HO CHI MINH CITY PEOPLE’S COMMITTEE
SAI GON UNIVERSITY
FOREIGN LANGUAGE DEPARTMENT
Pham Mộng Thùy
HO CHI MINH CITY PEOPLE’S COMMITTEE
SAI GON UNIVERSITY
FOREIGN LANGUAGE DEPARTMENT
Phạm Mộng Thùy
(Royal Family Oder of Queen Elizabeth II)
Contents & References
1. Queen Elizabeth II....................................4
2. Queen’s Role............................................7
3. Queen in Parliament.................................8
4. The Queen’s Family Tree.........................10
5. Buckingham Palace.................................11
6. The Queen’s Christmas Broadcast...........12
1.Queen Elizabeth II
Elizabeth Alexandra Mary was born on April 21, 1962 in London, England. Her
father, Prince Albert, Duke of York, was the second son of King George V. Her
mother, the Former Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon, was the daughter of a Scottish
earl. Princess Elizabeth was their first child. Her only sibling, Margaret Rose,
was born in 1930.
British princess did not attend school on those days, do Princess Elizabeth
and Princess Margaret were educated at home by governess, Marion
Crawford. The family lives in a four-story house at 145 Piccadilly in London. It
was a relaxed and happy household. The princess spent plenty of time with
their parents, who even joined them in pillow fights. Governess “Crawfie”
took them for walk in public parks. They liked to play hopscotch and hideand-seek. On the weekends, the family went to their country house, the
Royal Lodge in Windsor Great Park, where the girls enjoyed working in the
garden with their parents.
Normal though their lives were in some ways, they were still princess, and
rarely had chance to mingle with other children. According to Marion
Crawford (who later angered the royal family by writing a book about the
girls), Elizabeth and Margaret were fascinated by other children, and “used to
smile shyly at those they liked to look of. They would so have loved to speak
to them and make friends, but this was never encouraged. I have often
thought it a pity.”
Despite spending so much time together, the royal family sisters developed
very different personalities. Princess Elizabeth, nicknamed “Lilibet”, was so
notably calm, organized, and well-behaved child, while Princess Margaret
was high-spirited and mischievous.
In 1936, when Elizabeth was nine years old, her grandfather George V died
and her father’s older brother became King Edward VII. But Edward didn’t
stay king for long. Determined to marry a woman who was considered
“unsuitable”, he abdicated his throne after a reign of just 327 days. Suddenly
Elizabeth’s shy, stammering father was King George VI.
When Margaret learned what had happened, she asked her sister, “Does that
mean that you will have to be the next queen?”
Elizabeth answered, “Yes, someday.”
“Poor you!” Margaret said.
Like Princess Margaret, George VI felt that the monarchy was a great burden.
He did not want to be king. But he believed it was his duty to take the crown
his brother had cast aside, and his wife agreed. “We must take what is
coming to us and make the best of it”, the new queen said.
Within two months the family had moved into Buckingham Palace. Princess
Elizabeth’s life would never be the same.
Daughter of the King
Princess Elizabeth was now heir presumptive to the British throne. Her
parents had always taken an easy-going approach to their daughters’
education, but they made an effort to prepare Elizabeth for her future as
queen. Her father gave her newspaper articles to familiarize her with politics,
and her mother (or, by other accounts, her grandmother Queen Mary)
arranged for her to receive twice-weekly lessons on the history of the British
In 1939, when Elizabeth was 13, she met her third cousin Prince Philip off
Greece, who was five years her senior. It was love at first sight, at least on
Elizabeth’s part. According to Marion Crawford, Philip “showed off a good
deal” while playing tennis, impressing Elizabeth, who “never took her eyes
off him”. Throughout her teens, Elizabeth remained devoted to the goodlooking young man she call “my Viking prince”.
The Second World War started later that year. Fearing a Nazi invasion, the
king sent his daughter to live at Windsor Castle, which was just 30 miles from
London, but safer then Buckingham Palace. Elizabeth and Margaret lived
there until the war ended five years later.
At age 16, Elizabeth registered at a labor exchange like all other girls her
age. She wanted to volunteer as a nurse in bombed-out areas of London, but
her father felt it was too dangerous. Finally, in 1945, when she was almost
19, the king let her join the Auxiliary Territorial Service. She learned to drive
and repair heavy vehicles. Soon after she finished her training, the war
In 1947, Princess Elizabeth went on her first official overseas visit,
accompanying her parents and sister to South Africa. During the trip, she
turned 21 and made an historic radio broadcast in which she pledge to
dedicate her life to the people of the Commonwealth.
“I declare before you that my whole life, whether it be long or short, shall be
devoted to your service and the service of our great imperial Commonwealth
to which we all belong”, she said. “But I shall not have strength to carry out
this resolution unless you join in it with me, as I know invite you to do; I know
that your support will be unfailingly given. God bless all of you who are
willing to share it”.
Love and Marriage
In 1946, Elizabeth became secretly engaged to Prince Philip, who had served
in Britain’s Royal Navy during World War II and was now a lieutenant. Once
again she faced opposition from her father, who thought she was too young
to get married; and once again, after much patient
persistence, she got her way. The king relented, and
Princess Elizabeth’s engagement was officially announced
in June 1947.
Philip gave up his Greek citizenship and title, becoming a
British subject and assuming the surname Mountbatten
(an English version of his mother’s family name,
Battenberg). Before the weeding, Elizabeth’s father gave
Philip the British titles Duke of Edinburgh, Earl of
Merioneth, and Baron Greenwich, but Philip was no longer
Princess Elizabeth and the Duke of Edinburgh were married at Westminster
Abbey on November 20, 1947. After their honeymoon at Broadlands – an
historic house in Hampshire owned by Philip’s uncle Lord Mountbatten – was
cut short by nosy photographers, they returned to London. Eventually they
moved into Clarence House at St. James’ Palace. Elizabeth began carrying
out royal duties and Philip resumed his career in the navy, rising to the rank
Elizabeth gave a birth to her first child, Charles Philip Arthur George, at
Buckingham Palace on November 14, 1948. Her only daughter, Anne
Elizabeth Alice Louise, was born on August 15, 1950 at Clarence House.
Elizabeth as Queen
February 6, 1952, while Princess Elizabeth and her husband
were visiting Kenya, King George VI died of lung cancer.
Twenty-six-year old Elizabeth was now the queen. The
coronation took place on June 2, 1953 was broadcast to
television and radio audiences around the world.
From the start of her reign, Queen Elizabeth II was popular
at home and abroad. In 1952, TIME Magazine named her its
Woman of the Year, saying, “Elizabeth’s life story had
provided a quiet, well-behaved fairy tale in which the world
Queen Elizabeth is the United Kingdom’s head of state. She is also head of
the Commonwealth. During her reign, she has many official visits abroad and
has travelled all over Britain. She participates in ceremonies such as the
Opening of Parliament, and plays a role in virtually every branch of
government. For instance, she is the head of the armed forces, and only she
can declare war, although she cannot exercise this power without the advice
of her ministers. She is kept closely and other officials, and acts as host to
visiting heads of state. She is patron or president of over 700 organizations.
In 2000 she carried out 531 official engagements.
The Duke of Edinburgh often accompanies his wife on her travels. He gave
up his active naval career after Elizabeth became queen, but continued to be
involved with the military. Today he holds the ranks of Admiral of the Fleet,
field marshal and marshal of the Royal Air Force, and captain-general of the
Royal Marines. He is president or patron of some 800 organizations, and was
the first president of the World Wildlife Fund, a position he held for over 20
years. In 1957, Queen Elizabeth granted him the title Prince of the United
Kingdom. He is officially known as The Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh.
Queen Elizabeth and Prince Philip’s third child, Andrew Albert Christian
Edward, was born on February 19, 1960 at Buckingham Palace. Their last
child, Edward Anthony Richard Louis, was born on March 10, 1964, also at
Buckingham Palace. In 1977, Elizabeth and Philip became grandparents
when their daughter, Princess Anne, gave birth to a son, Peter Phillips. The
queen and Prince Philip celebrated their 50th wedding anniversary in 1997.
They currently (in 2005) have seven grandchildren.
The queen’s love of animals is well-known. An avid horse racing fan, she
owns and breeds race horses. As of February 2003 she had 10 dogs, three of
which previously belong to her mother. The queen personally feeds and cares
for her dogs, despite her busy schedule. Her mots famous pets are her
corgis, but she has also owned labradors and spaniels. She even introduced a
new breed of dog, the dorgi – half dachshund and half corgi.
In 1977, Queen Elizabeth celebrated her Silver Jubilee, making 25 years as
monarch. And in 2002, the 50th year of her reign, she celebrated her Golden
Jubilee. Sadly, the queen lost two members of her family in 2002. Her sister,
Princess Margaret, died in February at the age of 71; their 101-year-old
mother, Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother, died the following month.
Decade after decade, Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II continues to work fulltime at job she has held since 1952. Some people have suggested that she
consider retirement, but it seems unlike that the queen will ever abdicate.
Most observers believe she will faithfully serve her country for as long as she
Although the Queen is no longer responsible for governing the country, she
carried out of a great many important tasks on behalf of the nation.
Head of State
As Head of State, the Queen goes on official State visits abroad. She also
invites other world leaders to come to the United Kingdom. During their visit,
Heads of State usually stay at Buckingham Palace or some as Windsor Castle
or Holyroodhouse in Edinburgh
Head of the Armed Forces
The Queen is also the Head of Armed Forces. She is the only person who can
declare when the country is at war and when war is over, although she must
take advice from her government first.
Head of the Church of England
The Queen is Head of the Church of England – a position that all British
monarchs have held since it was founded by Henry VII in the 1530s.
The Queen appoints archbishops and bishops on the advice of the Prime
The spiritual leader of the Church of England is the Archbishop of Canterbury
Every day “red boxes” are delivered to the Queen’s desk full of documents
and reports from the government ministers and Commonwealth officials.
They must all be read and, if necessary, signed by the Queen.
Represents the Nation
The Queen represents the nation at the times of great celebration or sorrow.
One example of this is Remembrance Day ceremony at the Cenotaph
monument in White hall. The Queen lays a wreath there each year to honour
the members of the armed forces who have died fighting for their country.
Royal Garden Parties
At least three Royal Garden Parties are held at Buckingham Palace each year
and about 8,000 guests attend each one.
Alongside her other duties the Queen spends a huge amount of time
travelling around the country visiting hospitals, schools, factories and other
places and organization.
3. Queen in Parliament
The Queen has an important formal and ceremonial
relationship with Parliament.
The phrase 'Crown in Parliament' is used to describe the
British legislature, which consists of the Sovereign, the
House of Lords and the House of Commons.
Of these three different elements, the Commons, a majority of whom
normally supports the elected Government of the day, has the dominant
The role of the Sovereign in the enactment of legislation is today purely
formal, although The Queen has the right ‘to be consulted, to encourage and
to warn’ her ministers via regular audiences with the Prime Minister.
The Sovereign’s assent is required to all bills passed by Parliament in order
for them to become law. Royal Assent (consenting to a measure becoming
law) has not been refused since 1707.
It is also a long established convention that The Queen is asked by
Parliament to provide consent (which is different to assent) for the debating
of bills which would affect the prerogative or interests of the Crown. Where
Queen’s Consent is given it is signified in each House of Parliament and
recorded in Hansard. Consent has not been withheld in modern times, except
on the advice of Government.
In the annual State Opening of Parliament ceremony, The Queen opens
Parliament in person, and addresses both Houses in The Queen's Speech.
Neither House can proceed to public business until The Queen's Speech has
This speech is drafted by the Government and not by The Queen. It outlines
the Government's policy for the coming session of Parliament and indicates
Under the terms of the Fixed-term Parliaments Act (2011), each Parliament
consists of five twelve-month sessions. While each session is opened by The
Queen in person at the State Opening, the session is closed (prorogued) in
The Queen's name with a speech read in the House of Lords, and in the
presence of the Commons, by the Leader of the Lords.
When Parliament is summoned after a Royal proclamation there must,
according to the Representation of the People Act 1918, be a period of at
least twenty days before Parliament meets. This period can be extended, but
only for fourteen days, according to the Prorogation Act 1867.
There is only one occasion on which Parliament meets without a Royal
summons, and that is when the Sovereign has died. In such circumstances,
the Succession to the Crown Act 1707 provides that, if Parliament is not
already sitting, it must immediately meet and sit.
The Meeting of Parliament Act 1797 provides that, if the Sovereign dies after
Parliament have been dissolved, the immediately preceding Parliament sits
for up to six months, if not prorogued or dissolved before then.
The Queen's role in Parliament is:
Assenting to Bills passed by Parliament, on the advice of Ministers;
Giving audiences to Ministers, at which Her Majesty may be consulted,
encourage and warn;
Summoning new Parliaments and, on the advice of her Government,
appointing the date of its first meeting;
Opening and closing (proroguing) each session of Parliament.
4.The Queen’s Family Tree
Buckingham Palace was originally a grand house built by the Dukes of
Buckingham for his wife. George IV began transforming it into a Palace in
Buckingham Palace is the Queen’s official and main royal London home. It
has been the official London residence of Britain’s monarchy since 1837.
Queen Victoria is the first monarch to live there.
Buckingham Palace is not only the home of the Queen and Prince Philip but
also the London residence of the Duke of York (Prince Andrew) and the Earl
and Countess of Wessex (Prince Edward and his wife) and their daughter.
Buckingham Palace is used also for the administrative work for the
monarchy. It is here in the state apartments that Her Majesty receives and
entertains guests invited to the Palace.
Changing of the Guard
A familiar sight at Buckingham Palace is the Changing of the Guard
ceremony that takes place in the forecourt each morning. The monarch and
the royal palaces have been guarded by the Household Troops since 1660.
Inside Buckingham Palace
The Palace has around 600
rooms, including 19 state rooms,
52 royal and guest bedrooms, 78
bathrooms, 92 offices, a cinema
and a swimming pool. It also has
its own post office and police
About 400 people work at the
cleaners, plumbers, gardeners,
chauffers, electricians, and two
people who look after the 300
Every year, more than 50,000 people come to the Palace each year as guest
to banquets, lunches, dinners, receptions, and Royal Garden Parties.
6.The Queen’s Christmas Broadcast
The first Christmas Broadcast was delivered by George V in 1932 and since
then has evolved into an important part of the Christmas Day celebrations
for many in Britain and around the world.
The Christmas Broadcast is an intrinsic part of Christmas Day festivities for
many people across the Commonwealth. Each Broadcast carefully reflects
current issues and concerns, and shares The Queen's reflections on what
Christmas means to her and many of her listeners. Over the years, the
Christmas Broadcast has acted as a chronicle of global, national and personal
events which have affected The Queen and her audience.
The first Christmas Broadcast
The Christmas message was started by The Queen's grandfather, King
George V. King George had reigned since 1910, but it was not until 1932 that
he delivered his first Christmas message.
The original idea for a Christmas speech by the Sovereign was mooted in
1932 by Sir John Reith, the visionary founding father of the BBC, to
inaugurate the Empire Service (now the BBC World Service).
Originally hesitant about using the relatively untried medium of radio in this
way, The King was reassured by a visit to the BBC in the summer of 1932,
and agreed to take part. And so, on Christmas Day, 1932, King George V
spoke on the 'wireless' to the Empire from a small office at Sandringham.
The transmission was an exercise of contemporary logistic brilliance. Two
rooms at Sandringham were converted into temporary broadcasting rooms.
The microphones at Sandringham were connected through Post Office land
lines to the Control Room at Broadcasting House. From there connection was
made to BBC transmitters in the Home Service, and to the Empire
Broadcasting Station at Daventry with its six short-wave transmitters.
The General Post Office was used to reach Australia, Canada, India, Kenya
and South Africa.
The time chosen was 3.00pm - the best time for reaching most of the
countries in the Empire by short waves from the transmitters in Britain.
In the event, the first Broadcast started at five past three (twenty-five
minutes to four according to the King's 'Sandringham Time') and lasted two
and a half minutes.
The Broadcast was preceded by an hour-long programe of greetings from all
parts of the Empire.
The text of the first Christmas speech was written by poet and writer
Rudyard Kipling and began with the words: "I speak now from my home and
from my heart to you all."
The King acknowledged the unifying force of technology in his historic
speech: "I speak now from my home and from my heart to you all; to men
and women so cut off by the snows, the desert, or the sea, that only voices
out of the air can reach them."
As the sound of a global family sharing common interests, the Broadcast
made a huge impact on its audience of 20 million. Equally impressed, George
V made a Broadcast every Christmas Day subsequently until his death in
George V's last Christmas Broadcast in 1935 came less than a month before
his death and the King's voice sounded weaker. He spoke of his people's joys
and sorrows, as well as his own, and there was a special word for his
Early Christmas Broadcasts
King George V's eldest son and the new king, Edward VIII, never delivered a
Christmas Broadcast, as his reign lasted less than a year.
The task fell to King George VI, King Edward's younger brother, who made his
first broadcast in December 1937 in which he thanked the nation and Empire
for their support during the first year of his reign.
Though the Christmas Broadcast was already popular by this time, it had still
not yet become the regular tradition it is today. Indeed, there had been no
broadcasts in 1936 or 1938.
It was the outbreak of war in 1939 which firmly established the Royal
Christmas Broadcast. With large parts of the world now facing an uncertain
future, King George VI spoke live to offer a message of reassurance to his
He dressed in the uniform of the Admiral of the Fleet, sitting in front of two
microphones on a table at Sandringham. It was to be a landmark speech and
was to have an important effect on the listening public as they were plunged
into the uncertainty of war:
"A new year is at hand. We cannot tell what it will bring. If it brings peace,
how thankful we shall all be. If it brings us continued struggle we shall
The war-time Christmas Broadcasts played a large part in boosting morale
and reinforcing belief in the common cause. When the war ended, the
Broadcasts - with their sentiments of unity and continuity - continued as a
matter of course throughout the subsequent decades of change.
King George VI's final Christmas Broadcast was marked by the illness that
had plagued the King through his last years. The 1951 Broadcast was the
only Broadcast that King George VI recorded rather than delivering live.
The King was only able to manage it in intervals, but his voice came over
strongly. He spoke of his recovery from illness and the goodwill messages he
"From my peoples in these islands and in the British Commonwealth and
Empire - as well as from many other countries - this support and sympathy
has reached me and I thank you now from my heart..."
The Queen's Christmas Broadcasts
After the death of George VI in February
1952, The Queen broadcast her first
Christmas message. She spoke of
carrying on the tradition passed on to
her by the late King:
"Each Christmas, at this time, my
beloved Father broadcast a message to
his people in all parts of the world ... As he
used to do, I am speaking to you from
my own home, where I am spending
Christmas with my family ... My Father [King George VI], and my Grandfather
[King George V] before him, worked hard all their lives to unite our peoples
ever more closely, and to maintain its ideals which were so near to their
hearts. I shall strive to carry on their work."
A BBC report at the time also noted the continuation of tradition:
"She used the same desk and chair as her father King George VI and his
father King George V had done.
In clear, firm tones she thanked her subjects for their "loyalty and affection"
since her accession to the throne 10 months ago and promised to continue
the work of her father and grandfather to unite the nations of the British
Commonwealth and Empire.
She asked them to pray for her on coronation day next summer.
Throughout her reign The Queen has made a Broadcast every year except
one. No Christmas Broadcast took place in 1969 because a repeat of the
documentary Royal Family was already scheduled for the holiday period.
Public concern at this apparent break with tradition prompted The Queen to
issue a written message of reassurance that the Broadcast would return in
the following year, so popular had it become.
The first televised message was broadcast live in 1957. The advent of
television during The Queen's reign has given an added dimension to her
Broadcasts. It has allowed viewers to see The Queen in her own residences,
decorated for Christmas like many homes across the world.
The location is usually Buckingham Palace, but recordings have also been
made at Windsor and Sandringham. In 2003 the message was filmed at
Combermere Barracks in Windsor - the first time the address had been shot
entirely on location. Footage from the year's Royal events is often shown,
enabling the public to see the highlights of the Royal year.
From 1960, Broadcasts were recorded in advance so that the tapes could be
sent around the world to 17 Commonwealth countries, to be broadcast at a
convenient local time.
Although technology has advanced, the workload for all involved, including
The Queen, is still considerable.
Planning starts early with The Queen's choice of a theme which she wishes to
address. Appropriate footage is then filmed during various public
engagements - and occasionally private events - during the remainder of the
year. Since 1997, the BBC and ITV have alternated in filming and producing
the Broadcast every two years; the 2009 Broadcast is being filmed by the
The actual message is recorded a few days before Christmas, and lasts up to
This year marks The Queen's 58th Christmas Broadcast. Over the years, the
Broadcasts have chronicled both the life of the nation and of The Monarchy;
the Broadcast is one of the rare occasions when The Queen does not speak
on Government advice. Instead, The Queen gives her own views on events
and developments which are of concern both to Her Majesty and her public,
in the UK and wider afield in the Commonwealth.
In 1966, for example, during a decade which saw great changes for women,
The Queen spoke about the important role of women in society:
"This year I should like to speak especially to women.
In the modern world the opportunities for women to give something of value
to the human family are greater than ever, because, through their own
efforts, they are now beginning to play their full part in public life."
Whilst in 1983, when the computer age was in its infancy, Her Majesty spoke
of the very modern technologies which were helping to transmit her
Broadcast, but warned against allowing these technologies to replace human
interaction and compassion:
"This mastery of technology may blind us to the more fundamental needs of
people. Electronics cannot create comradeship; computers cannot generate
compassion; satellites cannot transmit tolerance."
The Queen is ever conscious of her role as Head of the Armed Forces in her
Christmas Broadcasts. British and Commonwealth troops serving overseas
over the Christmas period and their families are uppermost in Her Majesty's
In 1990, she spoke of the threat of war in the Middle East:
"The servicemen in the Gulf who are spending Christmas at their posts under
this threat are much in our thoughts. And there are many others, at home
and abroad, servicemen and civilians, who are away from their own
And in 2003, with conflict again in the Middle East, a special Broadcast from
the Household Cavalry Barracks in Windsor was arranged at The Queen's
"I want to draw attention to the many servicemen and women who are
stationed far from home this Christmas. I'm thinking about their wives and
children and about their parents and friends."
As the Christmas Broadcast is Her Majesty's own personal message to the
nation, The Queen has occasionally shared personal concerns with her
listeners. Her Majesty's personal experiences are always related back to
those of the public to whom she is speaking.
In her 1990 Christmas broadcast, for example, she spoke of the happy family
events which had taken place that year:
"My family ... has been celebrating my mother's Ninetieth Birthday, and we
have shared with you the joy of some of those celebrations. My youngest
grandchild's Christening, two days ago, has brought the family together once
again. I hope that all of us lucky enough to be able to enjoy such gatherings
this Christmas will take time to count our blessings."
In 2002, another Jubilee year, Her Majesty spoke of her grief at the death of
Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother and Princess Margaret,
thanking the public for their messages of support:
"At such a difficult time this gave me great comfort and inspiration as I faced
up both to my own personal loss and to the busy Jubilee summer ahead."
In both of her Jubilee years - 1977 and 2002, The Queen has used the
Christmas Broadcast to thank the public for their part in the festivities. In
2002 she said:
"The celebrations were joyous occasions but they also seemed to evoke
something more lasting and profound - a sense of belonging and pride in
country, town, or community."
With technological advances meaning that viewers have a choice of format television, radio or internet, the Christmas Broadcast is more accessible than
ever. The technology has changed but, at broadcasters' request, the timing
remains at 3.00pm as a fixed point in the schedules.
The establishment of the Christmas Broadcast as an annual tradition creates
a sense of continuity for many. Though each year's theme is chosen by The
Queen and reflects her own interests, it is always motivated by compassion
and concern for her people.
For The Queen, the Broadcast is not only a duty to be fulfilled, it is an
opportunity to speak directly to the public, to react to their concerns and to
thank and reassure them. In this way, the Christmas Broadcast helps to
reinforce The Queen's role as a focus for national unity.