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Thiết kế và sử dụng học liệu điện tử trong dạy học Lịch sử lớp 10 ở trường trung học phổ thông ttta

MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING
HANOI NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF EDUCATION

NINH THI HANH

DESIGNING AND USING THE COURSEWARE
In TEACHING HISTORY GRADE 10 IN HIGH Schools
Major: History Teaching Theories and Methodology
Code: 9.14.01.11

SUMMARY OF EDUCATION DOCTORAL THESIS

HANOI, 2019


This work was completed at Hanoi National University of Education

Scientific Instructors: Dr. NGUYEN THI BICH
Dr. HOANG THANH TU

Reviewer 1: Assoc. Prof, Dr. Tran Viet Luu

Central Propaganda and Training Commission
Reviewer 2: Assoc. Prof, Dr. Nguyen Thi The Binh
Hanoi National University Of Education
Reviewer 3: Dr. Vu Thi Ngoc Anh
The Vietnam National Institute of Educational Sciences

This thesis will be presented and defended at the Thesis Examination Board
meeting at Hanoi National University of Education

The thesis is available at:
National Library of Vietnam, Hanoi
Or Hanoi National University of Education’ Library


A LIST OF RELATED RECOGNIZED STUDIES
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Hoàng Thanh Tú, Ninh Thị Hạnh (2011), Designing and using historical
documentaries with the help of software Proshoww Gold, educational journal,
issue 68, page 25-27;30
Ninh Thị Hạnh (2013), Using Google Sites service to design WebQuest to
facilitate teaching in high schools. Science journal, Hanoi II University of
Education in high school, issue 27, page 106-112
Ninh Thị Hạnh (2014), Using software Hot Potatoes 6.0 to design testing
tools to evaluate students’ result in History in High school, Science journal,
Hanoi II University of Education in high school, issue 31, page 81-86.
Ninh Thị Hạnh, Ngô Sách Đăng, Ngô Duy Nam (2016), Design and carry out
lesson plan in High schools with assistance of technology tools, Journal of
Science (Volume 42/2016), Hanoi Pedagogical University 2, ISSN 1859 –
2325, p.124 - 130.
Ninh Thị Hạnh (2016), The applying of blended learning to teaching
Vietnamese history in high school, The conference “Researching and Teaching
History in the current context ", Nxb. Political Theory Publishing, H. 2016, p.
304 – 314.
Ninh Thị Hạnh (2017), The national digital learning resources network in
Australia – Experience for designing Vietnamese history digital learning
resources, The International Conference: History teacher training and
professional development for curiculum and textbook reform, Vietnam
National University Publishing, Ha Noi, 2017, p. 485 – 491, ISBN:
9786046299769.
Ninh Thị Hạnh (2018), Ninh Thị Hạnh (2018), Using the courseware to
teaching history in high school, Journal of Science (Volume 55/2018), Hanoi
Pedagogical University 2, ISSN 1859 – 2325, p. 104 – 116.
Hoang Thanh Tu, Ninh Thi Hanh (2018), Applying the Flipped Classroom to
Teacher Training in Vietnam: A case study in Faculty of History in HPU2, The
International Conference on Flipped Learning for Technological and
Vocational Education, National Taiwan Normal University, p. 107 – 116.


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INTRODUCTION
1. Rationale
1. 1. According to the modern pedagogy, educators consider the integration of
all the technological products into the teaching the fourth educational revolution
(after the advent of schools, letters, printing and books). The application of
techniques and technology in teaching, especially Information Technology offers new
ways of teaching, which encourages students‟ independence and proactive
involvement. In fact, “ 40 percent of population uses the Internet on the daily basis
currently. Imagine what we can do when the ratio is 50, 60, 70 percent”. This is a
statement by Sheryl Sandberg - Facebook CEO, at the Annual Economic Forum was
held in Davos, Switzerland (January 2015). This signifies the advancement of
Information Technology and its continual influences on most domains, which is
likely to comprehensively change economy, society and especially education.
Information Technology (IT) creates opportunities and challenges for education
renovation in terms of syllabus contents, teaching methods, and usages of modern
devices such as electronic material resources.
The growing development of the Internet together with popular applications of
smart electronic gadgets allows people to have interaction with each other easily
around the world. This opens up opportunities for the growth and expansion of new
teaching methods, besides the traditional methods (face to face). Blended learning is
a new approach which is the combination between conventional teaching and elearning. The application of binary teaching method including face-to-face and
integrated-based teaching ones in general and history teaching in particular is the new
trend, which is appropriate for the reality and current teaching renovation: “The
application of Information Technology in contents and methods of teaching including
the effective utilizations of devices, teaching software, virtual experiments, emulation
software: fruitful uses of e-learning modern system in privileged areas, adapting elearning lectures, e-books, the use of online evaluation system...”.
1.2. History teaching is typical of a subject. Unlike other subjects, historical
knowledge bears its own properties such as past, and non-recurrence... History cannot
be directly observed history, but indirectly perceived through historical sources as
well as teaching facilities. Thus, in history teaching, visual aids in general and


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courseware in particular play a key role. Courseware presents information through
multimedia, which enables the link to any database in computers via websites without
the limit of time and space. This is, therefore, significant to not only simply specify
but also support learners to develop thinking and capabilities.
In Vietnam, the utilization of courseware in history teaching has been carried
out on a large scale. Nonetheless, its application has not been notably fruitful in
enhancing learners‟ aptitudes, and creating learning incentives by dint of colossal
factors like infrastructure condition, and teachers‟ approach.
1.3. History for grade 10 plays a pivotal role in History curriculum in high
school including international and Vietnamese History from primitive times to
ancient -medieval era and the first phase of early modern period. The material
sources for this period are so available that teachers and students may easily access to
them. Hence, it is flexible for teacher to adapt and organize their lesson contents as
well as opt for suitable materials matching with teaching approaches. In reality,
teachers, nevertheless, have difficulties in planning and utilizing electronic materials
effectively.
From aforementioned rationales, we have chosen: “Designing and using
courseware in teaching History for grade 10 in high school” as the title for Doctor
of Education thesis on principles and methods in History teaching.
2. The subjects and scopes of the study
2.1 The subject of the study
The subjects of the thesis is the planning procedures and the ways of using
electronic materials in face to face teaching as well as blended teaching for grade 10
in High School.
2.2. The scopes of the study
- In terms of principles and methods of teaching History:
The thesis puts an emphasis on the study of principles and methods of utilizing
visual aids in general and teaching facilities in particular, especially modern teaching
tools including the application of Information Technology in teaching History. The
thesis also focuses on the study of teaching methods in modern teaching perspectives.
- The scope of the study:
+ In terms of content: the thesis focuses on History for grade 10 in High Schools


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(standardized curriculum) so as to propose the knowledge which can be exploited to
design courseware .
+ In terms of courseware: The thesis concentrates on the recommendation of
planning procedures and methods of using a specific courseware namely learning
websites which is the combination of Face to face and Blended learning.
- In terms of the scope of research, situation investigation and experiment:
+The survey was carried out in 67 high schools in 18 provinces with
representatives in three main regions nationwide.
+ The initial experiments and parallel experiments were exercised in five
different high schools through lesson 27 and lesson 32 of History 10.
3. Objectives and tasks of the thesis
3.1. Objectives
Basing on the roles and significances of e-learning materials, the thesis
constructs design procedures and contents of courseware in the form of learning
websites as well as proposes the ways to use courseware in Face-to-face learning and
Blended learning so as to improve the effectiveness of History teaching for grade 10
in high schools.
3.2.Tasks
With a view to fulfilling the above aims, the subject needs tackling the specific
tasks as follows.
- Study the sound arguments of designing and using courseware in History
teaching in high schools.
- Carry a survey related to designing and using courseware in History teaching
in high schools, which is the practical foundations for the thesis.
- Design courseware in learning websites catering for teaching History for grade
10.
- Recommend procedures, measures pertaining to using courseware in the form
of Face-to-face and Blended learning to enhance the effectiveness of History teaching
for grade 10 in high schools.
- Exercise educational experiments to verify the feasibility of the procedures as
well as the proposed courseware uses.
4. Methodology and reasearch methods


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4.1. Methodology
The methodology of the thesis is the arguments of Marxism- Leninism related to
Ho Chi Minh perception, ideology, and the guidelines of the Communist party on
education in general and on History teaching in particular.
4. 2. Research methods
To study the subject, we use a wide range of medthods:
- Study theories: examining the arguments on methodology, teaching methods,
applications of Information Technology in teaching, especially the arguments on
courseware and forms of teaching through reading, collecting and analysing
documents like newspapers, books, maganizes, the Internet...; study curriculum,
current History textbooks for grade 10 and projects for History teaching after the year
of 2018 to select an option for suitable contents and topics to design courseware .
- Study practicality: Use a diverse methods of research such as surveys, interviews,
observations to identify the reality of using courseware in History teaching in high schools
and initially estimate the effectiveness of

using proposed courseware . Use the

professional approach to preminilarly survey, appraise the quality of the designed
courseware .
- Use the educational experimental method to verify the feasibility of the
procedures, methods of using courseware in History teaching in five high schools in
different provinces and cities namely Vinh Phuc, Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh city.
- Use methods of statistics to process, accumulate, analyze the collected data
during educational experiment procedures and evaluate the feasibility, effectiveness
of proposed measures of the study.
5. Scientific hypotheses
The era of 4.0 industrial revolution has had a substantial influence on education,
which makes courseware play an increasingly important role in teaching. If design
procedures are constructed and mearures of using proper courseware are taken, this
can contribute to improving History teaching qualities in high schools in general and
History teaching for grade 10 in particular.
6. Contributions of the study
The results of the study will contribute to:
- Affirm the roles, significances, necessities of designing and using courseware
in History teaching generally and History teaching for grade 10 particularly.


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-Evaluate the reality of utilizing courseware in the forms of Face-to-face and
Blended learning in History teaching in high schools.
- Propose design procedures and measures of using courseware in the form of
Face-to-face and Blended learning in History teaching for grade 10 in high schools.
7. The study’s scientific and practical significances
The study is significant in terms of science and practicality:
- In terms of science: The thesis diversify the arguments and methods of History
teaching in the domain of using Information Technology in History teaching in
general, design and using courseware in History teaching for grade 10 in particular.
- In terms practicality: The study is considered the documents guiding high
school teachers to design and use courseware in teaching to improve teaching quality.
Besides, it can function as references for undergraduates and post-graduates
specialized in Principles and Methods of History teaching.
8. The structure of the study
In addition to Introduction, Conclusion, Appendix, Reference, the content of the
study consists of four chapters.
Chapter 1. Literature review
Chapter 2. Designing and using courseware in History teaching in high schoolstheory and practicality.
Chapter 3. Designing courseware in History teaching for grade 10 in high
schools
Chapter 4. Using courseware in History teaching for grade 10 in high schools.
Educational experiment
Chapter 1
LITERATURE REVIEW
1.1. Researches into courseware in teaching
1.1.1. In foreign countries
The advancement of Information Technology leadsto a considerable increase in
modern visual aids including e-learning materials. Researches on Information
Technology and e-learning started to flourish in the late 20th century. The researches
carried out by scholars from America, France, Australia, Singapore... and UNESCO
must be taken into account. Most of these researches have affirmed that Blended
learning is one of the effective measure which enhances the productivity of applying


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Information Technology in teaching in general and coursewarein particular. Specifically,
learning websites is one of the popular courseware used for Blended learning thanks to
its unmatched advantages and its capability to meet the demands of educational
renovation pertaining to the applications of Technology throughout the world.
1.1.2. In Vietnam
Researches into the application of Information Technology in teaching in general
and using courseware in particular have become increasingly popular in the 21st century.
Many experts in teaching principles and methodology have taken the individual study of
e-learning materials, especially learning websites into consideration, which have been
represented by recognized articles in privileged journals.
1. 2. Researches into courseware pertaining to History teaching
1.2.1. In foreign countries
A colossal number of scholars have studied the tendency of the applications of
Information Technology, specifically, the uses of courseware in History teaching. These
studies preliminarily shows the key role of using courseware in History teaching in
general as well as takes an insight into the analysis of the roles, procedures,
effectiveness of some particular courseware which can be utilized in History teaching
like learning websites, documentaries, games, e-books, e-lesson plans, etc.
1.2.2. In Vietnam
In Vietnam, the study of using courseware was not diverse and systematic with
the initial ones related to the study of principles of using visual aids in History
teaching in general. However, in the 21st century, together with the development of
education throughout the world, the researches into using courseware in teaching in
general and History teaching in particular have been increasingly various.
1.3. Overall evaluation, inheritance and problem solving
Taken together, some issues can be taken into consideration throughout the
foreign and domestic study of using Information Technology, courseware in teaching
in general and History teaching and in particular as follows.
First, affirm the necessity and importance of using Information Technology,
courseware in teaching environment inclusing History teaching.
Second, catergorize courseware and take an in-depth study on specific e-learning
materials. Each type of courseware has its own merits when used in teaching in
varied teaching conditions.
Third, identify the approach to make full use of courseware. Three main ways


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of teaching comprising Face-to-face, Blended learning, E-learning are common
nowadays.
Nonetheless, no researches have dealt with the following issues symtematically.
First: What are the significences of using courseware in History teaching in
high schools in current educational renovation?
Second: What are the merits and demerits of using courseware in History
teaching in high schools?
Third: How can courseware be used to be compatible with level of knowledge?
Fourth: What are proper designed courseware used for History teaching in high
schools currently?
Fifth: How can the design procedures and methods used courseware in History
in high schools in general and History teaching for grade 10 in particular be used
effectively?
On the basis of the previous achievements, the thesis puts an emphasis on
addressing the following problems:
First, explain the concepts, terms like courseware, courseware in History
teaching, design and use E-learning in History teaching in high schools, classify the
properties of courseware, face-to-face, blended learning. Besides, on the ground of
the objectives of the subject, analyze the historical knowledge identities,
characteristics of students‟ perceptions in History teaching; analyze the roles,
significances of using courseware in History teaching.
Second, examine the relationship between using courseware and other elements
in History teaching in high school, demand for the change of teaching procedures
and propose the fundemental requirements of using courseware in History teaching in
high schools.
Third, have an overview of the reality of History teaching in high schools as
well as take an insight into analyzing the advantages and disadvantages of using
courseware on the survey results, which leads to the practical issues which need
tackling .
Fourth, study the syllabus of History for grade 10 in high school and identify
proper knowledge which can be suitable for courseware, opt for appropriate design
procedures matching with the objectives. To be specific, the thesis will design
courseware in the form of learning websites directly support Face-to-face and
Blended learning.


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Fifth, recommend procedures, measures of using courseware which have been
designed and experimented to verify the productivity of proposed procedures and
measures. Basing on different teaching methods to determine appropriate courseware
is the orientation of the thesis on design procedures and courseware uses.
Chapter 2
DESIGNING AND USING COURSEWARE’S IN HISTORY TEACHING IN
HIGH SCHOOLS - THEORY AND PRACTICE
2.1. Theory
2.1.1. Related concepts
* Learning materials; courseware
* Courseware in History teaching: according to the definition of courseware in
general, which can be applied to History teaching, courseware in History teaching is
a system of historical documents which are digitalized on the ground of educational
ideas in various forms including text files, pictures, videos, infographics, e-books,
websites which follow a strict procedure aiming at a specife objective in History
teaching.
In the scope of the study, designing and using courseware in high schools can
be the process in which teachers creat courseware in a wide range of forms basing
on available materials or their own compilations for specific educational purposes.
This e-learning material system is accumulated in a learning website which can be
used in Face-to-face or Blended learning flexibly to accomodate different types of
classes, teaching reality and diverse target learners.
2.1.2. Properties and classifications of courseware in History teaching in high
schools
2.1.2.1. Properties of courseware in History teaching in high schools
2.1.2.2. Classifications of courseware in History teaching in high schools
Including: text files, images, audio and documentaries; simulation and
interaction; intergration.
2.1.3. Rationales for designing and using courseware in high schools
2.1.3.1. Objectives of History in high schools
2.1.3.2. Atributes of historical knowledge and characteristics of students’
perception in high schools
2.1.3.3. Requirement of History renovation in high schools
2.1.4. Roles and significances of designing and using courseware in History
teaching in high schools
2.1.4.1. Roles of designing and using courseware in History teaching in high schools


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First, courseware is a modern tool which facilitates teachers to prepare,
organize, and instruct students tolerant. Second, courseware is a plentiful knowledge
source which is vital to both teachers and students. Third, using courseware is a
positive ways of teaching which contributes to innovating teaching, inspire students,
and enhance the effectiveness of History learning.
2.1.4.2. Significances of designing and using courseware in History teaching in
high schools
With the above roles, designing and using courseware play a key role in History
teaching in terms of knowledge, skills, attitudes, and the orientation of aptitude and
quality growth.
2.1.5. Popular ways of teaching using courseware
According modern teaching theories, basing on the interactions between
teachers and students through Information Technology (IT) or the applications of IT,
ways of teaching can be divided into three types including Face-to-face, E-Learning,
and Blended learning. For each type, courseware plays a pivotal role differently.
In the scope of the thesis, we focus on design procedures and the use of
courseware in History teaching in Face-to-face and Blended learning.
2.2. Practice
2.2.1 Designing and using courseware in some countries in reality
The countries in Europe, North America, Australia and some countries in the
South East Asia like Singapore and Thailand are pioneers and contribute to the
researches on the uses of IT in education. The roles of using IT, specifically, using
courseware are concerned from various angles. In the renovations, these countries‟
rennovation have been accompanied by the investment in courseware including
learning websites and search skills, as well as choose, design, devise courseware for
teachers. Hence, designing and using courseware in History teaching in high schools
is a must and is appropriate for the world tendency.
2.2.2. Designing and using Courseware’s in History teaching in high schools
in Vietnam in reality
The survey, and research were carried out on a large scale with a wide range of
teaching environment in 67 high schools located in 18 provinces from plain to
northern mountainous regions including Lào Cai, Lạng Sơn, Hòa Bình, Phú Thọ,
Vĩnh Phúc, Bắc Giang, Hà Nội, Bắc Ninh, Hưng Yên, Hải Dương, Thái Bình, Nam
Định, Hà Nam, Thanh Hóa, Ninh Thuận, Huế, Tây Ninh, Đồng Tháp. Different


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types of schools such as gifted schools, public schools, private schools, international
schools, centers for continuing training were surveyed. The information from the
data analysis is valuable for us to propose the measures of designing and using
courseware in History teaching in high schools.
The results of the survey show that courseware play an important role in
developing students„ aptitudes (80%). In reality, not many teachers are aware of
using courseware in guiding students self-study, self-search and explore information
(3.1%); give students guidance on Internet interaction (12.5%). Most teachers use
courseware in Face-to-face (84.4%). The biggest challenge does not lie in the lack
of facilities and modern teaching tools. It is the students perplexity in opting and
using courseware efficiently as well as teachers„ confusion and time-consumption in
preparing a lesson plan with courseware that matters most.
2.2.3. General assessments
First, teachers seem to be unaware of students„ interests, demands, hobbies when
designing and using E-learning materials. Second, although teachers are concious of the
importance of courseware in enhancing learners„ talents, the effectiveness of using
courseware in History teaching has not come up to their expectation. Third, teachers
have used various forms of E-learning, but they just use the simple ones like text files,
images, audios, videos, slides... Teachers have not either made full use of high
interactive courseware like interactive slideshow, inforgraphics, learning websites or
updated new tools to increase the interaction in teaching. Fourth, the shortage of a
diverse E-learning material system with high reliability and appropriate procedures
which can be suited to teaching ideas is a great hindrance to both teachers and students.
Chapter 3
DESIGNING COURSEWARE IN HISTORY TEACHING
FOR GRADE 10 IN HIGH SCHOOLS
3.1. Postition, objectives, contents of History syllabus for grade 10
3.2. The contents of History syllabus is suitable for designing courseware
On the basis of analyzing the position, objectives and contents of History
syllabus for grade 10, we confirm that the basic contents of History for grade 10 can
be designed as courseware which may facilitate as follows: the knowledge
containing ambiguous concept that students need to get to know its natures; the
knowledge including a various historical events which are related to the course of
events or the developmental stages of an event, a historical phenomenon in one or
more than one periods; knowledge contents that students must analyze, evaluate, give
remarks or give opinions; knowledge contents with multi-leveled integration. In this


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case, using courseware function as information supply as well as other subject
complements which help students gain in-depth knowledge of historicals events and
historical phenomena.
Teachers can use learning websites for all the aforementioned contents of
knowledge as courseware is in the form of gathering all documents. Moreover,
learning websites are also appropriate for knowledge which is generalized or revision
part at the end of the lesson, chapter summary or such part as a preliminary summary
of Vietnamese history from its origin to the mid-19th century.
3.3 Principles in designign and using courseware in History teaching in high
schools
Serving as a tool in teaching in general, History teaching in particular, designing
courseware must be based on pedagogical science generally and on History teaching
pedagogical science particularly as well as the social demand and school
requirements in the renovation of History teaching method of the application IT in
education. To be specific, the reform must guarantee scientific, sytematic, interative,
multimedia, technical, and aesthetic qualities.
3.4. Procedures for designing courseware in History teaching for grade 10
in high schools
To design courseware effectively, teacher should follow the steps in the
flowchart below:

Figure 3.1. Process of designing courseware for History teaching


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3.5. An introduction of a learning website: HISTORY 10 (https://1095397.site123.me/)
The website comprises home page and another 6 links including: Introduction;
General procedures; Learning task; Evaluation; Conclusion; Contact. These links
appear on the left of the learning website so that users can easily follow. Each link
has its own text with images. Whenever someone wants to access the link, just click
the intended link. Homepage and each link are designed to excercise a particular task
in teaching procedure. Basing on the researches into the theories on visualization in
teaching in general, the use of teaching tools and the researches on designing
courseware in particular; basing on the current advancement of IT as well as the
requirement for the application of IT in History teaching, we design the webpage
with five particular properties: First, the interface is modern and friendly; Second,
structures are in accordance with teaching procedures; Third, learning activities are
designed to develop students’ talents; Fourth, the courseware system is abundant and
reliable; Fifth, the possibility of interaction is high.
Chapter 4
USING COURSEWARE IN TEACHING HISTORY 10 IN HIGH
SCHOOLS - AN EDUCATIONAL EXPERIMENT
4. 1. Requirements for using courseware in History in High Schools
Overall, to exploit the potentials of courseware, teachers should pay attention
to the requirements for using courseware in teaching as a modern visual teaching
aids. All the requirements should be specific as follows: guarantee safety; guarantee
3D; guarantee effectiveness; guarantee practicality.
4.2. Courseware use procedure in History 10 teaching in High schools
Generally, if teaching procedure is considered a information transmission from
teachers to students as well as process of interaction between students and
infromation, teaching tools in general and courseware in particular function as
information transmission tools to learners. Though there is a difference between
Face-to-face and Blended learning, the use of oursewares in History teaching must
follow a common procedure including four following steps:


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Figure 4.1. Process of using courseware for History teaching
In face-to-face lessons, teachers can make a lesson plan that comprise three
main parts: teaching procedure; types of courseware used; teaching and learning
activities.
Table 4.1. A lesson plan using courseware in face-to-face
Forms of courseware
Procedur
e
Warm-up
(review
previous
lesson,
introduce new
lesson)
Knowledge,
skill,
new
attitude
formation
Knowledge
review
and
consolidation
Evaluation

Text

Teaching activities

Images, Audio,
Worksheet Teachers Students
graphs... documentaries


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In blended learning, the procedures consist of 2 elements: Organizing activity
process; blended learning, Face-to-face and online learning. Here are the structures of
teaching activities which utilize courseware in Blended learning.
Table 4.2: A Blended-learning lesson plan
TOPIC/CONTENT A
Procedure

Blended learning
Face-to-face
Teachers

Warm-Up
(previous
lesson review,
new
lesson
introduction)

Text introduction
(content
and
method)
New
lesson
introduction

Online learning

Students
Answer
questions (link
to new lesson if
necessary)

Objective
New
introduction and Exchange
knowledge,
objectives
of answers
and
skill, attitude
each task support raise questions
formation
students directly

Teachers

Students

Give marks

Do
tests

Online support
supervise
individual and
group
fulfillment

Do
online
tasks: perfect
products,
answer
questions.

Review,
consolidation

Set requirements, Exchange
Online support
give remarks on answers
and
students‟ answers raise questions

Evaluation

Guide students to
Students
do
multiplequestions
choice questions

online

Do task on
Canva

Modify
Do Kahoot
raise questions time multiple
allowance
if choice
necessary
questions

4.3. Methods of using courseware in history for grade 10 in high schools
4.3.1. Use courseware effectively in Face-to-face
Face-to-face learning, teachers use courseware as modern visual aids which
facilitate teachers to prepare, oganize and instruct students. In addition to complying
with standards of classroom and teaching necessities for history in high schools, to
utilize courseware in Face-to-face in classrooms need to be equipped with other
facilities like projectors, screen, large-screen TV with HDMI connected with laptops
or computers.


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4.3.1.1. Use courseware to create learning situations and raise awareners
4.3.1.2. Exploit courseware to eventualize, phenominonize and historical figures
4.3.1.3. Give guidence on exclanging, analyzing courseware to draw conclusion
4.3.1.4. Give guidence on using courseware to practice, consilid the lessons
4.3.1.5. Give guidence on using courseware to prepare the homeworks
4.3.1.6. Give guidence on supporting the examination and assessment of
students' learning results
4.3.2. Use courseware flexibly in Blended learning
In blended learing, courseware, website history 10 is multifunctional, which
means that it is both learning material resource and learning environment. In order to
use courseware in history teaching in blended learning, schools need to have good
infrustructure, modern facilities... Paticularly, school in big cities international
schools, bilingual schools, multi-grade schools, national standard schools, gifted
schools. With these favorable conditions, teachers can carry out activities which
utilize online materials, online interations classrooms need wify connection or
internet connections, as well as computers can install basic software like web browse
MS Powerpoint, Kahoot, Carva, Padlet, ...
4.3.2.1. Introduce courseware as well as objectives and tasks
4.3.2.2. Give guidence on self – study courseware to do the gives tasks
4.3.2.3. Hold interactive activities to report products
4.3.2.4. Give guidence on basing on courseware to test to themselves
4.4. Educational experiments
4.4.1. Objectives
First, educational experiments are scientific bases to test the feasibility of using
courseware in history teaching in high school.
Second, evaluate the effects of using courseware in history teaching on results,
attitudes, interest of learners.
Third, estimate the possibility of using courseware in approaches of teaching
organization.
Fourth, scientifically affirm the hypothesis.
4.2.2. Targets and experiment areas
Experimental targets are 10 graders of 5 schools in Vinh Phuc – Ha Noi and Ho Chi
Minh city in school year 2017-2018 students who are choosen are in different
regions: big cities, countrysides, plains including, gifted schools, public schools,


16

private schools, international schools to guarantee criteria in the experiment.
4.4.3. Experimental approach
In terms of website qualities:https://1095397.site123.me/
Using professional approach and surveys to estimate the designed materials
namely learning website:https://1095397.site123.me/. To evaluate the quality, we
conducted a survey to gather professionals‟ opinions, history teachers, students in
high schools. The contents of the survey mainly focus on the evaluation of content,
structure, texture and significances.
In terms of the procedures of using courseware in Face-to-face and blended
learning.
We carried out educational experiments on two lessons: Lesson 27: The process
of country‟s construction and defence in the form of revision lesson and lesson 32:
Industrial revolution in Europe in the form of knowledge provision. We followed a 2step process.
Step1: Initial experimentation: confirm quality and modify the content,
interface, structure, technical items of the website https://1095397.site123.me/.
Step 2: Parallel experimentation, after the confirmation of the effectiveness of
the website. We used the website in the proposed process which was conducted on a
wide range of targets. Basing on the result, the efficiency of the website on the
learning process is verified and pivotal conclusions are drawn. The students who
were chosen to be the targets of the empirical research as well as experimental
research were equal in terms of the number as level of History learning, which met
the research‟s requirements.
4.4.4. Experiment procedure
Table 4.3. Experiment procedures
While- experiment
PreB1. Initial
B2. Parallel
experiment
experimentation experimentation
Purpose - Survey of - Provide initial - Adjust and
students'
conclusions about improve
the
conditions for the quality of the website.
using
site and oriented Verify
the
computers,
to adjust to the effectiveness and
smartphones
experimental
feasibility of the
and
Internet evaluation
process using the
connection
site

Postexperiment
- Get feedback
from students
about 4 issues:
form, content
of the website;
student's
interest
in
learning,


17

Tools

Student - Questionnaire
surveys through for experts and
Google Forms. teachers
Direct
observation of the
classroom
- Product of
students

Direct
observation of the
classroom
Test
of
knowledge
through Kahoot
Product
of
students through
Canva; Padlet

difficulties and
suggestions.
- Vote for
feedback from
students
via
Google Form.
In-depth
interview with
students

4.4.5. Experiment results
The results obtained form the experiments are in two forms: qualitative and
quantitavive information
Qualitative information is formed on logical resolutions, which signifies the
speculations through:
+ The students‟ ability to finish products after a lesson like: an introduction of a
historical figure, posters, brochures, catalogue, worksheets, statistic tables, event
comparisons, historical phenomena
+ Students‟ feedback after the experimental lesson.
+ Teachers‟ observation and remarks on students‟ attitutes, behaviors after the
lesson.
+ Observers‟ comments on the effectiveness of the lesson.
Quantitative information based on arthimatical resolutions, the use of statistics
through:
+ The result of the multiple choice test at the end of the class
+ The scores that groups get for their products: an introduction of a historical
figure, posters, brochures, catalogues, worksheets, statistic tables, event comparisons,
historical phenomena...
+ Students‟ feedback result.
+ Teachers‟ and obervers‟ comment result.
4.4.5.1. Results of qualitative information analysis
- First, the results of observations
- Second, the results of in-depth interviews with students and teachers
4.4.5.2. Results of quantitative information analysis
In terms of students’ interest. We got feedback and interviewed 276 students
who joined in the lessons. 100% students said that they were interested in the lessons
with learning website: https://1095397.site123.me as well as exploiting courseware


18

in learning activities.
The statistics shows that the proportion of wrong anwers are low (roughly a
third of questions in multiple choice test). The average mark fluctuates between 7. 5
to 9.0, which presents that the efficiency of the use of learning websites in helping
students with memorizing and understanding the lesson.
The results of marking students’ products: The marking is based on specific
criteria for each product as well as criteria for the whole group work process of each
student. After the experiment, the results are as follows.
Average score - initial experiments and parallel experiments
using courseware in Blended learning

70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
EXCELLENT

KH1-L3

KH2-V1

GOOD

AVERAGE

KH2-V2

KH2-F2

POOR

KH2-F3

Figure 4.2. The result of using courseware in initial experiments and parallel
experiments in blended learning
Table 4.4. Average score table of students and results of marking students'
products in initial experiments and parallel experiments
TB
7,3
8,1
8,3
TB
7,6

STĐ
SD
0,46
0,27
0,25
SD
0,44

SH2-V1
SH2-V2

8,4

0,31

8,6

0,30

3,47.10-6
5,42.10-7

SH2-F2

8,7

0,29

2,94.10-5

SH2-F3

8,9

0,26

1,03.10-4

Experiments

Face to face

Initial
Parallel

TT1-T4
TT2-Q14
TT2-Q15
Blended learning
KH1-L3

Experiments
Initial
Parallel

p
1,40.10-6
4,20.10-6
p


19

Statistics show that the use of courseware in Face-to-face learning and Blended
learning is efficient, which can be seen in:
The average point of classes in experiment research is higher than that of
empirical research, which denotes that the proposed measures are more and more
effective.
Standard deviation in classes of experimental research is smaller than that of
empirical research, which denotes that the inattentive level of experimental class is
lower than that of the empirical classes. In other words, learning quality, the
attentiveness of experimental class is better than the other.
P-value of experimental class <0,05, so the difference in scores among classes in
experimental classes and the emperical classes is significant. This means that the use
of courseware in experimental research classes is more effective than the empirical
research classes and the effectiveness is attributed to the measures taken.
In addition, we held a talk to introduce, and coach the ways of designing and
using courseware for History teachers in Me Linh- Soc Son. Also, we had a
discussion on obstacles that they met to figure out proper measures to improve the
effectiveness of using courseware in History teaching. 100% of teachers agreed that
they could absorbed more updated knowledge of courseware; 74 % agreed and 26%
totally agreed that the contents of the talk stimulated them to solve the problems
related to courseware in History teaching in the future. 87% affirmed that after the
talk, they can use Kahoot, Canva, Padlet, Google Forms. 53% can design and use
site123 to design learning website in History teaching. These are positive signals
that support the feasibility of recommendations of the thesis for teachers and
students and History teaching in high schools.
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
1. Conclusion
1.1. Basing on the study of the related researches on courseware in teaching in
general and courseware in History teaching in Vietnam and all over the world, we
realize that the use of courseware in teaching is one of the trends of applying IT that
is flourishing today. Courseware‟s can be flexibly used in different teaching
approaches: Face-to-face learning, E-learning, Blended learning... In History
teaching, the use of courseware should be considered one of the teaching renovations


20

in pedagogy in high school, which focus on developing students‟ talents and is
appropriate for education trend in the world.
1.2. Basing on the results of the study as well as the survey, the thesis build
theory and practice bases on the use of courseware in History teaching. We propose
the concept of courseware, classification and confirmation of the roles, significances
of courseware in History teaching. The superior advantages such as highly interactive
capability, diverse information transmission, and visualization... make courseware
play a substantive role in approaching the hindrances that both teachers and students
meet in History teaching. The results of the survey and interviews with 192 teachers
and 472 students in 67 high schools nationwide show that most teachers and students
have proper awareness of the roles of courseware in developing learners‟ talents.
However, in reality, the effectiveness of using courseware in History teaching of
teachers has not come up to their expectation. The explanation for this is that teachers
just put an emphasis on transferring historical knowledge by using courseware. They
are not aware of instructing learners to exploit and use courseware. Additionally,
teachers spend a lot of time to prepare and carry out the lesson plan using
courseware; they also experience the lack of a system of courseware and methods,
ways of using courseware. Thus, giving guidance on how to design and use
courseware for teachers is a must to make historical knowledge become lively,
generate interest for students, develop talents, and encourage students to be proactive
in learning in any places and at any time.
1.3. The result of the study of theory and practice is the foundation of designing
courseware, specifically website History 10 (https://1095397.site123.me/) including
six steps: Identify lessons‟ objectives; Investigate learners‟ demands; Build up
technology plan; digitalize learning materials; Use the app Site 123 to design learning
website; have a tryout and evaluate. The procedure is proposed basing on four main
principles of designing courseware: scientific guarantee, systematic guarantee,
interactive and multimedia guarantee, technical and aesthetical guarantee. The
content of the webpage are arranged in lesson plans. After the completion of the web,
we had a tryout and through educational experiment (survey experts, teachers and


21

learners‟ comment; had a try in 2 classes in Le Hong Phong gifted school in Ho Chi
Minh City), we preliminilarly evaluate the effectiveness and its feasibility. Through
educational research, we can overcome some technical errors and orient the process
more effectively.
1.4. Like any means of learning tools or education methods, courseware,
specifically, website https://1095397.site123.me/ can not be proper for everyone,
everywhere in a same way. Hence, we recommend website using procedure in Faceto-face and Blended learning to support teachers to overcome the hindrances. More
importantly, we propose different measures of using courseware for a particular form
of learning, basing on the compatibility between courseware and the strengths of each
form. In Face-to-face, we suggest six measures: Use courseware to create learning
situations and raise awareners; Exploit courseware to eventualize, phenominonize
and historical figures; Give guidence on exclanging, analyzing courseware to draw
conclusion; Give guidence on using courseware to practice, consilid the lessons; Give
guidence on using courseware to prepare the homeworks; Give guidence on
supporting the examination and assessment of students' learning results. In Blended
learning, four main solutions are proposed including: Introduce courseware as well
as objectives and tasks; Give guidence on self – study courseware to do the gives
tasks; Hold interactive activities to report products; Give guidence on basing on
courseware to test to themselves
1.5. We conducted experimental research in Le Hong Phong gifted school in Ho
Chi Minh City; Trieu Thai High School in Vinh Phuc; Quoc Oai High School in
Hanoi; Vinschool Secondary School: FPT High School in Hanoi with 276 students,
who evaluated the effectiveness of using courseware through surveys, interactive
multiple choice questions, test results, The preliminary result is the fundamental basis
of the efficiency of designing and using courseware, specifically, website
https://1095397.site123.me/ which contributes to renovating methods of History
teaching and enhance students‟ aptitudes.
2. Recommendation
Basing on the result of the study and with the hope that the proposed procedures


22

of designing and using courseware can be adopted in teaching in reality, we offer
some recommendations as follows.
2.1. For Ministry of Education and Training, continue to collaborate with other
Departments of Education and Training of provinces, cities to organize courses in
using courseware skills for teachers and hold training programmes. These activities
are necessary as teachers can update new methods of teaching and develop
professional skills. The reason is that the number of teachers who are willing to selfstudy and self-improve is limited. However, to make full use of the training courses,
it is vital to improve training contents and training approaches, in which the time
allowance for practice on getting familiar with new courseware and designing web
suitable for diverse teaching methods must be increased. In terms of training
approach, it is a must to transform from knowledge provision into practice activities.
In addition, Ministry of Education and Training should invite experts to write
textbooks or booklets which give guidance on using IT in general and courseware in
particular and purchase copyright of some apps, learning software and offer to use
free of charge. This can create favorable conditions for teachers when making a
lesson plans with E effectively, and can be suitable for diverse students‟ talents.
Teachers must be learners who study and explore new things with their students.
2.2. For Universities of Education: The roles of these universities are critically
important in teaching renovation. As teaching method renovation is attached to
teacher training methods in universities of education.
Educational universities should raise students‟ awareness of the roles of
courseware in teaching. They should allocate a proper time for modules related to the
applications of IT in particular and using courseware in teaching in particular in the
construction and development of training programmed. Each module should not only
provide students theories but also encourage students to use beneficial software in
teaching as well as give them more chance to practice using courseware skills.
Additionally, educational universities promote cooperation with high schools in the
teacher training activities, which not only support students gain more knowledge,
practical experience, but also help high school teachers access to researches and


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