Tải bản đầy đủ

Test bank for fundamentals of anatomy and physiology 11e c06

Chapterȱ6

BonesȱandȱBoneȱStructure

Multiple Choice Questions
1) Whichȱofȱfollowingȱisȱaȱfunctionȱofȱtheȱskeletalȱsystem?
A) bodyȱsupport
B) calciumȱhomeostasis
C) protectionȱofȱinternalȱorgans
D) bloodȱcellȱproduction
E) Allȱofȱtheȱanswersȱareȱcorrect.
Answer: E
LearningȱOutcome: 6-1
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

2) Whichȱofȱtheȱfollowingȱareȱnot componentsȱofȱtheȱskeletalȱsystem?
A) tendons
B) bones
C) ligaments
D) cartilage
E) otherȱtissuesȱthatȱconnectȱbones

Answer: A
LearningȱOutcome: 6-1
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding

3) Theȱshaftȱofȱlongȱbonesȱisȱcalledȱthe
A) epiphysis.
B) metaphysis.
C) diaphysis.
D) paraphysis.
E) endophysis.
Answer: C
LearningȱOutcome: 6-2
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

4) Aȱ________ȱisȱaȱsmooth,ȱgroovedȱboneȱprocessȱshapedȱlikeȱaȱpulley.
A) tubercle
B) trochanter
C) trochlea
D) tuberosity
E) trabeculae
Answer: C
LearningȱOutcome: 6-2
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

Copyrightȱ©ȱ2018ȱPearsonȱEducation,ȱInc.


Chapterȱ6ȱȱBonesȱandȱBoneȱStructureȱȱȱ165

5) Aȱsmallȱroughȱbumpȱonȱboneȱwhereȱaȱtendonȱattachesȱisȱcalledȱa
A) tubercle.
B) trochanter.
C) trochlea.
D) tuberosity.
E) trabecula.
Answer: D
LearningȱOutcome: 6-2
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

6) Aȱchamberȱwithinȱaȱboneȱnormallyȱfilledȱwithȱairȱisȱa
A) foramen.
B) sinus.
C) fossa.
D) canal.
E) meatus.
Answer: B
LearningȱOutcome: 6-2
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

7) Theȱexpandedȱarticularȱendȱofȱanȱepiphysisȱthatȱisȱseparatedȱfromȱtheȱshaftȱbyȱaȱnarrowerȱneck
isȱcalledȱa
A) head.
B) crown.
C) capitulum.
D) corona.
E) bulb.
Answer: A
LearningȱOutcome: 6-2
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

8) Aȱ________ȱisȱaȱroundedȱpassagewayȱforȱpassageȱofȱbloodȱvesselsȱand/orȱnerves.
A) sinus
B) fossa
C) meatus
D) foramen
E) cavernosa
Answer: D
LearningȱOutcome: 6-2
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

9) Theȱadultȱskeletonȱcontainsȱ________ȱmajorȱbones.
A) 88
B) 115
C) 174
D) 206
E) 251
Answer: D
LearningȱOutcome: 6-2
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering
Copyrightȱ©ȱ2018ȱPearsonȱEducation,ȱInc.


166ȱȱȱTestȱBankȱforȱFundamentalsȱofȱAnatomyȱ&ȱPhysiology,ȱ11e

10) WhichȱofȱtheȱfollowingȱbonesȱisȱclassifiedȱasȱȈirregularȈȱinȱshape?
A) patella
B) frontal
C) vertebra
D) metatarsal
E) ulna
Answer: C
LearningȱOutcome: 6-2
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

11) Theȱproximalȱandȱdistalȱendsȱofȱaȱlongȱboneȱareȱcalledȱthe
A) epiphyses.
B) diaphyses.
C) epiphysealȱplates.
D) metaphyses.
E) periphyses.
Answer: A
LearningȱOutcome: 6-2
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

12) Theȱcarpalȱbonesȱareȱexamplesȱofȱ________ȱbones.
A) long
B) short
C) flat
D) irregular
E) sesamoid
Answer: B
LearningȱOutcome: 6-2
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

13) Aȱribȱisȱanȱexampleȱofȱaȱ________ȱbone.
A) long
B) short
C) flat
D) sutural
E) sesamoid
Answer: C
LearningȱOutcome: 6-2
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

14) Theȱpatellaȱisȱanȱexampleȱofȱa(n)ȱ________ȱbone.
A) irregular
B) sesamoid
C) sutural
D) sagittal
E) flat
Answer: B
LearningȱOutcome: 6-2
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

Copyrightȱ©ȱ2018ȱPearsonȱEducation,ȱInc.


Chapterȱ6ȱȱBonesȱandȱBoneȱStructureȱȱȱ167

15) Smallȱbonesȱthatȱfillȱgapsȱbetweenȱbonesȱofȱtheȱskullȱareȱcalledȱ________ȱbones.
A) irregular
B) sesamoid
C) sutural
D) sagittal
E) tendon
Answer: C
LearningȱOutcome: 6-2
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

16) ________ȱbonesȱdevelopȱinsideȱtendons,ȱcommonlyȱnearȱtheȱknees,ȱhands,ȱandȱfeet.
A) Irregular
B) Sesamoid
C) Short
D) Long
E) Flat
Answer: B
LearningȱOutcome: 6-2
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

17) Theȱhumerusȱisȱanȱexampleȱofȱa(n)ȱ________ȱbone.
A) long
B) short
C) flat
D) irregular
E) sesamoid
Answer: A
LearningȱOutcome: 6-2
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

18) Aȱ________ȱisȱaȱlargeȱroughȱproximalȱprojectionȱonȱaȱbone.
A) ramus
B) trochanter
C) tuberosity
D) tubercle
E) condyle
Answer: B
LearningȱOutcome: 6-2
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

19) Aȱroundedȱpassageȱorȱholeȱthroughȱaȱboneȱisȱcalledȱa
A) ramus.
B) foramen.
C) linea.
D) tubercle.
E) facet.
Answer: B
LearningȱOutcome: 6-2
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

Copyrightȱ©ȱ2018ȱPearsonȱEducation,ȱInc.


168ȱȱȱTestȱBankȱforȱFundamentalsȱofȱAnatomyȱ&ȱPhysiology,ȱ11e

20) Theȱsmooth,ȱroundedȱarticularȱprocessȱofȱaȱboneȱisȱtermedȱa
A) crest.
B) ridge.
C) head.
D) condyle.
E) trochlea.
Answer: D
LearningȱOutcome: 6-2
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

21) Aȱshallowȱdepressionȱonȱaȱboneȱisȱtermedȱa
A) fossa.
B) sulcus.
C) facet.
D) fissure.
E) line.
Answer: A
LearningȱOutcome: 6-2
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

22) Theȱregionȱofȱaȱlongȱboneȱbetweenȱtheȱendȱandȱtheȱshaftȱisȱknownȱasȱthe
A) diaphysis.
B) epiphysis.
C) osseophysis.
D) metaphysis.
E) medullaryȱcavity.
Answer: D
LearningȱOutcome: 6-2
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

23) Bonesȱthatȱareȱrelativelyȱlongȱandȱslender,ȱconsistingȱofȱaȱshaftȱwithȱtwoȱendsȱare
A) longȱbones.
B) flatȱbones.
C) sesamoidȱbones.
D) shortȱbones.
E) irregularȱbones.
Answer: A
LearningȱOutcome: 6-2
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

24) Bonesȱthatȱhaveȱthinȱparallelȱsurfacesȱare
A) longȱbones.
B) flatȱbones.
C) sesamoidȱbones.
D) shortȱbones.
E) irregularȱbones.
Answer: B
LearningȱOutcome: 6-2
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

Copyrightȱ©ȱ2018ȱPearsonȱEducation,ȱInc.


Chapterȱ6ȱȱBonesȱandȱBoneȱStructureȱȱȱ169

25) Bonesȱthatȱareȱboxyȱwithȱapproximatelyȱequalȱdimensionsȱare
A) longȱbones.
B) flatȱbones.
C) sesamoidȱbones.
D) shortȱbones.
E) irregularȱbones.
Answer: D
LearningȱOutcome: 6-2
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

26) Bonesȱthatȱhaveȱcomplexȱshapesȱare
A) longȱbones.
B) flatȱbones.
C) sesamoidȱbones.
D) shortȱbones.
E) irregularȱbones.
Answer: E
LearningȱOutcome: 6-2
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

27) Bonesȱthatȱareȱsmall,ȱroundȱandȱtendȱtoȱdevelopȱinȱtendonsȱare
A) longȱbones.
B) flatȱbones.
C) sesamoidȱbones.
D) shortȱbones.
E) irregularȱbones.
Answer: C
LearningȱOutcome: 6-2
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

28) Canaliculiȱare
A) alsoȱknownȱasȱVolkmannȇsȱchannels.
B) theȱsameȱasȱHaversianȱcanals.
C) narrowȱpassagewaysȱinȱtheȱmatrixȱconnectingȱlacunaeȱtoȱbloodȱsupply.
D) layersȱofȱbonyȱmatrixȱlaidȱdownȱinȱrings.
E) haveȱbothȱaȱfibrousȱouterȱlayerȱandȱaȱcellularȱinnerȱlayer.
Answer: C
LearningȱOutcome: 6-3
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

29) Whichȱofȱtheȱfollowingȱisȱnotȱtrueȱofȱosteocytes?
A) Osteocytesȱmaintainȱproteinȱandȱmineralȱcontentȱofȱmatrix.
B) Osteocytesȱtakeȱpartȱinȱrepairȱofȱdamagedȱbone.
C) Osteocytesȱformȱcytoplasmicȱextensionsȱwithinȱcanaliculi.
D) Osteocytesȱareȱlocatedȱwithinȱlacunae.
E) Osteocytesȱhaveȱ50ȱorȱmoreȱnuclei.
Answer: E
LearningȱOutcome: 6-3
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

Copyrightȱ©ȱ2018ȱPearsonȱEducation,ȱInc.


170ȱȱȱTestȱBankȱforȱFundamentalsȱofȱAnatomyȱ&ȱPhysiology,ȱ11e

30) Whichȱofȱtheȱfollowingȱisȱtrueȱofȱosteoclasts?
A) Osteoclastsȱmaintainȱproteinȱandȱmineralȱcontentȱofȱmatrix.
B) Osteoclastsȱareȱresponsibleȱforȱlayingȱdownȱosteoid.
C) Osteoclastsȱformȱcytoplasmicȱextensionsȱwithinȱcanaliculi.
D) Osteoclastsȱareȱlocatedȱwithinȱlacunae.
E) Osteoclastsȱsecretesȱproteinȱdigestingȱenzymesȱandȱacidsȱthatȱdissolveȱmatrix.
Answer: E
LearningȱOutcome: 6-3
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding

31) Whichȱofȱfollowingȱis/areȱproducedȱfromȱtheȱmonocyteȱstemȱcells?
A) osteoblasts
B) osteoclasts
C) osteocytes
D) osteoprogenitorȱcells
E) osteogenicȱcells
Answer: B
LearningȱOutcome: 6-3
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

32) Whichȱofȱtheȱfollowingȱlabelsȱbest matchesȱosteocyte?
A) stemȱcell
B) dissolvesȱmatrix
C) matureȱboneȱcell
D) secretesȱorganicȱmatrix
E) immatureȱboneȱcell
Answer: C
LearningȱOutcome: 6-3
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding

33) Boneȱisȱcomposedȱofȱ________ȱpercentȱcells.
A) 25
B) 10
C) 2
D) 15
E) 50
Answer: C
LearningȱOutcome: 6-3
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

34) Cellsȱthatȱsecreteȱtheȱorganicȱcomponentsȱofȱtheȱboneȱmatrixȱareȱcalled
A) osteocytes.
B) osteoprogenitorȱcells.
C) osteoblasts.
D) osteoclasts.
E) osteoidȱcells.
Answer: C
LearningȱOutcome: 6-3
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

Copyrightȱ©ȱ2018ȱPearsonȱEducation,ȱInc.


Chapterȱ6ȱȱBonesȱandȱBoneȱStructureȱȱȱ171

35) ________ȱareȱstemȱcellsȱthatȱdevelopȱintoȱosteoblasts.
A) Osteoclasts
B) Osteocytes
C) Osteomedullaryȱcells
D) Osteogenicȱcells
E) Osteoidȱcells
Answer: D
LearningȱOutcome: 6-3
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

36) Throughȱtheȱactionȱofȱosteoclasts,
A) newȱboneȱisȱformed.
B) anȱorganicȱframeworkȱisȱformed.
C) bonyȱmatrixȱisȱdissolved.
D) osteoidȱisȱcalcified.
E) fracturedȱbonesȱregenerate.
Answer: C
LearningȱOutcome: 6-3
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

37) Theȱspaceȱoccupiedȱbyȱanȱosteocyteȱisȱcalled
A) Volkmannȇsȱcanal.
B) aȱlacuna.
C) aȱtrabecula.
D) aȱHaversianȱcanal.
E) aȱcanaliculus.
Answer: B
LearningȱOutcome: 6-3
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

38) Whichȱofȱtheȱfollowingȱchemicalsȱisȱnot presentȱinȱbone?
A) calciumȱphosphate
B) collagenȱfibers
C) calciumȱcarbonate
D) chondroitinȱsulfate
E) hydroxyapatite
Answer: D
LearningȱOutcome: 6-3
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding

39) ________ȱaccount(s)ȱforȱalmostȱtwo-thirdsȱofȱtheȱweightȱofȱbone.
A) Water
B) Calciumȱcarbonate
C) Collagenȱfibers
D) Fluoride
E) Calciumȱphosphate
Answer: E
LearningȱOutcome: 6-3
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

Copyrightȱ©ȱ2018ȱPearsonȱEducation,ȱInc.


172ȱȱȱTestȱBankȱforȱFundamentalsȱofȱAnatomyȱ&ȱPhysiology,ȱ11e

40) ________ȱcellsȱareȱlocatedȱinȱtheȱinnerȱcellularȱlayerȱofȱtheȱperiosteum.
A) Osteocyte
B) Osteoclast
C) Osteoid
D) Osteogenic
E) Osteolytic
Answer: D
LearningȱOutcome: 6-3
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

41) Theȱ________ȱinteractionsȱallowȱboneȱtoȱbeȱstrong,ȱsomewhatȱflexible,ȱandȱhighlyȱresistantȱto
shattering.
A) collagen-fiber
B) protein-crystal
C) mineral-crystal
D) protein-protein
E) hydroxyapatite-crystal
Answer: B
LearningȱOutcome: 6-3
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding

42) Theȱmostȱabundantȱcellȱtypeȱinȱboneȱis
A) osteoclasts.
B) osteoblasts.
C) osteolytes.
D) osteoprogenitorȱcells.
E) osteocytes.
Answer: E
LearningȱOutcome: 6-3
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding

43) Theȱlacunaeȱofȱosseousȱtissueȱcontain
A) bloodȱcells.
B) osteocytes.
C) chondroblasts.
D) boneȱmarrow.
E) capillaries.
Answer: B
LearningȱOutcome: 6-3
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding

Copyrightȱ©ȱ2018ȱPearsonȱEducation,ȱInc.


Chapterȱ6ȱȱBonesȱandȱBoneȱStructureȱȱȱ173

44) Howȱwouldȱremovingȱhydroxyapatiteȱfromȱboneȱmatrixȱaffectȱtheȱphysicalȱpropertiesȱofȱa
bone?
A) Theȱboneȱwouldȱbeȱlessȱflexible.
B) Theȱboneȱwouldȱbeȱstronger.
C) Theȱboneȱwouldȱbeȱmoreȱbrittle.
D) Theȱboneȱwouldȱbeȱmoreȱflexible.
E) Theȱboneȱwouldȱbeȱmoreȱcompressible.
Answer: D
LearningȱOutcome: 6-3
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Analyzing

45) Theȱnarrowȱpassagewaysȱthatȱcontainȱcytoplasmicȱextensionsȱofȱosteocytesȱareȱcalled
A) centralȱcanals.
B) lacunae.
C) canaliculi.
D) medullaryȱcavities.
E) foramina.
Answer: C
LearningȱOutcome: 6-3
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

46) Inȱbone,ȱtheȱcalciumȱphosphateȱformsȱcrystalsȱof
A) osteoidȱmatrix.
B) calciumȱcarbonate.
C) hydroxyapatite.
D) calcitriol.
E) proteolyticȱenzymes.
Answer: C
LearningȱOutcome: 6-3
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

47) Stemȱcellsȱthatȱcanȱdifferentiateȱintoȱosteoblastsȱareȱcalledȱ________ȱcells.
A) osteopropagator
B) osteoforming
C) osteocreator
D) osteotrophic
E) osteogenic
Answer: E
LearningȱOutcome: 6-3
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

48) Cellsȱthatȱfreeȱcalciumȱfromȱboneȱtoȱmaintainȱbloodȱcalciumȱlevelsȱareȱcalled
A) osteolytics.
B) osteoclasts.
C) osteoblasts.
D) osteogenics.
E) osteocytes.
Answer: B
LearningȱOutcome: 6-3
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering
Copyrightȱ©ȱ2018ȱPearsonȱEducation,ȱInc.


174ȱȱȱTestȱBankȱforȱFundamentalsȱofȱAnatomyȱ&ȱPhysiology,ȱ11e

49) ________ȱpreventsȱdamagingȱbone-to-boneȱcontactȱwithinȱmovableȱjoints.
A) Aȱsynovialȱmembrane
B) Elasticȱcartilage
C) Aȱserousȱmembrane
D) Articularȱcartilage
E) Serousȱfluid
Answer: D
LearningȱOutcome: 6-3
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

50) Cellsȱthatȱareȱfoundȱinȱsmallȱdepressionsȱonȱtheȱendostealȱsurfacesȱareȱthe
A) osteolyticȱcells.
B) osteoclasts.
C) osteoblasts.
D) osteocytes.
E) osteogenicȱcells.
Answer: B
LearningȱOutcome: 6-3
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

51) Cellsȱthatȱsecreteȱproteinȱfibersȱinȱboneȱareȱcalled
A) osteolyticȱcells.
B) osteoclasts.
C) osteoblasts.
D) osteocytes.
E) osteogenicȱcells.
Answer: C
LearningȱOutcome: 6-3
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

52) Theȱorganicȱcomponentȱofȱtheȱmatrixȱinȱdevelopingȱorȱrepairingȱboneȱisȱcalled
A) osteon.
B) osteoid.
C) hydroxyapatite.
D) mesenchymalȱtissue.
E) calciumȱphosphate.
Answer: B
LearningȱOutcome: 6-3
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

53) Layersȱofȱbonyȱmatrixȱatȱtheȱouterȱandȱinnerȱsurfacesȱofȱboneȱandȱcoveredȱbyȱtheȱperiosteum
andȱtheȱendosteumȱare
A) concentricȱlamellae.
B) osteons.
C) Haversianȱsystems.
D) interstitialȱlamellae.
E) circumferentialȱlamellae.
Answer: E
LearningȱOutcome: 6-4
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering
Copyrightȱ©ȱ2018ȱPearsonȱEducation,ȱInc.


Chapterȱ6ȱȱBonesȱandȱBoneȱStructureȱȱȱ175

54) Theȱlayerȱofȱboneȱthatȱisȱinterwovenȱwithȱtendonsȱisȱthe
A) circumferentialȱlamellae.
B) periosteum.
C) endosteum.
D) concentricȱlamellae.
E) perichondrium.
Answer: B
LearningȱOutcome: 6-4
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

55) Connectiveȱtissueȱfibersȱincorporatedȱintoȱboneȱtissueȱfromȱligamentsȱareȱcalled
A) elasticȱfibers.
B) reticularȱfibers.
C) perforatingȱfibers.
D) superficialȱfibers.
E) calcifiedȱfibers.
Answer: C
LearningȱOutcome: 6-4
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

56) Theȱcentralȱcanalȱofȱanȱosteonȱcontains
A) boneȱmarrow.
B) osteocytes.
C) concentricȱlamellae.
D) bloodȱvessels.
E) lacunae.
Answer: D
LearningȱOutcome: 6-4
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

57) Theȱinterconnectingȱtinyȱarchesȱofȱboneȱtissueȱfoundȱinȱspongyȱboneȱareȱcalled
A) osteons.
B) trabeculae.
C) concentricȱlamellae.
D) interstitialȱlamellae.
E) lacunae.
Answer: B
LearningȱOutcome: 6-4
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

58) Theȱtypeȱofȱboneȱthatȱisȱadaptedȱtoȱwithstandȱstressesȱthatȱarriveȱfromȱmanyȱdirectionsȱis
________ȱbone.
A) spongy
B) osteon
C) compact
D) lamellar
E) irregular
Answer: A
LearningȱOutcome: 6-4
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding
Copyrightȱ©ȱ2018ȱPearsonȱEducation,ȱInc.


176ȱȱȱTestȱBankȱforȱFundamentalsȱofȱAnatomyȱ&ȱPhysiology,ȱ11e

59) Theȱstructuralȱunitsȱofȱmatureȱcompactȱboneȱareȱcalled
A) trabeculae.
B) osteocytes.
C) osteons.
D) canaliculi.
E) lamellae.
Answer: C
LearningȱOutcome: 6-4
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

60) Adiposeȱtissueȱisȱstoredȱwithinȱthe
A) medullaryȱcavity.
B) metaphysis.
C) spongyȱbone.
D) epiphysis.
E) diaphysis.
Answer: A
LearningȱOutcome: 6-4
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

61) Whichȱofȱtheȱfollowingȱisȱaȱcharacteristicȱofȱbone?
A) Theȱboneȱmatrixȱisȱveryȱdenseȱandȱcontainsȱdepositsȱofȱcalciumȱsalts.
B) Theȱmatrixȱofȱtheȱboneȱcontainsȱosteoclastsȱandȱchondroblasts.
C) Narrowȱchannelsȱpassȱthroughȱtheȱmatrixȱtoȱallowȱforȱmuscleȱattachment.
D) Theȱmatrixȱofȱboneȱisȱmostlyȱcollagenȱwithȱveryȱlittleȱcalcium.
E) Forȱstrength,ȱcompactȱboneȱisȱorganizedȱintoȱaȱmeshworkȱofȱmatrixȱcalledȱtrabeculae.
Answer: A
LearningȱOutcome: 6-4
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding

62) Inȱrelationshipȱtoȱtheȱdiaphysisȱofȱaȱlongȱbone,ȱtheȱosteonsȱare
A) radial.
B) anterior.
C) parallel.
D) proximal.
E) diagonal.
Answer: C
LearningȱOutcome: 6-4
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding

63) Theȱfemurȱcanȱwithstandȱ________ȱtimesȱtheȱbodyȇsȱweightȱwithoutȱbreaking.
A) 3
B) 5ȱtoȱ10
C) 8
D) 10ȱtoȱ15
E) 30
Answer: D
LearningȱOutcome: 6-4
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

Copyrightȱ©ȱ2018ȱPearsonȱEducation,ȱInc.


Chapterȱ6ȱȱBonesȱandȱBoneȱStructureȱȱȱ177

64) ________ȱmarrowȱisȱfoundȱbetweenȱtheȱtrabeculaeȱofȱspongyȱbone.
A) Blue
B) Yellow
C) White
D) Gray
E) Red
Answer: E
LearningȱOutcome: 6-4
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

65) Theȱliningȱofȱtheȱmedullaryȱcavityȱisȱcalledȱthe
A) endosteum.
B) periosteum.
C) epiosteum.
D) mediosteum.
E) paraosteum.
Answer: A
LearningȱOutcome: 6-4
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

66) ________ȱboneȱreducesȱtheȱweightȱofȱtheȱskeletonȱandȱreducesȱtheȱloadȱonȱmuscles.
A) Short
B) Irregular
C) Spongy
D) Compact
E) Long
Answer: C
LearningȱOutcome: 6-4
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

67) Theȱlayersȱofȱboneȱtissueȱimmediatelyȱdeepȱtoȱtheȱperiosteumȱare
A) circumferentialȱlamellae.
B) osteoidȱplates.
C) trabeculae.
D) concentricȱlamellae.
E) epiphsealȱridges.
Answer: A
LearningȱOutcome: 6-4
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding

68) Whichȱstatementȱisȱtrueȱregardingȱcalciumȱinȱboneȱmatrix?
A) Calciumȱisȱfoundȱinȱcrystalsȱcalledȱhydroxyapatite.
B) Calciumȱisȱsecretedȱbyȱosteoblastsȱintoȱtheȱmatrix.
C) Onceȱdeposited,ȱcalciumȱcannotȱbeȱremovedȱfromȱbone.
D) Calciumȱprovidesȱflexibilityȱtoȱtheȱboneȱmatrix.
E) Calciumȱisȱtheȱorganicȱpartȱofȱtheȱmatrix.
Answer: A
LearningȱOutcome: 6-4
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding

Copyrightȱ©ȱ2018ȱPearsonȱEducation,ȱInc.


178ȱȱȱTestȱBankȱforȱFundamentalsȱofȱAnatomyȱ&ȱPhysiology,ȱ11e

69) Theȱtrabeculaeȱofȱspongyȱbone
A) areȱorganizedȱparallelȱtoȱtheȱlongȱaxisȱofȱtheȱbone.
B) areȱorganizedȱalongȱstressȱlines.
C) areȱcomposedȱmostlyȱofȱcartilage.
D) willȱcollapseȱunderȱstress.
E) areȱconcentratedȱinȱtheȱcortexȱofȱtheȱdiaphysis.
Answer: B
LearningȱOutcome: 6-4
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding

Figureȱ6-1ȱTheȱStructureȱofȱCompactȱBone
UseȱFigureȱ6-1ȱtoȱanswerȱtheȱfollowingȱquestions:
70) Whichȱstructureȱisȱcalledȱanȱosteon?
A) 1
B) 2
C) 3
D) 4
E) 5
Answer: B
LearningȱOutcome: 6-4
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Applying
Copyrightȱ©ȱ2018ȱPearsonȱEducation,ȱInc.


Chapterȱ6ȱȱBonesȱandȱBoneȱStructureȱȱȱ179

71) Whichȱstructureȱisȱcharacteristicȱofȱspongyȱbone?
A) 1
B) 2
C) 3
D) 4
E) 5
Answer: E
LearningȱOutcome: 6-4
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Applying

72) TheȱstructureȱlabeledȱȈ3Ȉȱisȱtheȱresultȱofȱwhichȱprocess?
A) boneȱcellsȱaddingȱmatrixȱbetweenȱexistingȱosteons
B) surfaceȱgrowthȱofȱbone
C) remodelingȱofȱcompactȱbone
D) remodelingȱofȱspongyȱbone
E) osteoporosis
Answer: C
LearningȱOutcome: 6-4
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Applying

73) IdentifyȱtheȱstructuresȱlabeledȱȈ4.Ȉ
A) concentricȱlamellae
B) circumferentialȱlamellae
C) interstitialȱlamellae
D) trabeculae
E) periosteum
Answer: A
LearningȱOutcome: 6-4
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Applying

74) WhatȱlinesȱtheȱstructureȱlabeledȱȈ7Ȉ?
A) theȱendosteum
B) bloodȱvessels
C) theȱcentralȱcanal
D) spongyȱbone
E) trabeculae
Answer: A
LearningȱOutcome: 6-4
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Applying

75) Bloodȱisȱdistributedȱfromȱtheȱsurfaceȱofȱaȱboneȱtoȱdeeperȱcentralȱcanalsȱthroughȱchannels
knownȱas
A) perforatingȱcanals.
B) canaliculi.
C) interstitialȱcanals.
D) concentricȱducts.
E) concentricȱcanals.
Answer: A
LearningȱOutcome: 6-4
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering
Copyrightȱ©ȱ2018ȱPearsonȱEducation,ȱInc.


180ȱȱȱTestȱBankȱforȱFundamentalsȱofȱAnatomyȱ&ȱPhysiology,ȱ11e

76) ________ȱfibersȱareȱstrongerȱthanȱsteelȱwhenȱstretched.
A) Calcium
B) Mineral
C) Elastic
D) Carbon
E) Collagen
Answer: E
LearningȱOutcome: 6-4
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

77) Theȱsuperficialȱmembraneȱofȱaȱboneȱisȱcalledȱthe
A) endosteum.
B) ectosteum.
C) corticalȱmembrane.
D) periosteum.
E) osteoidȱcollar.
Answer: D
LearningȱOutcome: 6-4
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

78) Theȱprocessȱbyȱwhichȱosteoblastsȱaddȱlayersȱtoȱcircumferentialȱlamellaeȱis
A) appositionalȱgrowth.
B) interstitialȱgrowth.
C) intramembranousȱgrowth.
D) endochondralȱossification.
E) epiphysealȱossification.
Answer: A
LearningȱOutcome: 6-5
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

79) Duringȱendochondralȱossificationȱtheseȱvesselsȱinvadeȱtheȱcartilageȱofȱtheȱdiaphysis.
A) metaphysealȱvessels
B) nutrientȱarteriesȱandȱveins
C) periostealȱvessels
D) endostealȱvessels
E) diaphysealȱarteryȱandȱvein
Answer: B
LearningȱOutcome: 6-5
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding

80) Duringȱtheȱprocessȱofȱ________,ȱanȱexistingȱtissueȱisȱreplacedȱbyȱbone.
A) phosphorylation
B) resorption
C) ossification
D) osteopropagation
E) remodeling
Answer: C
LearningȱOutcome: 6-5
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

Copyrightȱ©ȱ2018ȱPearsonȱEducation,ȱInc.


Chapterȱ6ȱȱBonesȱandȱBoneȱStructureȱȱȱ181

81) Aȱcalcifiedȱskeletalȱmuscleȱisȱanȱexampleȱof
A) boneȱspurs.
B) osteoporosis.
C) heterotopicȱboneȱformation.
D) osteodysplasia.
E) osteomalacia.
Answer: C
LearningȱOutcome: 6-5
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

82) Whatȱtypeȱofȱtissueȱisȱreplacedȱinȱtheȱembryoȱduringȱendochondralȱossification?
A) connectiveȱtissueȱmembranes
B) fibrocartilage
C) mesenchymalȱtissue
D) hyalineȱcartilage
E) Whartonȇsȱjelly
Answer: D
LearningȱOutcome: 6-5
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

83) Theȱarticularȱcartilageȱofȱaȱtypicalȱlongȱboneȱisȱcomposedȱofȱwhatȱtypeȱofȱcartilage?
A) elasticȱcartilage
B) synovialȱcartilage
C) hyalineȱcartilage
D) fibrocartilage
E) osseousȱcartilage
Answer: C
LearningȱOutcome: 6-5
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding

84) Theȱdepositionȱofȱcalciumȱsaltsȱinȱboneȱtissuesȱisȱreferredȱtoȱas
A) hardening.
B) ossification.
C) calcification.
D) osteogenesis.
E) remodeling.
Answer: C
LearningȱOutcome: 6-5
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

85) Whichȱofȱtheȱfollowingȱisȱformedȱbyȱintramembranousȱossification?
A) roofȱofȱtheȱskull
B) carpalȱbones
C) femur
D) clavicle
E) theȱroofȱofȱtheȱskullȱandȱtheȱclavicle
Answer: E
LearningȱOutcome: 6-5
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

Copyrightȱ©ȱ2018ȱPearsonȱEducation,ȱInc.


182ȱȱȱTestȱBankȱforȱFundamentalsȱofȱAnatomyȱ&ȱPhysiology,ȱ11e

86) Endochondralȱossificationȱbeginsȱwithȱtheȱformationȱofȱa(n)
A) fibrousȱconnective-tissueȱmodel.
B) cartilageȱmodel.
C) membranousȱmodel.
D) calcifiedȱmodel.
E) osteoidȱmodel.
Answer: B
LearningȱOutcome: 6-5
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

87) Theȱfollowingȱareȱimportantȱstepsȱinȱtheȱprocessȱofȱendochondralȱossification.ȱWhatȱisȱthe
correctȱorderȱforȱtheseȱevents?
1.ȱEnlargedȱchondrocytesȱdie.
2.ȱOsteoblastsȱreplaceȱcalcifiedȱcartilageȱwithȱspongyȱbone.
3.ȱChondrocytesȱenlargeȱandȱtheȱsurroundingȱmatrixȱbeginsȱtoȱcalcify.
4.ȱBloodȱvesselsȱgrowȱaroundȱtheȱedgesȱofȱtheȱcartilage.
5.ȱPerichondrialȱcellsȱbecomeȱosteoblastsȱandȱproduceȱaȱsuperficialȱlayerȱofȱbone.
A) 3,ȱ1,ȱ5,ȱ4,ȱ2
B) 1,ȱ3,ȱ5,ȱ4,ȱ2
C) 1,ȱ5,ȱ3,ȱ4,ȱ2
D) 2,ȱ3,ȱ1,ȱ5,ȱ4
E) 3,ȱ1,ȱ4,ȱ5,ȱ2
Answer: E
LearningȱOutcome: 6-5
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding

88) Secondaryȱossificationȱcentersȱoccur
A) inȱtheȱdiaphysis.
B) atȱtheȱperiosteum.
C) inȱtheȱepiphyses.
D) inȱtheȱmetaphyses.
E) inȱdermalȱbones.
Answer: C
LearningȱOutcome: 6-5
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

89) Intramembranousȱossificationȱbeginsȱwithȱdifferentiationȱofȱ________ȱcells.
A) osteoclast
B) osteolytic
C) mesenchymal
D) osteoblast
E) osteocyte
Answer: D
LearningȱOutcome: 6-5
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

Copyrightȱ©ȱ2018ȱPearsonȱEducation,ȱInc.


Chapterȱ6ȱȱBonesȱandȱBoneȱStructureȱȱȱ183

90) WhichȱofȱtheȱfollowingȱstatementsȱaboutȱMarfanȇsȱsyndromeȱisȱ false?
A) Itȱresultsȱinȱshort,ȱstubbyȱfingers.
B) Itȱresultsȱfromȱaȱmutation.
C) Itȱaffectsȱconnectiveȱtissueȱstructures.
D) Itȱaffectsȱepiphysealȱcartilages.
E) Itȱmayȱalsoȱcauseȱcardiovascularȱproblems.
Answer: A
LearningȱOutcome: 6-7
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Applying

91) Boneȱgrowthȱinȱlengthȱoccursȱbyȱmitosisȱof
A) concentricȱlamellae.
B) cartilageȱcellsȱinȱtheȱepiphysealȱsideȱofȱtheȱmetaphysis.
C) growthȱofȱtrabeculae.
D) osteoblastsȱinȱtheȱendosteum.
E) cartilageȱcellsȱinȱtheȱdiaphysealȱsideȱofȱtheȱmetaphysis.
Answer: B
LearningȱOutcome: 6-5
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding

92) Intramembranousȱossification
A) producesȱflatȱbones,ȱasȱinȱtheȱbonesȱofȱtheȱroofȱofȱtheȱskull.
B) explainsȱhowȱaȱjuvenileȇsȱboneȱcanȱgrowȱinȱlength.
C) occursȱinȱtheȱdiaphysisȱofȱaȱlongȱbone.
D) occursȱinsideȱaȱbagȱofȱcartilage.
E) occursȱinȱallȱbonesȱbeforeȱbirth.
Answer: A
LearningȱOutcome: 6-5
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding

93) Primaryȱossificationȱcentersȱdevelopȱinȱlongȱbonesȱinȱthe
A) proximalȱepiphysis.
B) periosteum.
C) metaphysis.
D) distalȱepiphysis.
E) diaphysis.
Answer: E
LearningȱOutcome: 6-5
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

Copyrightȱ©ȱ2018ȱPearsonȱEducation,ȱInc.


184ȱȱȱTestȱBankȱforȱFundamentalsȱofȱAnatomyȱ&ȱPhysiology,ȱ11e

94) Supposeȱthatȱepiphysealȱlinesȱappearȱinȱaȱ10 -year-oldȇsȱlongȱbones.ȱWhichȱofȱtheȱfollowing
statementsȱis,ȱtherefore,ȱtrue?
A) Theȱepiphysealȱplatesȱhaveȱossifiedȱandȱfurtherȱgrowthȱinȱlengthȱisȱnotȱpossible.
B) Administrationȱofȱgrowthȱhormoneȱwillȱstimulateȱfutureȱboneȱgrowthȱinȱlength.
C) Osteoclastsȱwillȱdissolveȱtheȱmetaphysisȱsoȱlengthȱgrowthȱcanȱcontinueȱuntilȱadulthood.
D) Moreȱgrowthȱwillȱoccurȱduringȱtheȱteenageȱyearsȱasȱsexȱhormonesȱstimulateȱrebuilding
ofȱgrowthȱplates.
E) Intramembranousȱossificationȱwillȱenableȱfurtherȱgrowthȱinȱlength.
Answer: A
LearningȱOutcome: 6-5
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Applying

95) Duringȱappositionalȱgrowth,
A) bonesȱgrowȱlonger.
B) bonesȱgrowȱwider.
C) cartilageȱreplacesȱbone.
D) theȱepiphysisȱfusesȱwithȱtheȱdiaphysis.
E) compactȱboneȱreplacesȱspongyȱbone.
Answer: B
LearningȱOutcome: 6-5
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding

96) Whenȱtheȱepiphysealȱplateȱisȱreplacedȱbyȱbone,
A) pubertyȱbegins.
B) interstitialȱboneȱgrowthȱbegins.
C) appositionalȱboneȱgrowthȱbegins.
D) longȱbonesȱhaveȱreachedȱtheirȱadultȱlength.
E) theȱboneȱbecomesȱmoreȱbrittle.
Answer: D
LearningȱOutcome: 6-5
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding

97) Whenȱcartilageȱisȱproducedȱatȱtheȱepiphysealȱsideȱofȱtheȱmetaphysisȱatȱtheȱsameȱrateȱasȱboneȱis
depositedȱonȱtheȱoppositeȱside,ȱbones
A) growȱlonger.
B) growȱwider.
C) becomeȱshorter.
D) becomeȱmoreȱporousȱandȱweaker.
E) becomeȱthicker.
Answer: A
LearningȱOutcome: 6-5
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding

Copyrightȱ©ȱ2018ȱPearsonȱEducation,ȱInc.


Chapterȱ6ȱȱBonesȱandȱBoneȱStructureȱȱȱ185

98) Acceleratedȱclosureȱofȱtheȱepiphysealȱplatesȱcouldȱbeȱcausedȱby
A) highȱlevelsȱofȱvitaminȱD.
B) tooȱmuchȱcalciumȱinȱtheȱdiet.
C) elevatedȱlevelsȱofȱestrogen.
D) tooȱlittleȱthyroxine.
E) anȱexcessȱofȱgrowthȱhormone.
Answer: C
LearningȱOutcome: 6-5
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding

99) Whenȱproductionȱofȱsexȱhormonesȱincreasesȱatȱpuberty,ȱepiphysealȱplates
A) widen.
B) becomeȱnarrower.
C) increaseȱslowly.
D) accelerateȱrapidly,ȱbutȱmostlyȱinȱthickness.
E) areȱhardlyȱaffected.
Answer: B
LearningȱOutcome: 6-5
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding

100) Theȱfollowingȱareȱmajorȱstepsȱinȱtheȱprocessȱofȱintramembranousȱossification:
1.ȱClustersȱofȱosteoblastsȱformȱosteoidȱthatȱbecomesȱmineralized.
2.ȱOsteoblastsȱdifferentiateȱwithinȱmesenchymalȱconnectiveȱtissue.
3.ȱSpiculesȱofȱboneȱradiateȱoutȱfromȱtheȱossificationȱcenters.
4.ȱMesenchymalȱcellsȱaggregate.
Whatȱisȱtheȱcorrectȱorderȱforȱtheseȱevents?
A) 4,ȱ1,ȱ2,ȱ3
B) 2,ȱ1,ȱ3,ȱ4
C) 4,ȱ2,ȱ1,ȱ3
D) 2,ȱ3,ȱ1,ȱ4
E) 3,ȱ4,ȱ2,ȱ1
Answer: C
LearningȱOutcome: 6-5
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding

Copyrightȱ©ȱ2018ȱPearsonȱEducation,ȱInc.


186ȱȱȱTestȱBankȱforȱFundamentalsȱofȱAnatomyȱ&ȱPhysiology,ȱ11e

Figureȱ6-2ȱEndochondralȱOssification
UseȱFigureȱ6-2ȱtoȱanswerȱtheȱfollowingȱquestion(s):
101) Whereȱdoesȱgrowthȱinȱlengthȱoccur?
A) 1
B) 2
C) 3
D) 4
E) 5
Answer: C
LearningȱOutcome: 6-5
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Applying

Copyrightȱ©ȱ2018ȱPearsonȱEducation,ȱInc.


Chapterȱ6ȱȱBonesȱandȱBoneȱStructureȱȱȱ187

102) Whatȱtypeȱofȱtissueȱoccursȱatȱ#1?
A) elasticȱtissue
B) fibrocartilage
C) bone
D) hyalineȱcartilage
E) marrowȱtissue
Answer: D
LearningȱOutcome: 6-5
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Applying

103) Whatȱprocessȱisȱshownȱatȱ#6?
A) primaryȱossification
B) secondaryȱossification
C) lengthȱgrowth
D) widthȱgrowth
E) fractureȱrepair
Answer: B
LearningȱOutcome: 6-5
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Applying

104) Identifyȱtheȱstructureȱatȱ#4.
A) intramembranousȱbone
B) spongyȱbone
C) hyalineȱcartilage
D) periosteum
E) mesenchyme
Answer: D
LearningȱOutcome: 6-5
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Applying

105) IdentifyȱtheȱstructureȱlabeledȱȈ2.Ȉ
A) epiphysis
B) diaphysis
C) metaphysis
D) marrowȱcavity
E) trabeculae
Answer: A
LearningȱOutcome: 6-5
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Applying

106) Inȱnormalȱadultȱbones,
A) thereȱisȱnoȱturnoverȱofȱminerals.
B) aȱportionȱofȱtheȱproteinȱandȱmineralȱcontentȱisȱreplacedȱeachȱyear.
C) osteoblastȱactivityȱexceedsȱosteoclastȱactivity,ȱonceȱboneȱhasȱbeenȱformed.
D) osteoclastsȱcontinueȱtoȱbeȱactiveȱlongȱafterȱosteoblastȱactivityȱceases.
E) exerciseȱwillȱhaveȱnoȱeffectȱonȱboneȱremodeling.
Answer: B
LearningȱOutcome: 6-6
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding

Copyrightȱ©ȱ2018ȱPearsonȱEducation,ȱInc.


188ȱȱȱTestȱBankȱforȱFundamentalsȱofȱAnatomyȱ&ȱPhysiology,ȱ11e

107) Theȱongoingȱprocessȱofȱtearingȱdownȱandȱrebuildingȱboneȱmatrixȱisȱcalled
A) restoration.
B) osteolysis.
C) resorption.
D) ossification.
E) remodeling.
Answer: E
LearningȱOutcome: 6-6
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

108) Howȱdoȱsexȱhormonesȱaffectȱboneȱgrowth?
A) Testosteroneȱstimulatesȱosteoclastȱactivity.
B) Theyȱcauseȱossificationȱtoȱbeȱfasterȱthanȱcartilageȱreplacement.
C) Theyȱstimulateȱtheȱcleavageȱofȱhydroxyapetite.
D) Theyȱcauseȱosteoporosis.
E) Estrogenȱcausesȱslowerȱepiphysealȱclosure.
Answer: B
LearningȱOutcome: 6-7
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Understanding

109) Whichȱhormoneȱincreasesȱcalciumȱandȱphosphateȱionȱabsorptionȱbyȱtheȱintestines?
A) parathyroidȱhormone
B) calcitriol
C) thyroxine
D) calcitonin
E) estrogen
Answer: B
LearningȱOutcome: 6-7
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

110) Aȱlackȱofȱexerciseȱcould
A) causeȱbonesȱtoȱbecomeȱthicker.
B) causeȱbonesȱtoȱstoreȱmoreȱcalcium.
C) resultȱinȱporousȱandȱweakȱbones.
D) causeȱbonesȱtoȱbecomeȱlonger.
E) causeȱbonesȱtoȱloseȱtheirȱmedullaryȱcavity.
Answer: C
LearningȱOutcome: 6-7
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering

111) Whenȱstressȱisȱappliedȱtoȱaȱbone,
A) theȱmineralsȱinȱtheȱboneȱproduceȱaȱweakȱelectricalȱfieldȱthatȱattractsȱosteoblasts.
B) osteoclastȱactivityȱincreasesȱandȱosteoblastȱactivityȱdecreases.
C) theȱboneȱbecomesȱthinȱandȱbrittleȱandȱultimatelyȱfractures.
D) theȱboneȱcompensatesȱbyȱbecomingȱthinnerȱinȱtheȱregionȱofȱstress.
E) bloodȱsupplyȱthroughȱtheȱnutrientȱarteryȱdiminishesȱandȱthusȱremodelingȱproceedsȱatȱa
muchȱslowerȱrate.
Answer: A
LearningȱOutcome: 6-7
BloomȇsȱTaxonomy: Remembering
Copyrightȱ©ȱ2018ȱPearsonȱEducation,ȱInc.


Tài liệu bạn tìm kiếm đã sẵn sàng tải về

Tải bản đầy đủ ngay

×

×