta
region, there are 3416 teachers in 43 schools (this is the number of fulltime teachers excluding
part - time teachers), It is estimated that about 700 teachers teaching general subjects such as
politics, law, physical education, etc. The remaining about 2700 teachers teaching
professional modules, but this proportion is not evenly distributed among specialized
departments so there is still a phenomenon of lack of teachers, some of which are redundant
in part due to the demand of learners according to crowd trend and the labor market, so the
annual number of students registering for vocational training changes about 20% compared
to the registered scope.
Thus, the demand of each year for training and fostering of about "300,000 workers",
particularly the intermediate and college level accounts for about 12-15% in the region 
will be a challenge for the vocational education institutions in the Mekong Delta to perform
the mission of training and fostering highly skilled labor force. This challenge can only be
overcome when the state-owned vocational education institutions have a training strategy for
pedagogical skill training, which is not only sufficient in quantity but also important in the
capacity of the vocational education teachers.
2.2.2 Faculty of vocational education in colleges in Mekong Delta
- Before 2008, there were 5 universities of Technology and Education in the country
(Hung Yen University of Technology and Education, Nam Dinh University of Technology
and Education, Vinh University of Technology and Education, and Ho Chi Minh City
University of Technology and Education, Vinh Long Technology and Education College)
and some technology and education faculties of universities and technology colleges
participate in training and fostering vocational teachers.
- From 2008 to December 2016, the whole country had about 73,612 teachers teaching
at vocational training institutions, of which: 40,264 teachers at colleges, 19,454 teachers at
vocational schools, 13,912 teachers at Vocational Education centers.
Implementing the policy of piloting the construction of vocational education faculties
of vocational colleges, from 2007 up to now, there have been 45 institutions training and
fostering pedagogical skill for vocational teachers. Among them, 05 faculties of Technology
and Education belong to the universities of Technology and Education, 03 faculties of
specialized universities, 01 Institute of Vocational Education Science and 36 faculties of
vocational education at the colleges.
From the situation of the vocational teaching staff and requirements for development
of vocational education in the period 2005-2010 and 2010-2020, the development and
synchronous implementation of solutions to develop the contingent of vocational education
teachers is extremely necessary and urgent. In particular, the pilot solution to establish
vocational education faculties of vocational colleges is one of the solutions that can partially
overcome the existing problems.
2.2.3 Functions and duties of vocational education faculties in fostering pedagogical
skill for teachers
- Training and issuing certificates of vocational education skills and fostering teaching
skills for vocational trainers, according to the program issued by the General Department of
- Developing programs and training materials for teachers for each profession and each
- Regular and advanced fostering for teachers in terms of skills, teaching methods,
curriculum development, and vocational modular training methods...
- Participate in Research on Vocational Education and Pedagogical skills to contribute
to improving the quality of teachers. Deploying and applying the results of scientific research
in vocational education in teaching tasks.
2.2.4 Pedagogical skill fostering activities of vocational education faculties of colleges
in Mekong Delta
The schools have been instructed by the General Department of Vocational Training
to implement the project to establish vocational education faculties, submit to the People's
Committee of province (city) for approval, and then General Department of Vocational
Training will give the school the activities of pedagogical skill training of vocational
education faculties, including: Organization training and fostering to raise occupational skills
and fostering new technologies according to new curriculum and teaching methods for
2.4.5 Results of pedagogical skill training and fostering for teachers in schools having
vocational education faculties in the Mekong Delta region
a) The period of 2011-2017:
Long An Vocational College
(Established in 2014)
An Giang Vocational
(Established in 2008)
Cần Thơ Vocational College
(Established in 2008)
Vinh Long University of
Technology and Education
(Formerly Technology and
education at level
(Subjects serving the
project of 1956
vocational training for
Source: Report on the conference on fostering Vocational education skills 2011-2017 of
the General Department of Vocational Training in Da Lat on September 23, 2017
b) Expected to 2025: Continuing to organize fostering to meet the standards of
vocational education skill and vocational skills for teachers who teach currently do not meet
the standards; Training, fostering, evaluating and granting certificates of vocational practice
skills for teachers teaching key national occupations; Fostering on "credit training, compiling
lesson plan and integrating teaching, training and evaluating according to implementation
capacity”, according to the Decision No. 586 / QD-TCDN dated September 16, 2015 of the
General Department of Vocational Training.
2.3 Survey on the status of management of pedagogical skill training for college teachers
in the Mekong Delta region
Limiting the survey to a number of managers and teachers of 05 Mekong Delta
colleges, according to the statistics of the General Department of Vocational Training by
2016, the reality of the five surveyed schools is shown in Table 2.3.
Long An Vocational
College (with Faculty of
An Giang Vocational
College (with Faculty of
Kien Giang Vocational
Can Tho Vocational
College (with Faculty of
Soc Trang Vocational
Level B, technolo
(English) B, IC3
Table 2.3. Actual situation of teachers of 5 vocational colleges in the Mekong Delta
Source: Statistical report in 2016 of the General Department of Vocational Training
- Survey methods and tools: Survey method by questionnaire. Methods of
conversation, interview ..... Survey time: September 2016 to September 2017
2.4. Actual situation of managing pedagogical skills training for college teachers in the
2.4.1 Actual situation of input management
18.104.22.168. Survey form of managers: The survey results show that managers are very
aware of the input quality as well as enrollment, counseling plan .... They only performed a
few criteria of management process at average level. It can be said that they are not interested
in implementing this criterion or do it very often in managing the inputs quality.
22.214.171.124. Survey form of teachers: The survey results show that the management of the
inputs must have a clear, specific plan in accordance with the school's mission and goals. The
competence of the learners needs to be clearly defined and evaluated before joining the
recruitment. The counseling and admissions for fostering pedagogical skills are
comprehensively and publicly inspected. Information about counseling, enrollment meets and
engage the learners.
126.96.36.199. Survey form of students: Students' perceptions of the inputs include: The
recruitment support team is enthusiastic, considerate; needs and targets of candidates are
evaluated and classified. Admission criteria must be published publicly and popularly. The
recruitment plan is clearly and specifically formulated. Admissions policies and criteria are
clearly defined, issued, disseminated and updated regularly.
2.4.2 Status of process management
188.8.131.52 Teaching activities of teachers and students' learning
184.108.40.206. Resources for pedagogical skills training
220.127.116.11. Organization and implementation of Pedagogical skills training plan: The
General Department of Vocational Training directs Vocational education institutions to make
plans for pedagogical skills training for them, assign teachers to take part in international
vocational education courses, specialized training courses for key occupations, support
funding for organizing courses. Vocational colleges plan, provide funding and organize for
vocational education teachers to participate in pedagogical skills training courses, specialized
training courses according to the needs of the schools.
18.104.22.168. Manage teaching activities of teachers and students' learning: Actual survey
shows: Management of teachers’ teaching activities and students' learning is a decisive factor
for the quality and effectiveness of pedagogical skill training courses for vocational education
22.214.171.124. Status of process management
a ) Survey of managers: The survey results show that only the report on: recruitment
criteria, teaching facilities, programs designed to be compatible with learners, health
indicators, learning environment, processes teaching is very high on average, about 80%
agree and strongly agree, the remain are average about 50%. This proves that the number of
votes surveyed assessing the management of the "process" of training are concerned and
supported by managers.
b) Survey of teachers: the “process” factors of teachers are similar to the survey of
managers. The survey results show that all criteria are assessed the status above 70% agree
and strongly agree. That is, they are satisfied with the actual situation of teaching with the
teachers of the schools. The teaching organization closely follows the content of the lesson
to meet the needs of the learners, but some suggestions about the organized classes outside
the school are not guaranteed in the direction of innovating the current positive teaching
c) Survey of students: The actual results of the "process" were assessed by the trainees
on a relatively high level of satisfaction. However, there are still low indicators of "Frequent
feedback in the process of pedagogical skills training" in many classes, which are not really
satisfied by many people, even though this is one of important and necessary criteria in the
quality assurance standard.
2.4.3 Actual situation of output management:
Survey results of managers: The results of the referendum show that the indicators
of "outputs" for managers are always important, such as: developing a learner results
assessment plan and feedback indicators for assessing learners. The highest agree almost and
strongly agree is 100%. This proves that these indicators have a great influence on the
teaching management process as well as teaching quality.
Survey results of teachers: Feedback of learners after the training course on work
efficiency is assessed by the teacher as 100% of agree and strongly agree, and the lowest
indicator is to determine satisfaction with the practical application of knowledge for the
learners with only 15% of agree and the next low indicator is to determine the satisfaction of
employers to have policies to improve the quality of training with 15.3% of agree. With this
survey result, it requires the teachers to teach expertise and management staff should pay
attention to review their training process where there is any inappropriate.
Survey results of students: The last issue that proves that feedback from learners is
always very important to evaluate the students' learning results, the pre-training and posttraining indicators really need a real innovation to ensure that the assessment is aimed at
helping teachers and learners change teaching and learning methods more effectively.
2.5 General assessment
- Strength: The management levels have taken the initiative in developing a plan for
training and fostering the vocational education teaching staff in professional knowledge and
pedagogical skill to meet the socio-economic development needs of localities, regions and
the whole country, contributing to standardization and improvement of vocational education
teachers’ quality, gradually approaching regional and international level.
- Weakness: The management, checking and evaluating the quality and effectiveness
of some training courses are not good. The training and fostering of teachers teaching
fostering courses and improving the qualifications of pedagogical skills are not enough to
meet the requirements of developing and improving the quality of vocational teachers. The
management, organization of compilation and evaluation of curriculum in some schools have
not followed the process.
2.6 Experience of some countries in the world on training pedagogical skills for
2.6.1 Experience of countries in the world: USA, Germany, Australia
2.6.2 Lessons applied in Vietnam
CONCLUSION OF CHAPTER 2
From the results of the survey on fostering and management situation of pedagogical
skill for college teachers in the Mekong Delta region, comparing with the requirements of
management of fostering pedagogical skills for college teachers in the direction of QA will
be the basis for building and propose solutions for managing pedagogical skills training for
college teachers in the direction of QA, meeting the requirements of training high quality
human resources, contributing to the socio-economic development of the Mekong Delta
region by 2025 in a suitable, feasible and effective manner in the context of current
SOLUTIONS FOR MANAGEMENT OF PEDAGOGICAL SKILLS TRAINING
FOR COLLEGE TEACHERS IN THE MEKONG DELTA IN THE DIRECTION OF
3.1 Orientation of vocational education development and development of teaching staff
of colleges in the Mekong Delta up to 2025
3.1.1 Orientation of Vocational Education development
Management of pedagogical skill training for teachers should be screened and
recruited, the use management, training, fostering, standardization, evaluating task
performance, implementin regimes and policies, creating working environment for teaching
staff. This is a fundamental, comprehensive change process towards completion to meet the
requirements and challenges for the overall development of the school.
a) Overall objective: Focusing on improving the quality of comprehensive education;
planning pre-school and general education institutions suitable to development scale and
conditions in water way areas; shifting the focus of regional human resource training
development from scale development to improving quality and efficiency, training according
to market and social needs; gradually meeting the requirements of comprehensive renovation
of education and training, contributing to political stability, security, defense and socioeconomic development of region.
b) Specific objectives: Building a network of vocational education institutions with
industry structure suitable to the national human resource development planning; stabilizing
the vocational school network of about 80 schools. Renovating and improving the quality of
secondary education so that by 2020, striving to attract about 15% of lower secondary school
graduates into vocational education. In the 2016-2020 period, an average of 300,000 people
will be trained every year, of which intermediate and college degrees will account for 1215%. By 2020, there will be at least 02 colleges meeting the criteria of high quality schools
in the region according to Decision No. 761 / QD-TTg; 03 boarding secondary schools that
meet the training quality standards for boarding ethnic minority students; about 100 key
occupations at the minimum standard levels.
3.1.3 Orientation of developing college teachers in the Mekong Delta
a) Teachers: Focusing on developing plans for training teachers of vocational
education institutions, improving pedagogical and professional competence for teachers is a
prerequisite for ensuring the quality of training, promoting socialization of training, adjusting
job structure and prioritizing the development of occupations to meet the requirements of
regional industrialization and modernization.
b) Fostering of pedagogical skills for teachers: Fostering pedagogical skills for
teachers at colleges is one of the key tasks that need to be changed. Teaching staff is a decisive
factor to the quality of vocational education and the ability to adapt to rapid changes in the
market economy mechanism, ensure that vocational education service actively serves the task
of socio-economic development. Vocational education products are special goods, but also
comply with following the rules of market competition.
3.2 Principles of solution formulation:
3.3 Solutions on management of pedagogical skill training for teachers of colleges
in the Mekong Delta in the direction of quality assurance
3.3.1 Solution 1: Managing enrollment and training for pedagogical skills for teachers
of colleges in the Mekong Delta in the direction of quality assurance
Students must go through the prequalification process, which is designed to suit each
student's learning needs. At the same time, the planning should also inherit the existing values
and develop the enrollment plan as a process to ensure the improvement of input student
selection standards and high quality requirements at the output.
3.3.2 Solution 2: Managing the conditions of implementation of pedagogical skill
training for college teachers in the Mekong Delta in the direction of quality assurance
a) Pedagogical skill training program: In the context of fundamental and
comprehensive renovation of education and training to meet the requirements of
industrialization and modernization, market economy and international integration, teachers
in general and vocational teachers in particular should play the role of 3 people: Teacher scientist - manager. Therefore, the content of the pedagogical skill training program for
teachers must also be developed with the corresponding requirements.
b) Teaching staff of pedagogical skills: In the context of high-speed development of
science and technology and current international integration requirements, it is necessary to
build a teacher force approaching the international level of qualified pedagogical skills to
teach fostering courses for the teaching staff of key occupations in the regional and
c) Facilities, equipment for fostering pedagogical skills
Ensuring conditions of facilities and equipment for pedagogical skill training is an
important and decisive factor to ensure the quality and efficiency of pedagogical skill training
in the direction of quality assurance.
3.3.3 Solution 3: Managing the evaluation of outputs and granting graduation
certificates in pedagogical skill training to college teachers in the Mekong Delta in the
direction of QA
The organization of examination and evaluation of each stage will help confirm the
correctness of the plan and timely correct if any errors. The periodic examination and
evaluation will help managers and teachers to recognize the effectiveness of the task of
pedagogical skills training for teachers in the Mekong Delta region in the direction of QA,
identify the responsibilities of managers at all levels and teachers themselves in promoting
strengths and adjusting errors to suit the set goals.
3.3.4 Solution 4: Innovating the operational management of vocational education
faculty at colleges in the Mekong Delta towards quality assurance
Innovating the operational management of vocational education faculty at colleges in
the Mekong Delta towards quality assurance is a very necessary solution to meet the needs of
fostering pedagogical skills for university graduates from other majors to become vocational
education teachers and fostering modern topics, teaching methods, and exploiting multimedia
documents to improve the skill of pedagogical skill of vocational education teachers in the
context of international integration today.
3.3.5 The relationship between the solutions:
Each of the solutions proposed above has a certain position, importance and impact on
the management of fostering pedagogical skills for college teachers in the Mekong Delta in
the direction of quality assurance and they are united in one system, interactive relationship
with each other, creating motivation to promote the implementation process and improve the
effectiveness of pedagogical skills training management, contributing to the development of
teaching staff in the direction of QA.
3.4 Testing the feasibility and necessity of the solutions
Through a survey of 182 state management officials in 05 vocational training
institutions, the feasibility test results of the solutions are shown by the feasibility assessment
experts with the highest necessary questionnaire as the solution "Managing the evaluation of
outputs and issuing graduation certificates, applying CIPO model in fostering pedagogical
skills for college teachers in the direction of quality assurance ". Assessing the necessity of
the solution: The results show that 60% (2/3) of the proposed solutions to improve the
effectiveness of "pedagogical fostering management for college teachers in the Mekong
Delta" are evaluated as relatively feasible or feasible or relatively necessary or necessary;
20% (1/3) of the solutions were evaluated as not feasible or less necessary. The solution
evaluated by experts with a high score is the solution "Managing the evaluation of outputs
and issuing graduation certificates in pedagogical skill training for lecturers of colleges in the
Mekong Delta in the direction of quality assurance" evaluated with the number of votes that
are relatively feasible and feasible is 148/182, which is the opinion of the managers,
accounting for 81.3%. Next is the solution "Innovating the operation management of
pedagogy faculty at colleges in the Mekong Delta towards quality assurance" evaluated with
relatively feasible and feasible votes of 136/182 is the opinion of the managers, accounting
3.5. Testing solution 3
Solution 3: “Managing the evaluation of outputs and granting graduation certificates
in pedagogical skill training to college teachers in the Mekong Delta in the direction of QA”.
General assessment: After testing, the solution of "Managing the evaluation of
outputs and granting graduation certificates in pedagogical skill training to college teachers
in the Mekong Delta in the direction of QA" has a higher average score before the test. The
solution has been greatly evaluated and will be one of the important factors to ensure the