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Mạng lưới chợ ở nam trung bộ thời nguyễn (giai đoạn 1802 1884) tt tiếng anh

VIETNAM ACADEMY
OF SOCIAL SCIENCES
GRADUATE ACADEMY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES

DINH THI THAO

MARKETS IN SOUTH-CENTRAL
COASTAL VIETNAM DURING THE
NGUYEN DYNASTY(PERIOD 1802-1884)

Major: History of Vietnam
Code: 92 29 013

SUMMARY OF DOCTORAL THESIS IN
HISTORY

HANOI - 2019


The thesis is completed at: Graduate Academy of Social
Sciences


Scientific instructor: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Nguyen Duc Nhue
Referee 1: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Vu Van Quan
Referee 2: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Nguyen Duy Binh
Referee 3: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Tran Thi Vinh

The thesis will be defended by the Academy-level Thesis
Examination Committee met at the Graduate Academy of
Social Sciences at ...... hours ... minutes, on day ....
month…. year….

The thesis can be found at:


ABSTRACT
1. Urgency of the subject
In the past few decades, the villages in Vietnam have become one
of the subjects of research interest in social sciences, including
History. The study of economy, culture and society under the
Nguyen Dynasty in general and commercial activities in the rural
areas in particular are also being studied. In that context, it is more
meaningful to restore the understanding of the appearances and
operations of the markets in the South-Central Coastal region in the
period of 1802-1884. On the one hand, it helps to understand the
establishment and operation of markets in South-Central Coastal
Vietnam; on the other hand, it shows the characteristics of the
markets and its contributions to the development of the SouthCentral Coastal region from culture and society to economic life in
general and trading industry in particular.
Moreover, when taking markets in the South-Central Coastal
Vietnam as the research objectives, it will help to identify more
clearly about the villages in the localities in particular and the SouthCentral Coastal region in general; Contributing to preserving and
promoting traditional cultural values typical of village markets as
well as the villages of South-Central Coastal provinces. At the same
time, it also contributes to supplementing the source of resources for
learning and teaching local history of the South-Central Coastal
provinces. Due to the above reasons, I decided to choose the topic:
Markets in South-Central Coastal Vietnam during the Nguyen
Dynasty (period 1802-1884) as my research topic.
2. Research purposes and mission
- Initial collection and system of documents to have an overview
of the markets in South-Central Coastal Vietnam during the Nguyen
Dynasty (period 1802-1884). On the basis of generalizing and
reconstructing the appearances of some typical markets in this
region, the topic focuses on clarifying the activities of the markets in
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this area on the exchange, trading of goods, prices and tax rates,
measurement methods, market trading components, etc.; Thereby,
the initial comments on the characteristics and role of the markets for
economic, cultural and social development in the South-Central
Coastal Vietnam during the Nguyen Dynasty (period 1802-1884)
were brought out. Contributing to better identify the economic,
cultural and social characteristics of the South-Central Coastal
region; explain the development level of commodity economy and
commercial economy, especially the internal trade in South-Central
Coastal Vietnam under the Nguyen Dynasty in the period of 18021884. By the way, it contributes to supplementing the sources of
resources for the research and teaching of local history in the SouthCentral Coastal region; introducing about South-Central Coastal
region's land and people in history.
- The thesis sets out the tasks of collecting and systematic related
resources; inheriting and promoting research results of previous
researchers. On that basis, determine the thesis issues needed to
continue research; Analyze the establishment and development of
markets; Recreate the appearance of some typical markets (big
markets, central markets, markets with focal points, markets with
rich and diversified goods sources, etc.) in both midland,
mountainous and delta areas, coastal areas, and estuaries. On that
basis, clarifying the exchange and trading activities in markets and
economic relations between the localities in the region and with other
regions; even with the foreign countries; Point out the characteristics
and affirm the role of the markets for the development of all aspects
of the South-Central Coastal region.
3. Objectives and scope of the research
- The research objectives are the markets in South-Central Coastal
with specific research objects which are typical markets in the
midland, mountainous and delta areas, coastal areas and estuaries.

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- Scope of research: About the space: the topic of administrative
boundaries in the South-Central Coastal region (including 5
provinces: Binh Dinh, Phu Yen, Khanh Hoa, Ninh Thuan and Binh
Thuan) as the main research area. The author also chooses the
research site as the representative markets or provinces as the
specific research objectives of the topic. About the time: The topic
has a limited research on the time of the Nguyen Dynasty in the
period from 1802 (the Nguyen Dynasty completed the unification
mission) to 1884 (the Patenotre Treaty signed on June 6th, 1884 was
confirmed the establishment of long-term French protection rights
over all of Vietnam and the end of the Nguyen Dynasty that existed
as an independent and autonomous feudal state). About the content:
Based on the reconstruction of typical markets in the whole region,
the author focuses on clarifying the exchange and trading activities
taking place here; draws some characteristics and role of the markets
in South-Central Coastal Vietnam in the period of 1802-1884. The
cultural activities taking place in the markets are only considered in
relation to exchange and trading activities or in the process of
generalization, describing the picture of some typical markets.
4. Resources and research methods
- To complete the topic, we have exploited and synthesized
resources from various sources. In particular, we exploited and made
the maximum use of the original sources of contemporary resources
compiled from the late 19th century and the early 20th century
backwards (mainly the books composed by the National
Historiographer's Office of the Nguyen Dynasty and the Cabinet of
the Nguyen Dynasty) and considers them as an important source of
resources to implement the topic. In addition, the Western resources
or local fieldwork resources were also tried to exploit, access and
use.
- Based on the methods of dialectical resources and historical
resources of Marxism-Leninism, the author applies throughout and
combines two specialized methods in historical research (historical
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and logical methods) to adequately solve the problems that the
research topic brings out. In addition, the fieldwork method was used
to collect field documents related to the topic; methods of synthesis,
statistics, analysis, comparison, etc.
5. New scientific contributions of the thesis
The topic has initially exploited and systematized the resources to
have an overview of the markets in South-Central Coastal Vietnam
during the Nguyen Dynasty in the period from 1802 to 1884. Along
with the research projects on villages, rural areas, trading industry,
etc. of the domestic and foreign scholars, our research results
contribute to a better identification of villages, traditional and
cultural characteristics, commercial activities of the South-Central
Coastal people and make the first step to explain the level of
commodity economy development in the South-Central Coastal
provinces for nearly the entire of the 19th century. Based on the
content of the thesis focused on solving, we boldly pointed out some
characteristics of the markets in South-Central Coastal Vietnam in
the period of 1802-1884. At the same time, affirming the positive
contributions of the markets to the development of the South-Central
Coastal region.
6. Theoretical and practical significances of the thesis
The research results of the thesis contribute to affirming the role
of trading industry, which is the role of the market in the economy in
general; clarifying the role of the state, locality and people in
managing the goods exchange and trading activities at local markets.
The thesis provides a resource system for the research, teaching,
learning and propagation of local history in the universities, colleges
and the societies in the South-Central Coastal region. The results of
the thesis are also a reference channel for the local authorities in
planning policies for developing the traditional markets,

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preserving and promoting local traditional and cultural values.
7. Structure of the thesis
Apart from the Abstract, Conclusion, List of References,
Appendices, the content of the thesis consists of 4 chapters:
Chapter 1: Research overview
Chapter 2: The establishment and development of the markets in
South-Central Coastal Vietnam
Chapter 3: Exchange and trading activities in the markets in
South-Central Coastal Vietnam
Chapter 4: Characteristics and roles of the markets for economic
and cultural-social development in the South-Central Coastal
Vietnam
Chapter 1: RESEARCH OVERVIEW
1.1. Market-related studies
- Researches of domestic scholars: Studies on history, economy,
culture and society; Studies on ports, urban areas and townships.
- Researches of foreign scholars.
1.2. Market research
1.2.1. Studies on the markets across the country
The author, Nguyen Duc Nghinh, is one of those who has a lot of
interest in researching on the markets in Vietnam. However, the
author only stops at the study of village markets, pagoda markets in
some Northern Delta provinces and gives the initial comments on the
village market system. The other researchers such as Dao To Uyen,
Bui Van Huynh, Nguyen Cong Thao, Diep Dinh Hoa, Bui Xuan
Dinh, Nguyen Thua Hy, Tran Si Hue, Nguyen Quang Hong, etc. also
had some intensive studies on the markets, but they just studied on
one aspect, or studied on the cultural beauty, or studied on the
relations of exchange and trading activities of a village market, or
genialized about the market system in a unique local.

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1.2.2. Studies on markets in South-Central Coastal Vietnam
So far, in addition to the printed articles in the local newspapers
and magazines, there are few of the research projects on the markets
in the South-Central Coastal Vietnam, especially the markets in the
South-Central Coastal Vietnam during the Nguyen Dynasty. In 2002,
the project Markets in Phu Yen completed by the author, Tran Si
Hue, has conveyed some issues about the markets in Phu Yen, but
only stopped at the general research and not fully mentioned about
the markets in Phu Yen in general and the markets in Phu Yen in the
Nguyen Dynasty in particular. In recent years, a number of Historical
Master's Thesis of Post-Graduate Candidates have been focusing on
the intensive research on the process of establishment and
development of the local markets in Central Vietnam provinces such
as the Thesis of Truong Thi Thu Thao (2010), Village Markets in
Thua Thien Hue (the 16th-19th centuries); Village Markets in Quang
Nam (the 16th - 19th centuries) by the author, Nguyen Thi Thinh
(2011); but there is a lack of researches on the markets in the SouthCentral Coastal region during this period.
1.3. The inherited content of the thesis
The research results of the above projects are valuable
contributions to the study of markets in general and the operation of
the markets in South-Central Vietnam in particular. Some contents
are inherited: Analysis and evaluation of the economic, political,
cultural and social impacts on the establishment and operation of the
markets; The role of the markets for the rural business development;
commercial activities and the role of Chinese traders, etc.
1.4. The content of the thesis needed to be solved
Based on the purpose and requirements of the Thesis and on the
basis of inheriting the achievements and research views of the
domestic and foreign scholars, the issues have not been studied
systematically and in depth about the activities of markets in SouthCentral Vietnam during the Nguyen Dynasty (1802-1884). We set
out some issues to be solved in the thesis as follows: The
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establishment and development of the markets in South-Central
Vietnam; the markets in South-Central Vietnam during the Nguyen
Dynasty (the markets in the midland and mountainous areas; the
markets in the plains and coastal areas); Exchange and trading
activities in the markets; characteristics and role of the markets for
economic, cultural-social development, etc.
Chapter 2: THE ESTABLISHMENT AND DEVELOPMENT
OF MARKETS IN SOUTH-CENTRAL VIETNAM
2.1. Factors affecting the establishment and development of
the markets
- Impacts of natural conditions: geographical location,
topography, climate, rivers.
- The political, economic, cultural and social situation and
traditions of the community in South-Central Coastal Vietnam.
- Business policy of the Nguyen Dynasty.
- The establishment and development of cities and townships.
- Waterway and road transport network.
2.2. Markets in the South-Central Coastal Vietnam before the
th
19 century
Along with the process of reclaiming, setting up villages and
crowded settlements of Vietnamese immigrants and other residential
communities, the markets in South-Central Coastal Vietnam has
gradually formed and expanded in both scale and quantity. In the 17th
century, the local markets developed throughout the provinces of the
South-Central Coastal region today and until the second half of the
19th century, many big markets were subject to taxation for the
Nguyen Government such as Yen Khang, Tien Yen, Phuc Son, Kien
Duong, Phuc Yen markets; Hoi An, Khanh Tho, Chien Dan, Phu
Tram, Tan An and Khau Day markets; Dinh Binh Khang Market,
Man Gia Market (i.e. Van Gia); Dinh Nha Trang Market, Vinh An
Market, Phu Vinh Market, etc.

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2.3. Markets in South-Central Coastal Vietnam during the
Nguyen Dynasty (period 1802-1884)
2.3.1. Market distribution
Under the Nguyen Dynasty, in the 19th century, the markets in
South-Central Coastal Vietnam developed throughout the provinces.
According to the records of Hoang Viet Nhat Thong Du Dia Chi
(composed in 1806 by Minister of Defense, Le Quang Dinh), in
South-Central Coastal Vietnam at the early of the 19th century, there
were up to 57 markets recorded. The statistics according to Dai Nam
Nhat Thong Chi (composed, edited and supplemented under the three
reigns of Emperor Tu Duc (1848-1883), Emperor Thanh Thai (18891907) and Emperor Duy Tan (1907-1916), the whole region had 176
markets. The markets recorded in Hoang Viet Nhat Thong Du Dia
Chi and Dai Nam Nhat Thong Chi are the markets along the
waterway roads or the big markets in the localities. In fact, many
small markets and vendors were not yet in the statistics. Thus, it is
clear that the number of markets in this period must be much larger
than those of the records of Hoang Viet Nhat Thong Du Dia Chi and
Dai Nam Nhat Thong Chi. The distribution of the markets in both
midland, mountainous, delta and coastal areas and estuaries creates a
seamless market system, meeting the needs of exchange and trade
between the localities in both vertical and horizontal directions,
between the North and the South, between the domain against the
plain and vice versa. On the other hand, these markets not only have
a close relationship with each other in the exchange of goods
between the regions in the province, but also have an exchange
relationship with other regions and with foreign countries.
2.3.2. Network of

intra-regional and inter-regional trade

connections
Although in the 19th century, the road traffic and trade in the
South-Central Coastal provinces as well as many other localities
were not developed well, the goods exchange activities mainly took
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place by waterways (river and sea). However, most of the markets
here were set up in the places where were convenient waterway and
road transportations and densely populated areas in both midland,
mountainous and delta areas, coastal areas and estuaries. The
distribution of the markets in both midland, mountainous, delta and
coastal areas and estuaries creates a seamless market system, meeting
the needs of exchange and trade between the localities in both
vertical and horizontal directions, between the North and the South,
between the domain against the plain and vice versa.
In particular, it can be mentioned that the markets had the function
of trading hubs such as An Khe Market, Kien My Market, Go Cham
Market, An Thai market, Gia Market, Thi Nai Market (Binh Dinh),
Don Cung Son Market, Don Van Hoa Market, Phien Som Market,
Vung Lam Market (Phu Yen) or Dinh Market, Moi Vinh Diem
Market, Lau Market (Khanh Hoa, Binh Thuan), etc. These markets
not only connected to the commodity areas in the province and in the
region, but also connected to trade with the neighboring provinces
(Quang Nam, Quang Ngai in the North, Saigon in the South), also
expand the exchanges of foreign goods (Malaysia, China, Thailand,
etc.) by sea through the seaports and port towns. There was always a
system of small markets and supplemental markets, which play a role
of satellite, supplementing and supporting for the main market; at a
wider level, the markets themselves play the role of focal points as
the markets to support and supplement the commercial activities in
the port towns.
Chapter 3: EXCHANGE AND TRADING ACTIVITIES IN
SOUTH-CENTRAL COASTAL MARKETS
3.1. Supply of goods for markets
3.1.1. Agricultural products
Territorial topography of South-Central Coastal provinces is often
divided by coastal passes, slopes and mountains; The narrow plains
were located in the delta of short rivers, with high slopes originating
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from the Truong Son range, flowing into the sea, along with the hot
and humid climate, have caused many difficulties in agricultural
production. However, the Con river deltas or plains in Phu Yen and
Khanh Hoa were still recognized as rich plains, and agricultural
production was relatively stable. Rice was considered the most
important crop in agricultural production in South-Central Coastal
Vietnam. In addition to rice, in the Southern Central Coastal
provinces, there were many other famous agricultural products such
as beans (green beans, black beans, yellow beans, etc.), melons,
sweet potatoes, vegetables, pineapples, bananas, and areca, etc.
3.1.2. Handicraft items
One of the items that created a strong trade flow in South-Central
Coastal in the nineteenth century was the product of handicrafts. Silk
weaving, crepe weaving, etc. were famous in the South-Central
Coastal provinces. In addition, in the nineteenth century, there were
many crafts in South-Central Coastal such as making hats, forging,
casting, boat building, crafting of construction materials (making
laterite, lime), knitting (knitting bamboo, weaving coconuts, coconut
hammocks, coconut mats), making coconut oil, coconut shells, etc. In
particular, the silk weaving and sugar making profession in the SouthCentral Coastal provinces has a high specialization. The waters of the
southern central provinces have a high salinity of seawater, which was
very suitable for salt making. Most of the South-Central Coastal
provinces have developed salt production. Salt was an important
product exchanged with highlanders and abroad. The production of
salt not only provides the living needs of local residents and
mountainous areas but also facilitates the development of the fish
sauce industry and resolves the surplus fish after each fishing trip.
3.1.3. Forest, native and seafood products
The forest, native and seafood products in the South-Central
Coastal region were quite diverse and plentiful like precious woods
(golden oak, iron-wood, painted wood, ebony, wooden honeycomb
(rosewood), agarwood, aloe wood other types of forest products,
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such as oyster oil, lui tree (back), beams, vulture, beeswax, spiny
shells, cardamom, pheasant feathers, source betel, cinnamon, rhinos,
elephants, bears, tigers, horses, etc. Products from the sea such as
shrimp, fish, seaweed, clams, oysters, turtles, turtles, turtles, snails,
corals, oats (bird's nest), etc. However, depending on the natural
conditions, production and exploitation conditions of each region,
the structure of goods in the market also varies.
3.1.4. Items brought from abroad
Foreign goods brought to South-Central Coastal were mainly
Chinese goods and very few Western countries. Chinese merchants
brought goods such as: Chinese medicine, paper, cotton, fiber, silk,
tea, pottery, porcelain, etc.
3.2. Mode of exchange and purchase
Direct exchange by goods - goods method. When producing many
products that were not consumed in the family, plus the lack of products
from other professions, people have thought about bringing to the market
to exchange with each other. Thus, "the missing, the surplus" will
exchange with each other to meet the needs of each party. In a monetary
economy, when the exchange value was expressed by price, the mode of
exchange and trade is now money - goods or half-money – haft-goods.
Under the Nguyen Dynasty, the mode of trade and exchange was
expressed in both goods - goods or money - goods. In order to meet the
increasing exchange demand, some traders have collected (purchased)
goods in this local market and brought to other local markets to sell or
exchange, forming an intermediate class. in trading activities were
merchants who follow the folk concept called "tradesmen"; They were
"bridges" between sellers and buyers.
3.3. Mode of measurement and price
Under the Nguyen Dynasty (nineteenth century), trade and
exchange took place in most areas from mountainous, midland to
plain, coastal areas. The measurement system was specifically defined
and increasingly improved by the state, but most items were usually
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measured according to the nature of the rules. In addition, the use of
the general measurement system of the state was also applied in the
market. Prices of items were not only negotiated between sellers and
buyers, but some essential goods, local specialties and markets (sugar,
rice, salt, wood, metal, bird's nest, fin, etc.) also due to the high or
slow valuation of the state. In addition to the impact of the state and
the law of free competition, the price of goods was also decided by the
season, i.e. buying goods in the right season or season also leads to
different prices.
3.4. Market tax
In the nineteenth century, the exchange and trade of goods through
markets in the South-Central Coastal region in particular and the
country in general made the state's tax demand for the market set.
Although there is no specific document on the tax of markets in SouthCentral Vietnam (period 1802-1884), some evidence about the
collection of market taxes in some mountainous markets in Binh Thuan
province during the reigns of Emperor Minh Menh and Emperor Thieu
Tri in the years 1839, 1841 and 1848 proved that the state has collected
market taxes and taxes in the sources - where trade and exchange
between the reverse domain and the lowland.
By the second half of the nineteenth century, most provinces in
South-Central Coastal collected market taxes. Binh Dinh has 118
markets that have collected taxes (from grade 3 to grade 9). The largest
market in Binh Dinh was taxed at grade 3 with An Thai Market and Cau
Cham Market; Grade 4 tax market has Dap Da Market, Lai Giang
Market, etc. Binh Dinh does not have a class 1 and 2 tax collection
market. Other local markets do not see tax rates but only the total annual
tax collection.
3.5. Market meeting
Until the nineteenth century, large markets in South-Central
Coastal had regular market meetings, there was a winter market in
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the morning, there was a winter market in the afternoon, there was a
winter market all day or a market only had a brief meeting (squatting
market). In particular, there were markets only east on a certain
number of days, called a fair market. In fact, in a certain area, to
avoid competition between markets has formed a fair market
schedule. In one month, there were not many days of the same
market, especially the main market. The number of sessions of a
market depends not only on the quantity of goods and people buying
and selling but also on the number of markets and the days of the
local markets. This clearly showed the scale and expansion of
commodity economy in the South-Central Coastal provinces during
the Nguyen Dynasty (period 1802-1884).
3.6. Trade ingredients in markets
Small traders and smallholders were the main force in the trader’s
department at markets. In addition to traders who trade in fixed stalls,
there were also independent traders with agriculture, build stalls, shops
at markets to trade all kinds of goods, and there were goods produced by
them, but mostly bought in wholesale. Participants in trade activities in
markets were also diverse. However, trade in markets was mainly
undertaken by women. A part of those who trade in markets was also
Chinese. Chinese people occupy a small number, but with trading talent,
the Chinese quickly dominate the market in towns, cities and large
markets.
3.7. Market management organization
The state indirectly manages markets through the promulgation of
specific trade policies including market taxes. Besides, the state also
issued additional regulations on trade in markets and shops. The
promulgation of specific regulations on market exchange and trading
activities in the market shows that the state has given certain concerns to
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domestic trade activities in general and market activities in particular. At
the same time, it also shows the management role of the Nguyen
Dynasty at the macro level through legal documents and the
enforcement of legal documents that were villages.
Markets were mostly considered to be in the village's ownership and
profit-taking rights. For small markets usually set up by a village, the
village directly appoints a general management board headed by the
Chief Justice. For markets or school transactions in mountainous areas,
the state can manage activities here through the role of village elders.
Chapter 4: CHARACTERISTICS AND ROLE OF MARKETS
FOR ECONOMIC, CULTURAL-SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT IN
SOUTH CENTRAL COASTAL VIETNAM
4.1. Characteristics of the markets in South-Central Coastal
Vietnam
4.1.1. Waterways play an important role in goods circulation in
markets
In the nineteenth century, when road traffic and trade were
underdeveloped, traffic and waterway trade played a key role. Trade
by waterway was the most convenient type of transport, saving time,
effort and transporting a large volume of goods. This was a favorable
condition to expand trade between regions and is also one of the
characteristics of the South-Central Coastal region. The number of
bridges, culverts, wharves and large rivers in the South-Central
Coastal provinces of the nineteenth century recorded in Dai Nam Nhat
Thong Chi clearly shows the role of waterways in goods circulation in
the South-Central Coastal Vietnam. Because waterways play an
important role in trade in the South-Central Coastal provinces, many
markets in South-Central Coastal provinces were also established next
to rivers or in water front. The location of markets was mostly located
near rivers or coastal areas so the market in South-Central Coastal
Vietnam during this period also has the characteristics of a market
associated with a market or port city (river ports and sea ports).
Besides, in the nineteenth century, in the South-Central Coastal
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Vietnam, there were formed and developed trade and exchange flows
between localities in the province through sea routes; At the same
time, it also facilitates the expansion of commodity exchange with
other areas in the country and abroad.
4.1.2. Wholesale markets were often associated with market streets
and “satellite” markets.
By the nineteenth century, the appearance of the big markets was
closely associated with the ranges of markets and fixed trading
streets in the market. The diversity and abundance of goods sources
and the rapidly increasing exchange demand have contributed to
expanding the market scale; on the contrary, the expansion of market
size also contributes to making goods circulated more easily and
quickly; The goods were arranged and ordered in accordance with
the structure of the market. This was also a manifestation of the
expansion of commodity economy in the South-Central Coastal
Vietnam in the nineteenth century. The formation of market streets
attached to the market shows the regularity and solidity of
commercial activities; create conditions to accelerate the process of
formation and development of trade centers and socio-economic
spots.
On the development requirements of the commodity economy, in
towns, port cities, political centers, besides the main market, some
sub-markets also serve as "satellites" which have separated functions
as well as supplement and support for the main market.
4.1.3. Rich and diverse structure of products, from local products to
foreign goods
The structure of goods in South-Central Coastal markets during the
Nguyen Dynasty (period 1802-1884) was quite diverse and abundant,
including goods for essential living needs (food, foodstuffs,
agricultural products) and products for residents' production
(production tools, household appliances, etc.). In addition, there were
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also products from outside and goods for foreign trade, many of which
were typical of the South-Central Coastal provinces. It was possible to
divide goods in South-Central Coastal markets in the nineteenth
century into groups: food and foodstuff; group of goods to serve
production and living needs; group of forest, native and seafood
products and other groups of goods (mainly goods from abroad).
4.1.4. The force of professional traders, especially Chinese traders,
plays an important role in the operation of the markets
Professional traders were those who live by trading. They set up a
trade street at markets, especially Chinese traders and merchants
specializing in bringing goods from one market to another to sell by
sessions. They play an important role in the distribution of goods.
However, in markets, especially in large markets, there were very few
traders, big shops of Vietnamese people who were mainly business
owners and Chinese shops. Chinese people hold almost all the trade
from small to big. Chinese traders’ activities also contribute to the
connection between markets in the region, promoting the process of
expanding commercial activities of the South-Central Coastal
provinces with foreign countries. In commercial activities in the
domestic market, Chinese traders buy goods in the region to supply
foreign merchant ships. On the other hand, they bring foreign goods to
sell all over the locality. In addition, Chinese traders also transports
goods from China to or has a supply of goods from merchant ships
from the Chinese commercial port, from which they ship goods to
other regional ports or sell them to Western merchants’ ships.

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4.1.5. The operation of the markets in the South-Central Coastal
region was beyond the scope of the village
Under the Nguyen Dynasty (period 1802-1884), the economy
developed, the goods were produced more and demand for goods
exchange also increased, surpassing the original narrow space. The
way markets operate was also changing. Goods were also richer and
more diversified thanks to professional traders transporting goods
between markets. Markets were built with more permanent tents. The
expansion of the markets and trade and exchange activities took place
strongly in the South-Central Coastal markets that created an "intervillage area" with the system of fair markets, meeting every month for
3, 6 and 9 sessions. The division of such markets was aimed at
creating the continuity of market sessions, minimizing the competition
when duplicating, duplicating goods and always having goods to meet
the needs of buyers. On the other hand, it was also for some markets to
perform the function of wholesale markets and central markets of the
region.
4.2. The role of the markets for the economic, cultural and
social development of South-Central Coastal Vietnam
4.2.1. Activities of the markets contribute to promoting economic
development
Through exchange and trading activities in markets, goods were
circulated, it stimulates the agriculture - forestry - fishing, handicraft and
trading sectors to develop; improve production value of sectors in
economic structure. Commercial activities in markets in particular in
urban areas and towns in general have contributed to the development of
agriculture, forestry, fisheries and handicraft industries. In contrast, the
development of agricultural, forestry, fishing and handicraft production
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was the basis and premise for the birth and development of markets and
towns and at a higher level than in urban areas both in size and quantity;
thereby promoting the small-scale economy from a closed economy to
a developed commodity economy; facilitating the urbanization process,
leading to the birth of urban areas in the South-Central Coastal
Vietnam in the nineteenth century.
4.2.2. Activities of the markets contribute to promoting social and
cultural exchange and development
Markets was a place reflecting the economic characteristics,
culinary culture of local residents; Market was a place for people to
express their right to human behavior, which reflects the traditional
culture of a land. Market was also a place of cultural exchange,
absorbing the production, business and cultural experiences of the
Different resident communities. The cultural exchange between
Chinese and Vietnamese people in urban areas and towns and in
markets - where the majority of Chinese people live was also
common in many ways, contributing to the development and
enrichment of economic and spiritual life of residents.
The formation and development of the market also entails a
change in the population structure. On the social level, the
development of a commodity economy penetrates into agriculture
and rural areas through a market system that has positively impacted
the formation of a class of professional craftsmen, especially traders’
class. Therefore, in this society, there was a deep differentiation, a
clear division of labor among the population in the society. All
activities of the market, besides making local products circulate
everywhere, they also to improving the lives of the community and
impacting on the life and policies of the state.
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CONCLUSION
During the merger into the territory of Dai Viet, South-Central
Coastal Vietnam quickly became the promised land for the flow of the
Northern residence to uncover the land and establish the village as
well as choose place of residence and career of a part of Chinese
refugee. Through the long-term development process, the people have
built a dense, crowded village. This is the first premise leading to the
formation and development of the market system in the South-Central
Coastal Vietnam. Along with the process of settlement, production is
growing and under the influence of commodity economy, political social factors in the nineteenth century, the market network in the
South-Central Coastal region is expanded in scale, quantity and has
played a certain role in the development of economy, culture and
society of each region as well as the South-Central Coastal Vietnam.
The operation of the market network in the South-Central Coastal
Vietnam in the Nineteenth century has many common characteristics
as the nationwide markets. About the living characteristics of the
market network on such aspects as the regulation of market meetings,
participants in the market or the structure of market goods, tax rates,
mode of exchange and trade, etc. In general, it is similar to other
markets. However, the operation of the South-Central Coastal markets
(period 1802-1884) also has its own characteristics, reflecting the
countryside look in the South-Central Coastal provinces in all aspects
and playing a certain part for economy - society, culture - life and
customs of the South-Central Coastal region. For example, the
structure of trading products in the markets also includes victuals,
agricultural products, production tools, household appliances, etc.
However, among these product groups, there are products that are only
available in the South-Central Coastal region, with the products
exchanged and traded in this region but not in other regions. Goods at
the markets also have specific characteristics of regions, areas and
19


localities. Based on roads and waterways, goods are gathered into
large markets, towns, cities and port cities, not only connecting the
goods areas in the province and its neighbors together, but also
expanding the exchange of goods with other national regions and
abroad. In particular, the South-Central Coastal is also a region that
has a dense river and stream system, a long coastline, many sea ports
and bays, etc. so most of the markets in the South-Central Coastal
Vietnam are formed beside the rivers or estuaries and sea ports.
Therefore, traffic and waterway trade hold an important position in
commercial activities in the South-Central Coastal markets; Activities
of the markets are therefore also associated with market wharves and
port cities, with transporting and loading bustling goods at the markets
and port cities.
Through trading activities in the midland, mountainous, delta and
coastal markets, the goods are exchanged and circulated, which not
only meets the needs of the region but also expands exchanges with
outside areas. On that basis, agriculture - forestry - fishery, handicraft
and trade sectors are promoted to develop strongly. There is an organic
relationship between the economy in general, the commodity economy
in particular and the markets: the operation of the market network
contributes to maintaining the existence and promoting the
development of the economy; on the contrary, the development of the
economy widens the scale and number of the markets. Therefore,
along with the strong development of the commodity economy, the
market system in the South-Central Coastal region has also increased
in number and expanded in scale. Many markets have become places
to gather goods, acting as an inter-provincial market. This is also one
of the outstanding features in the operation of the markets in the
South-Central Coastal Vietnam during the Nguyen Dynasty in the
period of 1802-1884. Moreover, when the level of trade goes beyond a
village, the regulation of the number of market sessions in one month
has a certain meaning. Large markets in one region are not usually met
on the same day of the month. This facilitates goods to be circulated,
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especially to avoid competing for customers. Market meetings are also
regulated in many localities, but the difference is that the geographical
scope of markets in the South-Central Coastal region is larger than in
other regions.
Trade and exchange activities in the South-Central Coastal Vietnam
markets have contributed to promoting agricultural, handicraft and
trade activities, especially development of domestic trade. In contrast,
the development of manufacturing and trade sectors has become the
premise and condition for the development and expansion of the
markets. Thereby, a closed small-farming economy is promoted to
become an open economy.
However, the exchange and trading activities of the markets in the
South-Central Coastal Vietnam also have certain limitations:
Firstly, under the Nguyen Dynasty, the commodity economy in the
South-Central Coastal had a new development; agricultural - forestry earth products - seafood and handicraft products become widely
circulated goods in the markets; but it also suffers from many
obstacles that the conservative policy of the feudal court is an
example. Self-sufficient economy is still popular among people;
Exchange and trade activities in the South-Central Coastal markets are
only to meet the demand of exchanging surplus products of smallscale agricultural economy, when handicraft business is not separated
from agriculture and trading is only a secondary business.
Secondly, many items are typical of the South-Central Coastal
provinces, with high value to be exported abroad, mainly in the list
of state purchasing and monopoly trading such as agarwood, aloe
wood and ivory, bird nests, etc. On the other hand, due to the
monopoly trade policy of the court, both customers and traders are
weighed down by the pressure of the government. They are often
forced to buy and sell, so they create artificial prices in the markets.
In addition to the official price of the state there is a black-market
price, this price changes dramatically according to the daily demand
and supply of traders and intermediary drivers, etc. In addition, the
21


cheating of officials and their harassment depressed the businessmen.
In the crowded centers of trade, there are often traders who always
manipulate the markets.
Thirdly, exchange and trading activities in the South-Central
Coastal markets in this era are only in the form of simple goods
circulation. Commodity production is the type of economic
organization in which products are produced for sale rather than
meeting the consumer needs of the direct producer, which means to
meet the demand of others, through exchanges and purchases.
Production of goods is made on the basis of social division of labor,
specialization of production. In the first half of the nineteenth
century, traders in the South-Central Coastal provinces affirmed their
positions in society as an independent professional class and
contributed significantly to the local economic development.
However, trading in markets is still a small trade, in the form of
mobile "market". Therefore, the business forces are mainly small
traders and small owners; and the agents and businessmen who are
independent with living by agriculture, building stalls or shops in
markets; or for people with large capital, wholesale of large items,
which account for a small amount, and this trade is mainly
undertaken by Chinese traders. They operate on a large-scale market,
many provinces and even trade with foreign traders. However,
trading activities of Chinese traders mainly take place in big markets,
central markets or towns, cities and port cities. Meanwhile, small
businesses and smallholders are the main force in the business sector
in the South-Central Coastal provinces. Trading activities of small
businesses and smallholders occur irregularly, infrequently and can
be carried out daily, or a few times half a month because it depends
on the season in rural areas. Their goods are purely and mainly
agricultural and handicraft items produced by themselves and their
families. The traders in the South-Central Coastal markets are almost
completely separated from agriculture and handicraft. This is the
product of small farmers' economy that is suitable for small and
22


simple goods demand of farmers. Moreover, the fact that women and
the poor are the main forces taking care of trade in markets is also
one of the constraints that cannot promote trade and first of all, make
internal trade a large scale of business. The means of trade mainly
depend on the traditional means of transport of Vietnamese people:
they carry goods to the market mainly by using small boats.
In particular, capital and interest in trading in the markets are very
small and rare. Sometimes, it is only agricultural and handicraft
products directly produced by the family of merchants and interest is
not a top issue either. Because the merchants sometimes only hope to
sell goods to buy necessary items, directly serving their daily lives. In
terms of use value, both exchanges can get benefit, but in terms of
exchange value, both sellers and buyers are not mutually beneficial.
This is a simple form of goods circulation. The purpose of exchanging
goods is merely the value of use, and the market trade is still small.
Most traders here are farmers, artisans, and they both work in the
fields and do secondary jobs and trading with a small amount of
capital and profit, which is not really a top priority consideration.
Therefore, despite the expansion and development in the exchange and
trading activities in the South-Central Coastal markets under the
Nguyen Dynasty during this era, the goods circulation is still simple.
However, the operation of the markets in the South-Central Coastal
Vietnam also contributes to creating a new economic aspect in the
South-Central Coastal Vietnam and significant changes in population
structure and cultural and spiritual life of the region’s residence of the
South-Central Coastal region in the Nineteenth century. These
contributions not only have a temporary effect but also influence today
and the future history. The markets in the South-Central Coastal
regardless of time, whether past or present, has a great role and
influence on the local economy, culture - society. Therefore, it is
necessary to have appropriate policies for the market system’s ultimate
promotion. For example, for wholesale markets and central markets,
first of all, it is necessary to upgrade the infrastructure to facilitate the
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