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Test bank for fundamentals of anatomy and physiology 11e c18

Chapterȱ18 TheȱEndocrineȱSystem
Multiple Choice Questions
1) Whichȱofȱtheȱfollowingȱisȱtrue ofȱtheȱendocrineȱsystem?
A) Itȱrespondsȱrapidlyȱtoȱstimuli.
B) Itȱrespondsȱspecificallyȱtoȱdigestiveȱstimuli.
C) Itȱcommunicatesȱbyȱtheȱreleaseȱofȱneurotransmitters.
D) Itȱrespondsȱwithȱmotorȱoutput.
E) Itȱrespondsȱslowlyȱbutȱeffectivelyȱforȱmaintainingȱhomeostaticȱfunctions.
Answer: E
LearningȱOutcome: 18-1
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

2) Endocrineȱcells
A) areȱaȱtypeȱofȱnerveȱcell.
B) releaseȱtheirȱsecretionsȱontoȱanȱepithelialȱsurface.
C) releaseȱtheirȱsecretionsȱdirectlyȱintoȱbodyȱfluidsȱsuchȱasȱblood.
D) containȱfewȱvesicles.
E) areȱmodifiedȱconnectiveȱtissueȱcells.
Answer: C
LearningȱOutcome: 18-1
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering


3) ________ȱareȱchemicalȱmessengersȱthatȱareȱreleasedȱbyȱcellsȱandȱtransportedȱinȱthe
bloodstreamȱtoȱalterȱtheȱactivitiesȱofȱspecificȱcellsȱinȱotherȱtissues.
A) Hormones
B) Neuropeptides
C) Neurotransmitters
D) Humoralȱantibodies
E) Antigens
Answer: A
LearningȱOutcome: 18-1
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

4) Aȱhormoneȱmight
A) alterȱaȱmembraneȱchannelȱbyȱchangingȱitsȱshape,ȱtherebyȱaffectingȱwhatȱcanȱgoȱthrough
it.
B) depolarizeȱaȱskeletalȱmuscleȱcell.
C) interfereȱwithȱnorepinephrineȱatȱaȱneuronalȱsynapse.
D) inactivateȱglucoseȱsoȱitȱcannotȱbeȱusedȱbyȱaȱcell.
E) blockȱtheȱproductionȱofȱaȱcellȱmembrane.
Answer: A
LearningȱOutcome: 18-1
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding

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576ȱȱȱTestȱBankȱforȱFundamentalsȱofȱAnatomyȱ&ȱPhysiology,ȱ11e

5) Whichȱofȱtheȱfollowingȱisȱnotȱtrueȱregardingȱtargetȱcells?
A) Theyȱhaveȱreceptorsȱforȱaȱspecificȱhormone.
B) Theyȱcanȱbeȱanywhereȱinȱtheȱbody.
C) Theyȱareȱassociatedȱwithȱsynapses.
D) Theyȱcanȱrespondȱtoȱmoreȱthanȱoneȱhormoneȱifȱtheyȱhaveȱreceptorsȱforȱeachȱone.
E) Ifȱaȱtargetȱcellȱlacksȱreceptorsȱforȱaȱhormoneȱthenȱitȱcannotȱbindȱthatȱhormone.
Answer: C
LearningȱOutcome: 18-1
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding

6) HormonesȱknownȱasȱȈcatecholaminesȈȱare
A) lipids.
B) peptides.
C) steroids.
D) derivativesȱofȱtheȱaminoȱacidȱtyrosine.
E) derivativesȱofȱreproductiveȱglands.
Answer: D
LearningȱOutcome: 18-2
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

7) Peptideȱhormonesȱare
A) composedȱofȱaminoȱacids.
B) producedȱbyȱtheȱadrenalȱglands.
C) derivedȱfromȱtheȱaminoȱacidȱtyrosine.
D) lipids.
E) chemicallyȱrelatedȱtoȱcholesterol.
Answer: A
LearningȱOutcome: 18-2
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

8) Aȱkinaseȱisȱanȱenzymeȱthatȱperforms
A) phosphorylation.
B) asȱaȱmembraneȱchannel.
C) activeȱtransport.
D) proteinȱsynthesis.
E) asȱanȱantibody.
Answer: A
LearningȱOutcome: 18-2
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding

9) Calciumȱionsȱserveȱasȱmessengers,ȱoftenȱinȱcombinationȱwithȱtheȱintracellularȱprotein
A) calcitonin.
B) calcitriol.
C) calmodulin.
D) calcium-bindingȱglobulin.
E) calcitropin.
Answer: C
LearningȱOutcome: 18-2
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding

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Chapterȱ18ȱȱTheȱEndocrineȱSystemȱȱȱ577

10) Whichȱofȱtheȱfollowingȱsubstancesȱactivatesȱproteinȱkinasesȱandȱthusȱactsȱasȱaȱsecond
messenger?
A) insulin
B) ACTH
C) epinephrine
D) cyclicȱAMP
E) TSH
Answer: D
LearningȱOutcome: 18-2
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding

11) Allȱofȱtheȱfollowingȱareȱtrueȱofȱsteroidȱhormonesȱexcept thatȱthey
A) areȱproducedȱbyȱtheȱadrenalȱmedulla.
B) areȱderivedȱfromȱcholesterol.
C) areȱproducedȱbyȱreproductiveȱglands.
D) bindȱtoȱreceptorsȱwithinȱtheȱcell.
E) areȱlipids.
Answer: A
LearningȱOutcome: 18-2
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

12) Eachȱofȱtheȱfollowingȱhormonesȱisȱanȱaminoȱacidȱderivativeȱexcept
A) epinephrine.
B) norepinephrine.
C) thyroidȱhormone.
D) testosterone.
E) melatonin.
Answer: D
LearningȱOutcome: 18-2
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

13) Membraneȱreceptorsȱareȱusedȱbyȱwhichȱofȱtheȱfollowingȱtypesȱofȱhormones?
A) catecholamines
B) peptideȱhormones
C) eicosanoids
D) thyroid
E) catecholamines,ȱpeptideȱhormones,ȱandȱeicosanoids
Answer: E
LearningȱOutcome: 18-2
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding

14) Steroidȱhormones
A) areȱproteins.
B) cannotȱdiffuseȱthroughȱcellȱmembranes.
C) bindȱtoȱreceptorsȱinȱtheȱnucleusȱofȱtheirȱtargetȱcells.
D) actȱonȱtargetȱcellsȱbyȱactivatingȱsecondȱmessengerȱcascades.
E) areȱtransportedȱinȱtheȱbloodȱdissolvedȱinȱtheȱplasma.
Answer: C
LearningȱOutcome: 18-2
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering
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578ȱȱȱTestȱBankȱforȱFundamentalsȱofȱAnatomyȱ&ȱPhysiology,ȱ11e

15) Whenȱaȱcatecholamineȱorȱpeptideȱhormoneȱbindsȱtoȱreceptorsȱonȱtheȱsurfaceȱofȱaȱcell,ȱthe
A) hormoneȱreceptorȱcomplexȱmovesȱintoȱtheȱcytoplasm.
B) cellȱmembraneȱbecomesȱdepolarized.
C) secondȱmessengerȱappearsȱinȱtheȱcytoplasm.
D) cellȱbecomesȱinactive.
E) hormoneȱisȱtransportedȱtoȱtheȱnucleusȱwhereȱitȱaltersȱtheȱactivityȱofȱDNA.
Answer: C
LearningȱOutcome: 18-2
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

16) Hormonesȱcanȱbeȱdividedȱintoȱdifferentȱgroupsȱbasedȱonȱtheirȱchemistry.ȱTheseȱcategories
includeȱallȱofȱtheȱfollowingȱexcept
A) peptides.
B) steroids.
C) eicosanoids.
D) aminoȱacidȱderivatives.
E) acetylcholineȱderivatives.
Answer: E
LearningȱOutcome: 18-2
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

17) Hormonalȱactionsȱonȱcellsȱaffectȱallȱofȱtheȱfollowingȱexcept
A) quantitiesȱofȱenzymes.
B) activitiesȱofȱenzymes.
C) synthesisȱofȱenzymes.
D) gatingȱofȱionȱchannels.
E) thicknessȱofȱtheȱplasmaȱmembrane.
Answer: E
LearningȱOutcome: 18-2
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding

18) Theȱlinkȱbetweenȱaȱfirstȱmessengerȱandȱaȱsecondȱmessengerȱinȱaȱcellȱthatȱrespondsȱtoȱpeptide
hormonesȱisȱusually
A) cAMP.
B) cGMP.
C) adenylȱcyclase.
D) aȱGȱprotein.
E) calciumȱionȱlevels.
Answer: D
LearningȱOutcome: 18-2
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

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Chapterȱ18ȱȱTheȱEndocrineȱSystemȱȱȱ579

19) Whenȱadenylȱcyclaseȱisȱactivated,
A) ATPȱisȱconsumed.
B) cAMPȱisȱformed.
C) cAMPȱisȱbrokenȱdown.
D) ATPȱisȱproduced.
E) ATPȱisȱconsumedȱandȱcAMPȱisȱformed.
Answer: E
LearningȱOutcome: 18-2
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

20) Afterȱaȱsteroidȱhormoneȱbindsȱtoȱitsȱreceptorȱtoȱformȱanȱactiveȱcomplex,
A) adenylȱcyclaseȱisȱactivated.
B) cyclicȱnucleotidesȱareȱformed.
C) Gȱproteinsȱareȱphosphylated.
D) geneȱtranscriptionȱisȱinitiated.
E) proteinȱkinasesȱareȱactivated.
Answer: D
LearningȱOutcome: 18-2
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding

21) Theȱhumoralȱcontrolȱofȱhormoneȱreleaseȱmayȱbeȱtriggeredȱwhichȱofȱtheȱfollowingȱfactors?
A) bloodȱlevelȱofȱanȱionȱlikeȱcalcium
B) bloodȱlevelȱofȱaȱpituitaryȱhormone
C) bloodȱlevelȱofȱaȱhypothalamicȱhormone
D) nervousȱstimuli
E) neurotransmitterȱactivation
Answer: A
LearningȱOutcome: 18-2
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding

22) Whichȱofȱtheȱfollowingȱhormonesȱis/areȱwaterȱsolubleȱandȱthereforeȱbind(s)ȱtoȱextracellular
receptors?
A) insulin
B) epinephrine
C) cortisol
D) calcitriol
E) insulinȱandȱepinephrine
Answer: E
LearningȱOutcome: 18-2
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding

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580ȱȱȱTestȱBankȱforȱFundamentalsȱofȱAnatomyȱ&ȱPhysiology,ȱ11e

23) Ifȱtheȱadenylȱcyclaseȱactivityȱofȱliverȱcellsȱwereȱmissing,ȱwhichȱofȱtheseȱhormonesȱcouldȱno
longerȱstimulateȱreleaseȱofȱglucose?
A) progesterone
B) glucagon
C) cortisol
D) thyroxine
E) leptin
Answer: B
LearningȱOutcome: 18-2
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding

24) Increasedȱactivityȱofȱphosphodiesteraseȱinȱaȱtargetȱcellȱwouldȱdecreaseȱitsȱlevelȱof
A) testosterone.
B) estrogen.
C) thyroidȱhormone.
D) cAMP.
E) progesterone.
Answer: D
LearningȱOutcome: 18-2
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding

25) Theȱintracellularȱproteinȱ________ȱbindsȱcalciumȱion.ȱThisȱcomplexȱcanȱthenȱactivateȱenzymes.
A) prostaglandin
B) phosphodiesterase
C) cyclicȱAMP
D) calmodulin
E) kinase
Answer: D
LearningȱOutcome: 18-2
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

26) Receptorsȱforȱ________,ȱpeptideȱhormones,ȱandȱeicosanoidsȱareȱfoundȱinȱtheȱcellȱmembranesȱof
targetȱcells.
A) catecholamines
B) carbohydrates
C) kinases
D) genes
E) acetylcholine
Answer: A
LearningȱOutcome: 18-2
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding

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Chapterȱ18ȱȱTheȱEndocrineȱSystemȱȱȱ581

27) Cellsȱthatȱrespondȱtoȱaȱhormoneȱareȱcalledȱ________ȱcells.
A) stem
B) pluripotent
C) germ
D) target
E) peripheral
Answer: D
LearningȱOutcome: 18-2
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

28) Oneȱcauseȱforȱinsulinȱresistanceȱinȱnon-insulinȱdependentȱ(TypeȱII)ȱdiabetesȱis
A) insulinȱreceptorȱup-regulation.
B) decreasedȱinsulinȱsecretion.
C) decreasedȱcortisolȱsecretion.
D) insulinȱreceptorȱdown-regulation.
E) cortisolȱreceptorȱup-regulation.
Answer: D
LearningȱOutcome: 18-2
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Applying

29) Whichȱofȱtheȱfollowingȱisȱnotȱaȱcharacteristicȱofȱtheȱsecond-messengerȱmechanismȱofȱhormone
action?
A) Hormoneȱeffectsȱareȱamplified.
B) GȱproteinsȱandȱcAMPȱareȱused.
C) Receptorsȱareȱonȱtheȱcellȱsurface.
D) Cellularȱoperationsȱareȱalteredȱbyȱdirectȱstimulationȱofȱaȱgene.
E) Kinasesȱmayȱphosphorylateȱproteins.
Answer: D
LearningȱOutcome: 18-2
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding

30) Uponȱbindingȱofȱaȱsingleȱfirstȱmessengerȱtoȱaȱplasmaȱmembrane,ȱthousandsȱofȱsecond
messengersȱmayȱbecomeȱactivated.ȱThisȱeffectȱisȱknownȱas
A) receptorȱdown-regulation.
B) receptorȱup-regulation.
C) amplification.
D) humoralȱstimuli.
E) synergism.
Answer: C
LearningȱOutcome: 18-2
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

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31) Intracellularȱcalciumȱstoresȱopenȱinȱresponseȱtoȱintracellularȱactivationȱof
A) proteinȱkinaseȱC,ȱdiacylglycerol,ȱandȱinositolȱtriphosphate.
B) calmodulin.
C) leukotrienes.
D) adenylateȱcyclase.
E) phosphodiesterase,ȱadenylateȱcyclase,ȱandȱprostacyclins.
Answer: A
LearningȱOutcome: 18-2
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

32) Leukotrienes,ȱprostaglandins,ȱandȱthromboxanesȱareȱallȱexamplesȱof
A) aminoȱacidȱderivatives.
B) eicosanoids.
C) tyrosineȱderivatives.
D) glycoproteins.
E) steroidȱhormones.
Answer: B
LearningȱOutcome: 18-2
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

33) Whichȱhormoneȱisȱnotȱcorrectlyȱmatched?
A) epinephrine:ȱaminoȱacidȱderivative
B) insulin:ȱpeptideȱhormone
C) testosterone:ȱaminoȱacidȱderivative
D) cortisol:ȱlipidȱderivative
E) eicosanoids:ȱlipidȱderivative
Answer: C
LearningȱOutcome: 18-2
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

34) Theȱhypothalamusȱactsȱasȱbothȱaȱneuralȱandȱa(n)ȱ________ȱorgan.
A) endocrine
B) cardiovascular
C) renal
D) muscular
E) hepatic
Answer: A
LearningȱOutcome: 18-3
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding

35) Theȱmostȱcomplexȱendocrineȱresponsesȱinvolveȱthe
A) thyroidȱgland.
B) pancreas.
C) adrenalȱglands.
D) hypothalamus.
E) thymusȱgland.
Answer: D
LearningȱOutcome: 18-3
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding

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Chapterȱ18ȱȱTheȱEndocrineȱSystemȱȱȱ583

36) Destructionȱofȱtheȱsupra-opticȱnucleusȱofȱtheȱhypothalamusȱwouldȱhaveȱwhichȱofȱthe
followingȱresults?
A) lossȱofȱADHȱsecretion
B) lossȱofȱGHȱsecretion
C) lossȱofȱmelatoninȱsecretion
D) lossȱofȱthyroidȱstimulatingȱhormoneȱsecretion
E) lossȱofȱprolactinȱsecretion
Answer: A
LearningȱOutcome: 18-3
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding

37) Ifȱtheȱhypophysealȱportalȱsystemȱisȱdestroyed,ȱtheȱhypothalamusȱwouldȱnoȱlongerȱbeȱableȱto
controlȱtheȱsecretionȱofȱwhichȱofȱtheȱfollowingȱhormones?
A) TSH
B) ACTH
C) PRL
D) ADHȱandȱOXT
E) TSH,ȱACTH,ȱPRL
Answer: E
LearningȱOutcome: 18-3
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding

38) Changesȱinȱbloodȱosmoticȱpressureȱwouldȱmostȱaffectȱtheȱsecretionȱof
A) ACTH.
B) ADH.
C) oxytocin.
D) TSH.
E) LH.
Answer: B
LearningȱOutcome: 18-3
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

39) Theȱhypothalamusȱcontrolsȱsecretionȱinȱtheȱadenohypophysisȱby
A) directȱneuralȱstimulation.
B) indirectȱosmoticȱcontrol.
C) secretingȱreleasingȱandȱinhibitingȱhormonesȱintoȱtheȱhypophysealportalȱsystem.
D) alteringȱionȱconcentrationsȱandȱpHȱinȱtheȱanteriorȱpituitary.
E) gapȱsynapticȱjunctions.
Answer: C
LearningȱOutcome: 18-3
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding

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40) Neuronsȱofȱtheȱsupra-opticȱandȱparaventricularȱnucleiȱofȱtheȱhypothalamusȱmanufacture
A) CRFȱandȱGnRH.
B) TSHȱandȱFSH.
C) ADHȱandȱoxytocin.
D) FSHȱandȱPRL.
E) GHIHȱandȱGHRH.
Answer: C
LearningȱOutcome: 18-3
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

41) Theȱmainȱactionȱofȱantidiureticȱhormoneȱis
A) increasedȱwaterȱconservationȱbyȱkidneys.
B) toȱstimulateȱkidneyȱcellsȱtoȱsecreteȱrenin.
C) increaseȱurineȱoutputȱtoȱremoveȱexcessȱfluid.
D) increasedȱbloodȱpressureȱbyȱincreasedȱNa+ reabsorption.
E) inhibitionȱofȱaldosterone.
Answer: A
LearningȱOutcome: 18-3
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding

42) Excessȱsecretionȱofȱgrowthȱhormoneȱduringȱearlyȱdevelopmentȱwillȱcause
A) dwarfism.
B) rickets.
C) gigantism.
D) acromegaly.
E) diabetesȱinsipidus.
Answer: C
LearningȱOutcome: 18-3
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

43) Whichȱofȱtheȱfollowingȱhormonesȱmayȱleadȱtoȱacromegalyȱifȱhypersecretedȱafterȱclosureȱofȱthe
epiphysealȱplates?
A) cortisol
B) parathyroidȱhormone
C) insulin
D) growthȱhormone
E) epinephrine
Answer: D
LearningȱOutcome: 18-3
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Applying

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Chapterȱ18ȱȱTheȱEndocrineȱSystemȱȱȱ585

44) Theȱhormoneȱproducedȱbyȱtheȱparsȱintermediaȱofȱtheȱadenohypophysisȱduringȱearly
childhoodȱis
A) FSH.
B) ADH.
C) TSH.
D) MSH.
E) ACTH.
Answer: D
LearningȱOutcome: 18-3
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

45) Eachȱofȱtheȱfollowingȱhormonesȱisȱproducedȱbyȱtheȱparsȱdistalisȱofȱtheȱadenohypophysis
except
A) FSH.
B) oxytocin.
C) TSH.
D) corticotropin.
E) somatotropin.
Answer: B
LearningȱOutcome: 18-3
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

46) Allȱofȱtheȱfollowingȱareȱtrueȱofȱoxytocinȱexcept?
A) Itȱpromotesȱuterineȱcontractions.
B) Itȱisȱresponsibleȱforȱmilkȱexpressionȱfromȱtheȱmammaryȱglands.
C) Itȱtriggersȱprostateȱglandȱcontraction.
D) Itȱisȱproducedȱinȱtheȱhypothalamus.
E) Itȱisȱstoredȱinȱtheȱanteriorȱpituitary.
Answer: E
LearningȱOutcome: 18-3
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding

47) Growthȱhormoneȱdoesȱallȱofȱtheȱfollowingȱexcept
A) promoteȱboneȱgrowth.
B) promoteȱmuscleȱgrowth.
C) promoteȱcortisolȱrelease.
D) spareȱglucose.
E) promoteȱaminoȱacidȱuptakeȱbyȱcells.
Answer: C
LearningȱOutcome: 18-3
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

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586ȱȱȱTestȱBankȱforȱFundamentalsȱofȱAnatomyȱ&ȱPhysiology,ȱ11e

48) Liverȱcellsȱrespondȱtoȱgrowthȱhormoneȱbyȱreleasingȱhormonesȱcalled
A) gonadotrophins.
B) prostaglandins.
C) hepaticȱhormones.
D) somatomedins.
E) glucocorticoids.
Answer: D
LearningȱOutcome: 18-3
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

49) Theȱpituitaryȱhormoneȱthatȱtriggersȱtheȱreleaseȱofȱthyroidȱhormoneȱfromȱtheȱthyroidȱglandȱis
A) TSH.
B) ACTH.
C) FSH.
D) LH.
E) GH.
Answer: A
LearningȱOutcome: 18-3
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

50) Theȱpituitaryȱhormoneȱthatȱcontrolsȱtheȱreleaseȱofȱglucocorticoidsȱfromȱtheȱadrenalȱcortexȱis
A) TSH.
B) ACTH.
C) FSH.
D) LH.
E) GH.
Answer: B
LearningȱOutcome: 18-3
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

51) Theȱpituitaryȱhormoneȱthatȱpromotesȱeggȱdevelopmentȱinȱovariesȱandȱspermȱdevelopmentȱin
testesȱis
A) TSH.
B) ACTH.
C) FSH.
D) LH.
E) GH.
Answer: C
LearningȱOutcome: 18-3
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

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Chapterȱ18ȱȱTheȱEndocrineȱSystemȱȱȱ587

52) Theȱpituitaryȱhormoneȱthatȱpromotesȱovarianȱsecretionȱofȱprogesteroneȱandȱtesticular
secretionȱofȱtestosteroneȱis
A) TSH.
B) ACTH.
C) FSH.
D) LH.
E) GH.
Answer: D
LearningȱOutcome: 18-3
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

53) Theȱpituitaryȱhormoneȱthatȱstimulatesȱmilkȱproductionȱbyȱtheȱmammaryȱglandsȱis
A) TSH.
B) ACTH.
C) growthȱhormone.
D) FSH.
E) prolactin.
Answer: E
LearningȱOutcome: 18-3
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

54) Theȱpituitaryȱhormoneȱthatȱstimulatesȱcellȱgrowthȱandȱreplicationȱbyȱacceleratingȱprotein
synthesisȱis
A) ACTH.
B) MSH.
C) prolactin.
D) insulin.
E) growthȱhormone.
Answer: E
LearningȱOutcome: 18-3
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

55) Afterȱbrainȱsurgery,ȱaȱpatientȱreceivingȱpostoperativeȱcareȱinȱanȱintensiveȱcareȱunitȱbeganȱto
passȱlargeȱvolumesȱofȱveryȱdiluteȱurine.ȱTheȱICUȱnurseȱadministeredȱaȱmedicineȱthatȱmimics
oneȱofȱtheȱfollowingȱhormones.ȱWhichȱone?
A) aldosterone
B) epinephrine
C) renin
D) ADH
E) cortisol
Answer: D
LearningȱOutcome: 18-3
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Applying

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588ȱȱȱTestȱBankȱforȱFundamentalsȱofȱAnatomyȱ&ȱPhysiology,ȱ11e

56) Theȱtermȱusedȱtoȱdescribeȱexcessȱproductionȱofȱurineȱis
A) polyuria.
B) polydipsia.
C) hematuria.
D) glycosuria.
E) polyphagia.
Answer: A
LearningȱOutcome: 18-3
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

57) Theȱtwoȱlobesȱofȱtheȱpituitaryȱglandȱtogetherȱproduceȱorȱstoreȱhowȱmanyȱhormones?
A) 3
B) 5
C) 7
D) 9
E) 16
Answer: D
LearningȱOutcome: 18-3
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

58) Theȱhormone(s)ȱthatȱmayȱbeȱslowlyȱadministeredȱbyȱintravenousȱdripȱtoȱaccelerateȱlaborȱand
deliveryȱis/are
A) oxytocin.
B) prolactin.
C) luteinizingȱhormone.
D) follicleȱstimulatingȱhormone.
E) bothȱoxytocinȱandȱluteinizingȱhormone.
Answer: A
LearningȱOutcome: 18-3
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding

59) Theȱposteriorȱlobeȱofȱtheȱpituitaryȱisȱalsoȱknownȱasȱthe
A) basalȱganglion.
B) infundibulum.
C) adenohypophysis.
D) mesencephalon.
E) neurohypophysis.
Answer: E
LearningȱOutcome: 18-3
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

60) Theȱanteriorȱlobeȱofȱtheȱpituitaryȱisȱalsoȱknownȱasȱthe
A) basalȱganglion.
B) infundibulum.
C) adenohypophysis.
D) mesencephalon.
E) neurohypophysis.
Answer: C
LearningȱOutcome: 18-3
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering
Copyrightȱ©ȱ2018ȱPearsonȱEducation,ȱInc.


Chapterȱ18ȱȱTheȱEndocrineȱSystemȱȱȱ589

61) Theȱanteriorȱlobeȱofȱtheȱpituitaryȱglandȱcanȱbeȱdividedȱintoȱthreeȱparts:ȱtheȱparsȱdistalis,ȱthe
parsȱintermedia,ȱandȱtheȱpars
A) tuberalis.
B) nervosa.
C) pinea.
D) intermedia.
E) magnus.
Answer: A
LearningȱOutcome: 18-3
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

62) Hormonesȱproducedȱbyȱtheȱanteriorȱlobeȱofȱtheȱpituitaryȱglandȱthatȱregulateȱtheȱmaleȱand
femaleȱreproductiveȱorgansȱareȱcollectivelyȱcalled
A) tropicȱhormones.
B) androgens.
C) somatotropins.
D) immunogens.
E) gonadotropins.
Answer: E
LearningȱOutcome: 18-3
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

63) AbnormallyȱlowȱproductionȱofȱLHȱandȱFSHȱresultsȱin
A) diabetesȱinsipidus.
B) aȱdiabetogenicȱeffect.
C) hypogonadism.
D) aȱglucose-sparingȱeffect.
E) hypocortisolism.
Answer: C
LearningȱOutcome: 18-3
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

64) Vasopressinȱisȱaȱcommonȱtermȱforȱthisȱhormone.
A) ADH
B) GH
C) oxytocin
D) prolactin
E) TSH
Answer: A
LearningȱOutcome: 18-3
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

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590ȱȱȱTestȱBankȱforȱFundamentalsȱofȱAnatomyȱ&ȱPhysiology,ȱ11e

65) Theȱpituitaryȱglandȱisȱlocatedȱwithinȱthisȱstructure.
A) theȱperpendicularȱplateȱofȱtheȱethmoidȱbone
B) hypoglossalȱcanal
C) cristaȱgalli
D) sellaȱturcicaȱofȱtheȱsphenoidȱbone
E) petrousȱpartȱofȱtheȱtemporalȱbone
Answer: D
LearningȱOutcome: 18-3
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

66) Milkȱproductionȱisȱstimulatedȱbyȱ________,ȱmilkȱejectionȱisȱstimulatedȱbyȱ________.
A) somatomedin;ȱMSH
B) prolactin;ȱoxytocin
C) oxytocin;ȱprolactin
D) MSH;ȱsomatomedin
E) LH;ȱFSH
Answer: B
LearningȱOutcome: 18-3
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

67) AllȱofȱtheȱfollowingȱareȱfunctionsȱofȱLHȱexcept
A) triggeringȱovulation.
B) stimulatingȱsecretionȱofȱtestosterone.
C) stimulatingȱtheȱformationȱofȱtheȱcorpusȱluteum.
D) stimulatingȱtheȱsecretionȱofȱprogesterone.
E) stimulatingȱfollicleȱdevelopment.
Answer: E
LearningȱOutcome: 18-3
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

68) Aȱtumorȱinȱtheȱpituitaryȱglandȱcouldȱdirectlyȱresultȱinȱallȱofȱtheȱfollowingȱexcept
A) hypercortisolism.
B) pituitaryȱdwarfism.
C) diabetesȱinsipidus.
D) gigantism.
E) hypogonadism.
Answer: A
LearningȱOutcome: 18-3
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding

69) Hormonesȱthatȱstimulateȱendocrineȱglandsȱtoȱreleaseȱotherȱhormonesȱare
A) humoral.
B) tropic.
C) reflexive.
D) up-regulators.
E) paracrineȱfactors.
Answer: B
LearningȱOutcome: 18-3
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

Copyrightȱ©ȱ2018ȱPearsonȱEducation,ȱInc.


Chapterȱ18ȱȱTheȱEndocrineȱSystemȱȱȱ591

70) Hypophysealȱportalȱsystemȱcapillariesȱare
A) linedȱbyȱtightȱjunctions.
B) linedȱbyȱmicroglialȱcells.
C) fenestrated.
D) impermeable.
E) linedȱbyȱpodocytes.
Answer: C
LearningȱOutcome: 18-3
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

Figureȱ18-1ȱPituitaryȱHormonesȱandȱTheirȱTargets
UseȱFigureȱ18-1ȱtoȱanswerȱtheȱfollowingȱquestions:
71) IdentifyȱtheȱhormoneȱlabeledȱȈ4.Ȉ
A) thyroid-releasingȱhormone
B) thyroid-stimulatingȱhormone
C) thyroxin
D) thyrotropin
E) calcitonin
Answer: B

Copyrightȱ©ȱ2018ȱPearsonȱEducation,ȱInc.


592ȱȱȱTestȱBankȱforȱFundamentalsȱofȱAnatomyȱ&ȱPhysiology,ȱ11e

LearningȱOutcome: 18-3
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding

72) IdentifyȱtheȱhormoneȱlabeledȱȈ1.Ȉ
A) mineralocorticoid
B) cortisol
C) dopamine
D) ACTH
E) aldosterone
Answer: D
LearningȱOutcome: 18-3
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding

73) Aȱdeficiencyȱofȱwhichȱhormoneȱcanȱleadȱtoȱdiabetesȱinsipidus?
A) 3
B) 7
C) 2
D) 8
E) 14
Answer: E
LearningȱOutcome: 18-3
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding

74) IdentifyȱtheȱhormoneȱlabeledȱȈ5.Ȉ
A) thyroid-releasingȱhormone
B) thyroid-stimulatingȱhormone
C) thyroxine
D) thyrotropin
E) parathyroidȱhormoneȱ(PTH)
Answer: C
LearningȱOutcome: 18-3
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding

75) IdentifyȱtheȱhormoneȱlabeledȱȈ13.Ȉ
A) LH
B) progesterone
C) estrogen
D) oxytocin
E) testosterone
Answer: D
LearningȱOutcome: 18-3
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding

Copyrightȱ©ȱ2018ȱPearsonȱEducation,ȱInc.


Chapterȱ18ȱȱTheȱEndocrineȱSystemȱȱȱ593

76) Whichȱofȱtheȱfollowingȱelementsȱisȱnecessaryȱforȱtheȱproductionȱofȱthyroidȱhormone?
A) sodium
B) iodine
C) potassium
D) iron
E) colloid
Answer: B
LearningȱOutcome: 18-4
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

77) Activityȱofȱwhichȱofȱtheȱfollowingȱcellsȱisȱinhibitedȱbyȱcalcitoninȱrelease?
A) alphaȱcells
B) osteoclasts
C) osteoblasts
D) Cȱcells
E) allȱcellsȱinȱtheȱbody
Answer: B
LearningȱOutcome: 18-4
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding

78) Allȱofȱtheȱfollowingȱareȱknownȱeffectsȱofȱthyroidȱhormoneȱonȱperipheralȱtissuesȱ except
A) increasedȱoxygenȱconsumption.
B) increasedȱheartȱrate.
C) increasedȱsensitivityȱtoȱautonomicȱstimulation.
D) increasedȱbodyȱtemperature.
E) decreasedȱcellularȱmetabolism.
Answer: E
LearningȱOutcome: 18-4
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

79) Mentalȱandȱphysicalȱsluggishnessȱandȱlowȱbodyȱtemperatureȱmayȱbeȱsignsȱof
A) hyperthyroidism.
B) hypothyroidism.
C) hyperparathyroidism.
D) hypoparathyroidism.
E) diabetesȱinsipidus.
Answer: B
LearningȱOutcome: 18-4
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

80) Theȱhormoneȱthatȱplaysȱaȱpivotalȱroleȱinȱsettingȱtheȱmetabolicȱrateȱandȱthusȱimpactingȱbody
temperatureȱis
A) somatotropin.
B) thyroxine.
C) calcitonin.
D) parathyroidȱhormone.
E) glucagon.
Answer: B
LearningȱOutcome: 18-4
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering
Copyrightȱ©ȱ2018ȱPearsonȱEducation,ȱInc.


594ȱȱȱTestȱBankȱforȱFundamentalsȱofȱAnatomyȱ&ȱPhysiology,ȱ11e

81) Aȱhormoneȱthatȱcanȱlowerȱbloodȱlevelsȱofȱcalciumȱionȱis
A) parathyroidȱhormone.
B) thyroxine.
C) calcitonin.
D) glucagon.
E) oxytocin.
Answer: C
LearningȱOutcome: 18-4
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

82) TheȱCȱcellsȱofȱtheȱthyroidȱglandȱproduce
A) thyroxine.
B) TSH.
C) calcitonin.
D) PTH.
E) triiodothyronine.
Answer: C
LearningȱOutcome: 18-4
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

83) Increasedȱlevelsȱofȱtheȱhormoneȱ________ȱwillȱleadȱtoȱdecreasedȱlevelsȱofȱcalciumȱionȱinȱthe
bloodȱviaȱinhibitionȱofȱ________.
A) thymosin;ȱosteocytes
B) calcitonin;ȱosteoclasts
C) PTH;ȱosteocytes
D) aldosterone;ȱosteoclasts
E) cortisol;ȱosteoblasts
Answer: B
LearningȱOutcome: 18-4
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

84) Whereȱdoesȱtheȱchemicalȱreactionȱbetweenȱthyroglobulinȱandȱiodineȱtakeȱplace?
A) inȱlysosomes
B) inȱroughȱendoplasmicȱreticulum
C) inȱtheȱfollicleȱcavity
D) inȱpinocytoticȱvesicles
E) inȱapicalȱmicrovilli
Answer: C
LearningȱOutcome: 18-4
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding

85) TSHȱplaysȱaȱkeyȱroleȱinȱtheȱ________ȱofȱthyroidȱhormones.
A) inhibition
B) synthesis
C) release
D) inhibitionȱandȱsecretion
E) synthesisȱandȱrelease
Answer: E
LearningȱOutcome: 18-4
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding
Copyrightȱ©ȱ2018ȱPearsonȱEducation,ȱInc.


Chapterȱ18ȱȱTheȱEndocrineȱSystemȱȱȱ595

86) Theȱcontrolȱofȱcalcitoninȱexcretionȱisȱanȱexampleȱofȱdirectȱ________ȱregulation.
A) endocrine
B) pancreatic
C) homeostatic
D) hepatic
E) vascular
Answer: A
LearningȱOutcome: 18-4
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

87) Thyroxineȱandȱcalcitoninȱareȱsecretedȱbyȱthe
A) kidneys.
B) heart.
C) thyroidȱgland.
D) gonads.
E) pituitaryȱgland.
Answer: C
LearningȱOutcome: 18-4
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

88) WhichȱofȱtheȱfollowingȱisȱnotȱanȱactionȱofȱTSH?
A) stimulatesȱT3 ȱandȱT 4 ȱsecretion
B) stimulatesȱiodideȱtrappingȱbyȱthyroidȱfollicleȱcells
C) inhibitsȱT3 ȱandȱT 4 ȱsecretion
D) stimulatesȱpinocytosisȱofȱcolloidȱbyȱthyroidȱfollicleȱcells
E) increasesȱcyclicȱAMPȱconcentrationȱwithinȱthyroidȱfollicleȱcells
Answer: C
LearningȱOutcome: 18-4
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding

89) Theȱtwoȱlobesȱofȱtheȱthyroidȱglandȱareȱconnectedȱbyȱthe
A) isthmus.
B) parsȱintermedia.
C) commissure.
D) aqueduct.
E) infundibulum.
Answer: A
LearningȱOutcome: 18-4
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

90) Theȱthyroidȱglandȱisȱcomposedȱofȱmanyȱ________ȱthatȱproduceȱandȱstoreȱthyroidȱhormone.
A) tubules
B) follicles
C) ducts
D) capillaries
E) plexuses
Answer: B
LearningȱOutcome: 18-4
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

Copyrightȱ©ȱ2018ȱPearsonȱEducation,ȱInc.


596ȱȱȱTestȱBankȱforȱFundamentalsȱofȱAnatomyȱ&ȱPhysiology,ȱ11e

91) Thyroidȱhormonesȱareȱstructuralȱderivativesȱofȱtheȱaminoȱacid
A) glutamicȱacid.
B) epinephrine.
C) iodine.
D) tyrosine.
E) glycine.
Answer: D
LearningȱOutcome: 18-4
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

92) Theȱspecificȱtargetȱcellsȱofȱtheȱthyroidȱhormones,ȱthyroxineȱandȱtriiodothyronineȱare
A) theȱcellsȱofȱtheȱparathyroidȱglands.
B) theȱcellsȱofȱtheȱpituitaryȱgland.
C) allȱcellsȱofȱtheȱbody.
D) theȱcellsȱofȱtheȱovariesȱandȱtestes.
E) theȱcellsȱofȱtheȱthymusȱgland.
Answer: C
LearningȱOutcome: 18-4
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

93) Follicleȱcellsȱsynthesizeȱaȱproteinȱcalled
A) calcitonin.
B) thyroglobulin.
C) transthyretin.
D) albumin.
E) colloid.
Answer: B
LearningȱOutcome: 18-4
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

94) Theȱmajorityȱofȱthyroidȱhormonesȱareȱsecretedȱasȱ________ȱbutȱsmallȱamountsȱofȱ________ȱis
alsoȱsecretedȱfromȱtheȱfollicle.
A) transthyretin;ȱcalcitonin
B) T3;ȱcalcitonin
C) T4;ȱT3
D) thyroglobulin;ȱtransthyretin
E) calcitonin;ȱcolloid
Answer: C
LearningȱOutcome: 18-4
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

95) ThyroidȱhormoneȱmayȱincreaseȱcellularȱATPȱproductionȱbyȱbindingȱto
A) theȱcytoplasm.
B) theȱouterȱsurfaceȱofȱtheȱplasmaȱmembrane.
C) theȱinnerȱsurfaceȱofȱtheȱplasmaȱmembrane.
D) theȱmitochondria.
E) theȱvesicles.
Answer: D
LearningȱOutcome: 18-4
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering
Copyrightȱ©ȱ2018ȱPearsonȱEducation,ȱInc.


Chapterȱ18ȱȱTheȱEndocrineȱSystemȱȱȱ597

96) IfȱdietaryȱiodineȱlevelsȱareȱdeficientȱyouȱwouldȱexpectȱthatȱplasmaȱTSHȱlevelsȱwouldȱbe
________ȱandȱthatȱplasmaȱthyroxineȱlevelsȱwouldȱbeȱ________.
A) high;ȱlow
B) low;ȱhigh
C) unchanged;ȱlow
D) low;ȱunchanged
E) low;ȱlow
Answer: A
LearningȱOutcome: 18-4
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Applying

97) Beforeȱtheȱdiscoveryȱofȱtheseȱglands,ȱthyroidȱsurgeryȱoftenȱledȱtoȱaȱrapidȱdropȱinȱblood
calciumȱlevels,ȱwhichȱtriggeredȱmuscleȱcontractionsȱandȱcardiacȱarrhythmias.ȱWhatȱglandsȱare
theseȱandȱwhichȱhormoneȱisȱlacking?
A) thyroidȱglands;ȱcalcitonin
B) parathyroidȱglands;ȱcalcitonin
C) parathyroidȱglands;ȱparathyroidȱhormone
D) thyroidȱglands;ȱlevothyroxine
E) parathyroidȱglands;ȱlevothyroxine
Answer: C
LearningȱOutcome: 18-5
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Applying

98) Parathyroidȱhormoneȱdoesȱallȱofȱtheȱfollowingȱexcept
A) stimulateȱosteoclastȱactivity.
B) inhibitȱosteoblastȱactivity.
C) buildȱupȱbone.
D) stimulateȱtheȱformationȱandȱsecretionȱofȱcalcitriolȱatȱtheȱkidneys.
E) enhanceȱtheȱreabsorptionȱofȱcalciumȱatȱtheȱkidneys.
Answer: C
LearningȱOutcome: 18-5
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding

99) Theȱhormoneȱthatȱdoesȱtheȱoppositeȱofȱcalcitoninȱis
A) insulin.
B) glucagon.
C) growthȱhormone.
D) parathyroidȱhormone.
E) thyroidȱhormone.
Answer: D
LearningȱOutcome: 18-5
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

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598ȱȱȱTestȱBankȱforȱFundamentalsȱofȱAnatomyȱ&ȱPhysiology,ȱ11e

100) Theȱparathyroidȱglandsȱproduceȱaȱhormoneȱthat
A) stimulatesȱtheȱformationȱofȱwhiteȱbloodȱcells.
B) increasesȱtheȱlevelȱofȱcalciumȱionsȱinȱtheȱblood.
C) increasesȱtheȱlevelȱofȱsodiumȱionsȱinȱtheȱblood.
D) increasesȱtheȱlevelȱofȱpotassiumȱionsȱinȱtheȱblood.
E) increasesȱtheȱlevelȱofȱglucoseȱinȱtheȱblood.
Answer: B
LearningȱOutcome: 18-5
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

101) Aȱtumorȱpresentȱonȱtheȱparathyroidȱglandȱcausingȱhyperparathyroidismȱmayȱleadȱto
A) osteoporosisȱandȱkidneyȱstones.
B) diabetesȱmellitusȱandȱhypercortisolism.
C) diabetesȱmellitus.
D) diabetesȱinsipidus.
E) hypogonadism.
Answer: A
LearningȱOutcome: 18-5
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Applying

102) Theȱzonaȱreticularisȱofȱtheȱadrenalȱcortexȱproduces
A) androgens.
B) glucocorticoids.
C) mineralocorticoids.
D) epinephrine.
E) norepinephrine.
Answer: A
LearningȱOutcome: 18-6
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

103) Theȱzonaȱfasciculataȱofȱtheȱadrenalȱcortexȱproduces
A) androgens.
B) glucocorticoids.
C) mineralocorticoids.
D) epinephrine.
E) norepinephrine.
Answer: B
LearningȱOutcome: 18-6
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

104) Theȱzonaȱglomerulosaȱofȱtheȱadrenalȱcortexȱproduces
A) androgens.
B) glucocorticoids.
C) mineralocorticoids.
D) epinephrine.
E) norepinephrine.
Answer: C
LearningȱOutcome: 18-6
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

Copyrightȱ©ȱ2018ȱPearsonȱEducation,ȱInc.


Chapterȱ18ȱȱTheȱEndocrineȱSystemȱȱȱ599

105) Theȱadrenalȱmedullaȱproduces
A) androgens.
B) glucocorticoids.
C) mineralocorticoids.
D) catecholamines.
E) corticosteroids.
Answer: D
LearningȱOutcome: 18-6
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

106) Aȱhormoneȱthatȱpromotesȱgluconeogenesisȱinȱtheȱliverȱis
A) aldosterone.
B) erythropoietin.
C) thymosin.
D) cortisol.
E) calcitonin.
Answer: D
LearningȱOutcome: 18-6
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

107) Aȱhormoneȱthatȱhelpsȱtoȱregulateȱtheȱsodiumȱionȱcontentȱofȱtheȱbodyȱis
A) cortisol.
B) parathormone.
C) thymosin.
D) somatotropin.
E) aldosterone.
Answer: E
LearningȱOutcome: 18-6
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

108) Cushingȇsȱdiseaseȱresultsȱfromȱanȱexcessȱof
A) growthȱhormone.
B) parathyroidȱhormone.
C) ADH.
D) glucocorticoids.
E) epinephrine.
Answer: D
LearningȱOutcome: 18-6
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding

109) ReductionȱofȱfluidȱlossesȱatȱtheȱkidneysȱdueȱtoȱtheȱretentionȱofȱNa + ȱisȱtheȱactionȱof
A) antidiureticȱhormone.
B) calcitonin.
C) aldosterone.
D) cortisone.
E) oxytocin.
Answer: C
LearningȱOutcome: 18-6
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

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