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Giáo trình basic statistics for business and economics 9e lind

Basic Statistics
for Business
& Economics
Ninth Edition

LIND MARCHAL WATHEN


Basic Statistics for

BUSINESS &
ECONOMICS




The McGraw-Hill/Irwin Series in Operations and Decision Sciences

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Basic Statistics for

BUSINESS &
ECONOMICS
NINTH EDITION

DOUGLAS A. LIND
Coastal Carolina University and The University of Toledo

WILLIAM G. MARCHAL
The University of Toledo

SAMUEL A. WATHEN
Coastal Carolina University


BASIC STATISTICS FOR BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS, NINTH EDITION
Published by McGraw-Hill Education, 2 Penn Plaza, New York, NY 10121. Copyright © 2019 by
McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Previous editions
© 2013, 2011, and 2008. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or
by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written consent of McGrawHill Education, including, but not limited to, in any network or other electronic storage or transmission,
or broadcast for distance learning.
Some ancillaries, including electronic and print components, may not be available to customers outside
the United States.
This book is printed on acid-free paper.
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ISBN978-1-260-18750-2
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All credits appearing on page or at the end of the book are considered to be an extension of the
copyright page.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Names: Lind, Douglas A., author. | Marchal, William G., author. | Wathen,
  Samuel Adam. author.
Title: Basic statistics for business and economics / Douglas A. Lind, Coastal
  Carolina University and The University of Toledo, William G. Marchal, The
  University of Toledo, Samuel A. Wathen, Coastal Carolina Universit.
Description: Ninth edition. | New York, NY : McGraw-Hill Education, [2019]
Identifiers: LCCN 2017034976 | ISBN 9781260187502 (alk. paper)
Subjects: LCSH: Social sciences—Statistical methods. |
  Economics—Statistical methods. | Industrial management—Statistical methods.
Classification: LCC HA29 .L75 2019 | DDC 519.5—dc23 LC record available at
 https://lccn.loc.gov/2017034976
The Internet addresses listed in the text were accurate at the time of publication. The inclusion of a
website does not indicate an endorsement by the authors or McGraw-Hill Education, and McGraw-Hill
Education does not guarantee the accuracy of the information presented at these sites.

mheducation.com/highered


D E D I CATI O N
To Jane, my wife and best friend, and our sons, their wives, and our
grandchildren: Mike and Sue (Steve and Courtney), Steve and Kathryn
(Kennedy, Jake, and Brady), and Mark and Sarah (Jared, Drew, and Nate).
Douglas A. Lind
To Oscar Sambath Marchal, Julian Irving Horowitz, Cecilia Marchal
Nicholson, and Andrea.
William G. Marchal
To my wonderful family: Barb, Hannah, and Isaac.
Samuel A. Wathen


A NOTE FROM THE AUTHORS

Over the years, we received many compliments on this text and understand that it’s a
favorite among students. We accept that as the highest compliment and continue to
work very hard to maintain that status.
The objective of Basic Statistics for Business and Economics is to provide students
majoring in management, marketing, finance, accounting, economics, and other fields of
business administration with an introductory survey of descriptive and inferential statistics. To illustrate the application of statistics, we use many examples and e
­ xercises that
focus on business applications, but also relate to the current world of the college student. A previous course in statistics is not necessary, and the mathematical requirement
is first-year algebra.
In this text, we show beginning students every step needed to be successful in
a basic statistics course. This step-by-step approach enhances performance, accelerates preparedness, and significantly improves motivation. Understanding the
concepts, seeing and doing plenty of examples and exercises, and comprehending
the application of statistical methods in business and economics are the focus of
this book.
The first edition of this text was published in 1967. At that time, locating relevant
business data was difficult. That has changed! Today, locating data is not a problem.
The number of items you purchase at the grocery store is automatically recorded at
the checkout counter. Phone companies track the time of our calls, the length of calls,
and the identity of the person called. Credit card companies maintain information on
the number, time and date, and amount of our purchases. Medical devices automatically monitor our heart rate, blood pressure, and temperature from remote locations.
A large amount of business information is recorded and reported almost instantly.
CNN, USA Today, and MSNBC, for example, all have websites that track stock prices
in real time.
Today, the practice of data analytics is widely applied to “big data.” The practice
of data analytics requires skills and knowledge in several areas. Computer skills are
needed to process large volumes of information. Analytical skills are needed to
evaluate, summarize, organize, and analyze the information. Critical thinking skills
are needed to interpret and communicate the results of processing the
information.
Our text supports the development of basic data analytical skills. In this edition,
we added a new section at the end of each chapter called Data Analytics. As you
work through the text, this section provides the instructor and student with opportunities to apply statistical knowledge and statistical software to explore several business environments. Interpretation of the analytical results is an integral part of these
exercises.
A variety of statistical software is available to complement our text. Microsoft Excel
includes an add-in with many statistical analyses. MegaStat is an add-in available for
Microsoft Excel. Minitab and JMP are stand-alone statistical software available to download for either PC or Mac computers. In our text, Microsoft Excel, Minitab, and MegaStat
are used to illustrate statistical software analyses. When a software application is presented, the software commands for the application are available in Appendix C. We use
screen captures within the chapters, so the student becomes familiar with the nature of
the software output.
Because of the availability of computers and software, it is no longer necessary to
dwell on calculations. We have replaced many of the calculation examples with interpretative ones, to assist the student in understanding and interpreting the statistical results.
In addition, we place more emphasis on the conceptual nature of the statistical topics.
While making these changes, we still continue to present, as best we can, the key concepts, along with supporting interesting and relevant examples.

vi


WHAT’S NEW IN THE NINTH EDITION?
We have made many changes to examples and exercises throughout the text. The section on “Enhancements” to our text details them. There are two major changes to the
text. First, the chapters have been reorganized so that each section corresponds to a
learning objective. The learning objectives have been revised.
The second major change responds to user interest in the area of data analytics.
Our approach is to provide instructors and students with the opportunity to combine
statistical knowledge, computer and statistical software skills, and interpretative and
critical thinking skills. A set of new and revised exercises is included at the end of each
chapter in a section titled “Data Analytics.”
In these sections, exercises refer to three data sets. The North Valley Real Estate
sales data set lists 105 homes currently on the market. The Lincolnville School District
bus data list information on 80 buses in the school district’s bus fleet. The authors designed these data so that students will be able to use statistical software to explore the
data and find realistic relationships in the variables. The Baseball Statistics for the 2016
season is updated from the previous edition.
The intent of the exercises is to provide the basis of a continuing case analysis. We
suggest that instructors select one of the data sets and assign the corresponding exercises as each chapter is completed. Instructor feedback regarding student performance
is important. Students should retain a copy of each chapter’s results and interpretations
to develop a portfolio of discoveries and findings. These will be helpful as students
progress through the course and use new statistical techniques to further explore the
data. The ideal ending for these continuing data analytics exercises is a comprehensive
report based on the analytical findings.
We know that working with a statistics class to develop a very basic competence in
data analytics is challenging. Instructors will be teaching statistics. In addition, instructors will be faced with choosing statistical software and supporting students in developing or enhancing their computer skills. Finally, instructors will need to assess student
performance based on assignments that include both statistical and written components. Using a mentoring approach may be helpful.
We hope that you and your students find this new feature interesting and engaging.



vii


H OW A R E C H A P TE RS O RGA N I Z E D TO E N GAG E
STU D E NTS A N D PRO M OTE LE A R N I N G?

Chapter Learning Objectives

©goodluz/Shutterstock

MERRILL LYNCH recently completed a study of online investment portfolios for a sample

Each chapter begins with a set of
learning objectives designed to provide focus for the chapter and motivate
student learning. These objectives, located in the margins next to the topic,
indicate what the student should be
able to do after completing each section in the chapter.

of clients. For the 70 participants in the study, organize these data into a frequency
distribution. (See Exercise 43 and LO2-3.)

LEARNING OBJECTIVES
When you have completed this chapter, you will be able to:

LO2-1 Summarize qualitative variables with frequency and relative frequency tables.
LO2-2 Display a frequency table using a bar or pie chart.
LO2-3 Summarize quantitative variables with frequency and relative frequency distributions.
LO2-4 Display a frequency distribution using a histogram or frequency polygon.

DESCRIBING DATA: FREQUENCY TABLES, FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTIONS, AND GRAPHIC PRESENTATION
Chapter Opening Exercise

A representative exercise opens
LO2-3 the chapter and shows how the chapter
CONSTRUCTING
FREQUENCY
20
CHAPTER 2
quantitative
content can be applied to aSummarize
real-world
situation.
variables with frequency
and relative frequency
distributions.

Introduction to the Topic

Each chapter starts with a review of
the important concepts of theLin87500_ch02_019-052.indd
previous chapter and provides a link to the
material in the current chapter. This
step-by-step approach increases comprehension by providing continuity
across the concepts.

Example/Solution
After important concepts are introduced,
a solved example is given. This example
provides a how-to illustration and shows
a relevant business application that
helps students answer the question,
“How can I apply this concept?”

27

DISTRIBUTIONS

In Chapter 1 and earlier in this chapter, we distinguished between qualitative and quantitative
data. In the previous section, using the Applewood Automotive Group data, we summarized
two qualitative variables:
the location of the sale and the type of vehicle sold. We created
INTRODUCTION
frequency and relative
frequency tables and depicted the results in bar and pie charts.
The United States automobile retailing industry is highly competitive. It is dominated by
The Applewood
Auto Groupthat
data
several
quantitative
variables:
megadealerships
ownalso
andinclude
operate 50
or more
franchises, employ
overthe
10,000
age of the buyer,people,
the profit
the sale
the vehicle,
number
of dealerships
previand earned
generateon
several
billionof
dollars
in annual and
sales.the
Many
of the top
are wants
publiclyto
owned,
with shares
on sales
the New
Stock
Exchange
ous purchases. Suppose Ms. Ball
summarize
last traded
month’s
byYork
profit
earned
or NASDAQ.
In 2017,
the largest megadealership
for each vehicle. We can describe
profit using
a frequency
distribution. was AutoNation (ticker

symbol AN), followed by Penske Auto Group (PAG), Group 1 Automotive,
7/28/17
Inc. (ticker symbol GPI), and the privately owned Van Tuyl Group.
These
large
corporations
use
statistics
and
analytics
to
summarize
FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION A grouping of quantitative data into mutually exclusive
and analyze
datathe
andnumber
information
to support their
As an exand collectively exhaustive classes
showing
of observations
indecisions.
each class.
ample, we will look at the Applewood Auto Group. It owns four dealerships and sells a wide range of vehicles. These include the popular
Korean brands Kia and Hyundai, BMW and Volvo sedans and luxury
How do we develop a frequency
distribution?
The
following
example
shows
the steps to
SUVs,
and a full line
of Ford
and Chevrolet
cars
and trucks.
construct a frequency distribution.
is to
tables, charts,
Ms.Remember,
Kathryn Ball our
is a goal
member
of construct
the senior management
team at
and graphs that will quickly summarize
theGroup,
data which
by showing
the location,
extreme
Applewood Auto
has its corporate
offices adjacent
to Kane
©Darren Brode/Shutterstock
is responsible
for tracking and analyzing vehicle sales and the profitability
values, and shapeMotors.
of theShe
data’s
distribution.
of those vehicles. Kathryn would like to summarize the profit earned on the vehicles sold
using tables, charts, and graphs that she would review and present to the ownership
E X A M P L E group monthly. She wants to know the profit per vehicle sold, as well as the lowest and
highest amount of profit. She is also interested in describing the demographics of the buyMs. Kathryn Ballers.
of What
the Applewood
Auto
wants to
summarize
the quantitative
are their ages?
HowGroup
many vehicles
have
they previously
purchased from one
of theaApplewood
What
of vehicle
they purchase?
variable profit with
frequencydealerships?
distribution
andtype
display
the did
distribution
with charts
The Applewood
Auto
Group
four answer
dealerships:
and graphs. With this
information,
Ms.
Balloperates
can easily
the following ques19

7:44 AM

tions: What is the
profit
eachsells
sale?
What
is the largest
maximum profit
• typical
Tionesta
Fordon
Lincoln
Ford
and Lincoln
cars andor
trucks.
• is
Olean
Automotive
Inc. has theprofit
Nissan
asAround
well as the
General
on any sale? What
the smallest
or minimum
onfranchise
any sale?
what
value Motors
of Chevrolet, Cadillac, and GMC trucks.
do the profits tend brands
to cluster?
• Sheffield Motors Inc. sells Buick, GMC trucks, Hyundai, and Kia.

S O L U T I O N • Kane Motors offers the Chrysler, Dodge, and Jeep lines as well as BMW and Volvo.
Every month, Ms. Ball collects data from each of the four dealerships

To begin, we show the profits
each
of into
the an
180
vehicle
sales listed
in Table
and for
enters
them
Excel
spreadsheet.
Last month
the2–4.
Applewood
This information is calledAuto
rawGroup
or ungrouped
data because
it is simplyAacopy
listing
sold 180 vehicles
at the four dealerships.
of the first
few observations appears to the left. The variables collected include:

TABLE 2–4 Profit on Vehicles Sold
Last Month by the Applewood Auto Group


Age—the age of the buyer at the time of the purchase. Maximum
• Profit—the amount earned by the dealership on the sale of each

Self-Reviews
Self-Reviews are interspersed
throughout each chapter and
follow Example/Solution sections. They help students monitor their progress and provide
immediate reinforcement for
that particular technique. Answers are in Appendix E.

$1,387
$2,148
$2,201
$vehicle.
963
$ 820
$2,230
$3,043
$2,584
$2,370
1,754
2,207
996 • 1,298
1,266
2,341
1,059
2,666
2,637
Location—the
dealership
where the
vehicle was
purchased.
Vehicle type—SUV,
hybrid, or2,991
truck.
1,817
2,252
2,813 • 1,410
1,741 sedan,
3,292compact,
1,674
1,426
42
CHAPTER 2


Previous—the
number
of
vehicles
previously
purchased
at
any of the
1,040
1,428
323
1,553
1,772
1,108
1,807
934
2,944
four Applewood dealerships by the consumer.
1,273
1,889
352
1,648
1,932
1,295
2,056
2,063
2,147
entire data 2,350
set is available
in Connect
and in Appendix
A.41,973
at the end
482 The 2,071
1,344
2,236
2,083
S E L F - R E V I E W 1,529
2–5 1,166
text.
3,082
1,320
1,144 of the
2,116
2,422
1,906
2,928
2,856
2,502
Source: Microsoft Excel
The hourly wages of the 15 employees of Matt’s Tire and Auto Repair are organized into
1,951
2,265
1,500
2,446
1,952
1,269
2,989
783
the following
table. 1,485
LO2-1
2,692
1,323
1,509
1,549
369
2,070
1,717
910
1,538
Hourly
Wages
Number
of
Employees
Summarize1,206
qualitative 1,760
1,638
2,348
978
2,454
1,797
1,536
2,339
Recall from
1 that techniques
used to describe a set of data are called descripvariables with
frequency
$ 8 Chapter
up to $10
1,342
1,919
1,961
2,498
1,238 3
1,606
1,955
1,957
2,700
tive statistics.
Descriptive
statistics 7organize data to show the general pattern of the
and relative frequency
  10 up to
12
443
2,357 data, to
2,127
294 values1,818
1,680
2,199to expose
2,240
identify
tend 4to concentrate,
and
extreme2,222
or unusual
tables.
  12 up to where
14
754
2,866 data values.
2,430
1,115
1,824
1,827
2,482 table.2,695
2,597
The
first
technique
we discuss
is a frequency
  14 up
to 16
1
1,621
732
1,704
1,124
1,907
1,915
2,701
1,325
2,742
(a) What1,464
is the table called?
870
1,876
1,532 A grouping
1,938 of qualitative
2,084 data
3,210
2,250
1,837
FREQUENCY
TABLE
into
(b) Develop a cumulative
frequency
distribution and portray
the distribution
in amutually
cumula- exclusive and
1,174 tive frequency
1,626 collectively
2,010 exhaustive
1,688 classes
1,940
2,279 in each
2,842
showing2,639
the number 377
of observations
class.
polygon.
(c) On the
basis of the
cumulative
frequency 2,197
polygon, how many
1,412
1,762
2,165
1,822
842 employees
1,220 earn less
2,626
2,434
than
$11
per
hour?
1,809
1,915
2,231
1,897
2,646
1,963
1,401
1,501
1,640
2,415
2,119
2,389
2,445
1,461
2,059
2,175
1,752
1,821
E X E R C I S E S 1,546
1,766
335
2,886
1,731
2,338
1,118
2,058
2,487

CONSTRUCTING FREQUENCY TABLES

19. The following cumulative frequency and the cumulative relative frequency polygon

Minimum
for the distribution of hourly wages of a sample
of certified welders in the Atlanta,
Georgia, area is shown in the graph. 

viii

7/28/17 7:44 AM

40

100

30

75

ent

ency

Lin87500_ch02_019-052.indd 20


36

CHAPTER 2

Frequency Polygon

STATISTICS IN ACTION

Statistics in Action

A frequency polygon also shows the shape o
121
gram. It consists of line segments connecting
th
the class midpoints and the class frequencies. T
is illustrated in Chart 2–5. We use the profits fro
wood Auto Group. The midpoint of each class
CHAPTER
2
RedLine
Productions
recently
a new
video game.
playability
to be tested
frequencies
onItsthe
Y-axis.is Recall
that the class
cal analysis.
When developed
she
by 80 veteran game players.
class and represents the typical values in that c
encountered
an
unsanitary
(a) What is the experiment?
of observations in a particular class. The profit
or an
undersup(b) horizontal
What iscondition
oneaxis
possible
outcome?
and
the
class frequencies on the vertical axis. The class frequencies
the
Applewood
Auto
Group
is repeated
belo
(c) are
Suppose
65
of
the
80
players
testing
the
new
game
said they
liked
Is 65
a probability?
plied
hospital,
she
improved
represented by the heights of theby
bars.
However,
there
isit.one
important
differFlorence Nightingale is

A SURVEY OF PROBABILITY CONCEPTS
Statistics in Action articles are scattered throughknown as the founder of
out the text, usually about two per chapter. They
the nursing profession.
provide unique, interesting applications and hisHowever, she also saved
S E L F - R E V I E W 5–1
many lives by using statistitorical insights in the field of statistics.

34

(d)
(e)

The probability
new of
game
beQuantitative
a success is computed
to be −1.0.
Comment.
ence
based
onthat
thethe
nature
the will
data.
data are usually
measured
using
the conditions
and
then
Specifythat
one possible
event. not discrete. Therefore, the horizontal axis represents all
scales
continuous,
Profit
usedare
statistical
data to
possible values, and the bars are drawn adjacent to each other to show the continudocument the improve$ 200 up to $ 600
ous nature of the data.

Midpo

APPROACHES TO ASSIGNING PROBABILITIES

Definitions

LO5-2
ment. Thus, she was able
Assign probabilities using
600 up to 1,000
to convince
others
There are three
ways to
assign
probability to an event: classical,
empirical,
a classical, empirical,66
or
CHAPTER
3 of athe
1,000
up to and
1,400subjecDefinitions of new terms
or terms
unique to tive. The
HISTOGRAM
A graph
in which
the classes
are marked
onare
thebased
horizontal
axis and
classical
empirical
methods
are objective
and
on 1,800
information
subjective
approach.
need forand
medical
reform,
1,400 up to
the class
frequencies
on
theof
vertical
class frequencies
are represented
by
The
subjective
method
is
basedaxis.
on aThe
person’s
belief or estimate
of an event’s
the study of statistics are set apart from the and data.
particularly
in the
area
1,800other.
up to 2,200
the heights of the bars, and the bars are drawn adjacent to each
likelihood.

text and highlighted for easy reference and
sanitation. a.
SheWhat
developed
is the arithmetic mean of the Alaska unemployment
2,200 uprates? 
to 2,600
b. Find
median and the mode for the unemployment rates. 
review. They also appear in the Glossary at
original graphs
to the
demon2,600
up
to(Dec–Mar)
3,000 months.
c.
Compute
the
arithmetic
mean
and
median
for
just
the
winter
Classical
Probability
strate
that, during
the different? 
the end of the book.
Is it much
3,000 up to 3,400

Big Orange
is designing
anoutcomes
information of
system
for use in “in-cab”
more
soldiers
Classical
is based
on the Trucking
assumption
that the
an experiment
are
E Xprobability
ACrimean
M P L22.
EWar,
Total
communications.
It must summarize
data from
eight
siteshappening
throughout aisregion
equally likely.
Using
the
classicalcondiviewpoint,
the probability
of an
event
com-to
died
from
unsanitary
describe typical
conditions.
Compute
appropriate
measure
of month
central location
Below
is the
frequency
distribution
of the
profitsanon
vehicle sales
last
at the for
puted by dividing
the number
of favorable
outcomes
by the
number
of possible outcomes:
theGroup.
variables
wind direction,
temperature,
and
pavement.
tions than
were
killed
in
Applewood
Auto

Formulas

combat.

EXERCIS

Exercises are included after sections within the chapter and at
the end of the chapter. Section
exercises cover the material studied in the section. Many exercises
have data files available to import
into statistical software. They are
indicated with the FILE icon.
­Answers to the odd-numbered
exercises are in Appendix D.

City

Wind Direction

40

Birmingham, AL600 up to 1,000
South
Jackson, MS 1,000 up to 1,400
Southwest
32
E X A MCHAPTER
PLE 2
1,400
up
to
1,800
Meridian, MS
South
Monroe, LA 1,800 up to 2,200
Southwest
24
Consider an experiment
of rolling
a six-sided
die.
Tuscaloosa,
AL
Southwest
2,200 up to 2,600

Pavement
Dry
(5–1)
Wet
Wet
Dry
Dry
Trace
Wet
of
Tracethe

11
91
23
92
38
92
93
45
What
is the
93 probability
32
appear
up toface
3,000up”?
19
Eevent
S “an even number of spots2,600
16
up to 3,400
15. Molly’s Candle Shop 3,000
has several
retail stores 4in the coastal areas of North and
8 ask180
South
Carolina.Solution
Many of
Molly’s customers
her to ship their purchases. The folTotal
S O L U T I O Software
N
lowing chart shows the number of packages shipped per day for the last 100 days.
We can use a statistical software package to find many measures of location.
example,are:
the first class shows that there were 5 days when the number of packThe possible For
outcomes
0
400
800
1,200
shipped was
0 up
to 5.
Construct ages
a histogram.
What
observations
can you reach based on the information

1,600

2

X A histogram?
MPLE
presented inE the

Profi

a one-spot
four-spot
Table 2–4
thea profit
on the sales of 180 vehicles at Applewood
30on page 27 shows 28
Auto Group. Determine the mean and23the median selling price.
18
a
two-spot
20
a
five-spot
SOLUTION
13
CHART 2–5 Frequency
Polygon of Profit on 180 Vehicl
10
10
S O LaUthree-spot
TIO
N scaled
5
a six-spot
The class frequencies
are
along the
vertical axis (Y-axis) and
3 either the class
As noted
previously,
$200
up to $600
limits or theThe
class
midpoints
along
horizontal
axis.
To
illustrate
thethe
construction
0 median,
mean,
and the
modal
amounts
of profit
are reported
in the
following
5
10
25
30
35
$400.
To20
construct
ainstructions
frequency
polygon,
mov
of the histogram,
first three
are15shot).
shown
in Chart
2–3.
outputthe
(highlighted
inclasses
the screen
(Reminder:
The
to create
the
Number of Packages
appear in
the Software
Commands
Appendix
C.)
are 180to
vehicles
There are threeoutput
“favorable”
outcomes
(apoint,
two,
a$400,
four,inand
a six)
in There
the
collection
of8, the class
and
then
vertically
in the study, so using a calculator would be tedious and prone to error.

six equally likely possible outcomes. Therefore:
the y values of this point are called the coordin

a. What is this chart called?
are x =Number
800 and
y = 11. outcomes
The process is contin
3 of ←
of favorable
b. What
is the total number
packages
shipped?
32even
ofc.anWhat
number
=
is the
class interval?
connected
in order.
That is,
the point represe
6 ←
Total number
of possible
outcomes
23up to 15 class?
d. What
shipped in the 10
24 is the number=of.5packages
one 
representing
the
second
class and so on
e. What is the relative frequency of packages shipped in the 10 up to 15 class?
the 
f. What
upfrequency
to 15 class? polygon, midpoints of $0 and $3,
16 is the midpoint of the 10
g. On how many days were there
or 11more packages
shipped?
the25polygon
at zero
frequencies. These two va

Number of Vehicles
(class frequency)

Probability

Computer Output

Temperature

Number of favorable outcomes
Probability
Anniston, AL
89
= Profit West 48 Frequency
ofAtlanta,
an event
GA
Northwest of possible outcomes
86
Total number
$ 200 up to $ 600
8
Augusta, GA
Southwest
92

Frequency

Exercises

CLASSICAL
PROBABILITY

Frequency

Formulas that are used for the first time
are boxed and numbered for reference. In
addition, key formulas are listed in the
back of the text as a reference. 38

$ 40
80
1,20
1,60
2,00
2,40
2,80
3,20

8

Frequency

mutually exclusive
concept appeared earlier in our study of frequency distri8
The text includes many software examples, The
using
16. The following
chart shows the number
of patientsthe
admitted
dailyinterval
to Memorial
subtracting
class
ofHospital
$400 from the
butions in Chapter
2. Recall
that we create
classes so that a particular value is included
through
the
emergency
room. $400
­Excel, MegaStat , and Minitab. The software results
are
to
the
highest
midpoint
($3,200)
in only one of the classes and there is no overlap between classes. Thus, only one of in the fre
200
600 Both 1,000
1,400 and the frequency pol
the histogram
illustrated in the chapters. Instructions for a particular
several events can occur at a particular
time.
Profit $characteristics of the data (highs, lows
30
the main
software example are in Appendix C.

the two representations are similar in purpose
each class as a rectangle, with the he

20

depicting
CHART 2–3 Construction
of a Histogram
10
0
Source: Microsoft Excel



Lin87500_ch05_117-154.indd 121
Lin87500_ch02_019-052.indd 34

a.
b.
c.
d.

2

4

6
8
Number of Patients

10

What is the midpoint of the 2 up to 4 class?
On how many days were 2 up to 4 patients admitted?
What is the class interval?
What is this chart called?

12

ix

8/16/17 1:01 PM

17. The following frequency distribution reports the number of frequent flier miles,

reported in thousands, for employees of Brumley Statistical Consulting Inc. during

7/28/17


median sales
price
is, values
and the
median
$60,000.
Why was the developer only reporting
a. Only
two
are
used inisits
calculation.
It is influenced
by extreme
values. important to a person’s decision making
the meanb.price?
This information
is extremely
c. Itaishome.
easy to
computethe
and
to understand.
when buying
Knowing
advantages
and disadvantages of the mean, median,
The variance
is theas
mean
of the squared
from
thestatistical
arithmeticinformation
mean.
andB.mode
is important
we report
statisticsdeviations
and as we
use
to
1. The formula for the population variance is
make decisions.
We also learned how to compute2 measures
Σ(x − μ) 2 of dispersion: range, variance, and
σ =
(3–5)
standard deviation. Each of these statistics
also
N has advantages and disadvantages.
Remember
that
the range
information
2. The
formula
for theprovides
sample variance
is about the overall spread of a distribution. However, it does not provide any information2 about how the data are clustered or
Σ(x − x )
concentrated around the center of the
distribution. As we learn more about statistics,
s2 =
(3–7)
n−1
we need to remember that when we use statistics
we must maintain an independent
3. The major
the variance
are:
and principled
pointcharacteristics
of view. Any of
statistical
report
requires objective and honest coma. of
Allthe
observations
munication
results. are used in the calculation.

H OW DO E S TH I S TE X T R E I N FO RC E
STU D E NT LE A R N I N G?

BY C H A P TE R

CHAPTER

Chapter Summary
Each chapter contains a brief summary
of the chapter material, including vocabulary, definitions, and critical formulas.

44

Pronunciation Key

PRONUNC

This section lists the mathematical symbol,
its meaning, and how to pronounce it. We
believe this will help the student retain the
meaning of the symbol and generally enhance course communications.

Chapter Exercises

b. The units are somewhat difficult to work with; they are the original units squared.
C. The standard deviation is the square root of the variance.
1. The major characteristics of the standard deviation are:
a. It is in the same units as the original data.
S U M M A R b.
Y It is the square root of the average squared distance from the mean.
c. It cannot be negative.
I. A measure
ofthe
location
a value
used tomeasure
describeofthe
central tendency of a set of data.
d. It is
most is
widely
reported
dispersion.
A. The
arithmetic
is sample
the most
widely reported
of location.
2. The
formulamean
for the
standard
deviationmeasure
is
1. It is calculated by adding the values of the observations
and dividing by the total
2
)
Σ(x

x
number of observations.
s=
(3–8)
n −of1 ungrouped or raw data is
a. The formula for the population√mean
III. We use the standard deviation to describe
Σx a frequency distribution by applying
(3–1)
=
Chebyshev’s theorem or the EmpiricalμRule.
N
A. Chebyshev’s
theorem
states
that mean
regardless
of the shape of the distribution, at least
b. The
formula
for the
sample
is
2
1 − 1/k of the observations will be within k standard deviations of the mean, where k
Σx
is greater than 1.
x=
(3–2)
n
B. The Empirical Rule states that for a bell-shaped
distribution about 68% of the values
2.
the arithmetic
willThe
be major
within characteristics
one standard of
deviation
of the mean
mean,are:
95% within two, and virtually all
a. At
least the interval scale of measurement is required.
within
three.
b. All the data values are used in the calculation.
c. A set of data has only one mean. That is, it is unique.
d. The sum of the deviations from the mean equals 0.
CHAPTER 2
B. The median is the value in the middle of a set of ordered data.
1.
To
I A T I O N K E find
Y the median, sort the observations from minimum to maximum and identify
the middle value.
B. The
class
frequency
is the number
observations
in each class.
2. The
major
characteristics
of the of
median
are:
SYMBOL
MEANING
PRONUNCIATION
C. The class
interval
is
the difference
between the limits
of two consecutive classes.
At least
the
ordinal
scale
of measurement
is required.
μ D. Thea.class
Population
mean
mu
midpoint
is
halfway
between
the
limits
of
consecutive
classes.
b. It is not influenced by extreme values.
Σ A relative
Operation
of shows
addingtheare
sigma
VI.
frequency
distribution
percent
observations
in each
class.
c. Fifty
percent
of the observations
largerofthan
the median.
VII.
There
are
several
methods
for
graphically
portraying
a
frequency
distribution.
Σx
a of
group
sigma x
d. It is uniqueAdding
to a set
data.of values
A.
A
histogram
portrays
the
frequencies
in often
the form
of
a of
rectangle
or bar for each class.
C.
The
mode
is
the
value
that
occurs
most
in
a
set
data.
x
Sample mean
x bar
The
height
of the
is proportional
the class frequencies.
1. The
mode
canrectangles
be found for
nominal-leveltodata.
x w B. A frequency polygon
Weighted
mean line segments connecting the points
x bar
sub by
w the
consists
formed
2. A set of data can have
moreofthan
one mode.
2
intersection of the
class midpoint
and the class frequency.
Population
variance
sigma squared
σ
C.
A
graph
of
a
cumulative
frequency
distribution
shows
the
number
of
observations
less
σ
Population standard deviation
sigma
than a given value.
D. A graph of a cumulative relative frequency distribution shows the percent of observations less than a given value. 

CHAPTER EXERCISES
Lin87500_ch03_053-087.indd 81

Generally, the end-of-chapter exercises
are the most challenging and integrate
the chapter concepts. The answers and
worked-out solutions for all oddnumbered exercises are in Appendix D
at the end of the text. Many exercises
are noted with a data file icon in the margin. For these exercises, there are data
files in Excel format located in C
­ onnect.
These files help students use statistical
software to solve the exercises.

Data Analytics
The goal of the Data Analytics sections is to develop analytical skills.
The exercises present a real-world
context with supporting data. The data
sets are printed in Appendix A and
available to download from Connect.
Statistical software is required to analyze
the data and respond to the exercises.
Each data set is used to explore questions and discover findings that relate to
a real-world context. For each business
context, a story is uncovered as students
progress from chapter 1 to 15.

x

Lin87500_ch03_053-087.indd 82

23. Describe the similarities and differences of qualitative and quantitative variables.
Be 10:42 AM
9/20/17
sure to include the following:
a. What level of measurement is required for each variable type?
9/20/17
b. Can both types be used to describe both samples and populations?
24. Describe the similarities and differences between a frequency table and a frequency
distribution. Be sure to include which requires qualitative data and which requires quantitative data.
25. Alexandra Damonte will be building a new resort in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina. She
must decide how to design the resort based on the type of activities that the resort will
offer to its customers. A recent poll of 300 potential customers showed the following
results about customers’ preferences for planned resort activities:
Like planned activities
Do not like planned activities
Not sure
No answer

10:42 AM

63
135
78
24

a.
b.
c.
d.

What is the table called?
Draw a bar chart to portray the survey results.
Draw a pie chart for the survey results.
If you are preparing to present the results to Ms. Damonte as part of a report, which
graph would you prefer to show? Why?
Speedy Swift is a package delivery service that serves the greater Atlanta, Georgia,
26.
metropolitan area. To maintain customer loyalty, one of Speedy Swift’s performance
DESCRIBING DATA: FREQUENCYobjectives
TABLES, FREQUENCY
DISTRIBUTIONS,
AND GRAPHIC
PRESENTATION
is on-time delivery.
To monitor its performance,
each
delivery is measured 51
on
the following scale: early (package delivered before the promised time), on-time (package delivered within 15 minutes of the promised time), late (package delivered more
than 15 minutes past the promised time), or lost (package never delivered). Speedy
D A T A A N A L Y T I C S Swift’s objective is to deliver 99% of all packages either early or on-time. Speedy collected the following data for last month’s performance:
(The data for these exercises are available in Connect.)
On-time
Early
Early
Early
On-time
On-time
Early
On-time
On-time
On-time

Lin87500_ch02_019-052.indd 44

On-time
On-time
On-time
On-time
Late
Late
Early
On-time
Early
On-time

Late
On-time
On-time
On-time
On-time
Late on homes
On-time
51.Early
Refer
to the North
Valley Real
Estate data,
which report
information
sold
On-time
On-time
On-time
On-time
On-time class
On-time
On-time
during theEarly
last year. For
the variable
price, select
an appropriate
interval and
orgaEarly
On-time prices
On-time
On-time distribution.
Early
On-time
On-time summarizing
On-time
nize the selling
into a frequency
Write
a brief report
On-time
Late Be sureEarly
On-time
On-time
Early
your findings.
to answer Early
the following
questionsOn-time
in your report.
Late
On-time
On-time
On-time
On-time
On-time
On-time
a. AroundOn-time
what values
of price do
the data tend
to cluster?
Early
Early distribution,
On-time whatLost
On-time
On-time
On-time
b. BasedOn-time
on the frequency
is the typical
selling price
in the first
class?
On-timeWhat isOn-time
Early
On-time
On-time
On-time
the typicalLate
selling price
in the lastLost
class?
Early
On-time
Early
On-time
Early
On-time
Late
On-time
c. Draw a cumulative relative frequency distribution. Using this distribution, fifty
On-timepercent
On-time
On-time
Late
On-time
Early
of the homes
sold for
what price
or less? Estimate
theOn-time
lower priceOn-time
of the
On-timetop tenOn-time
Early
Earlypercent of
On-time
On-time
On-time
percent ofOn-time
homes sold.
About what
the homes
sold for less
than
$300,000?
d. Refer to the variable bedrooms. Draw a bar chart showing the number of homes sold
with 2, 3, or 4 or more bedrooms. Write a description of the distribution.
Refer to the Baseball 2016 data that report information on the 30 Major League
52.
Baseball teams for the 2016 season. Create a frequency distribution for the Team Salary
variable and answer the following questions.
a. What is the typical salary for a team? What is the range of the salaries?
b. Comment on the shape of the distribution. Does it appear that any of the teams have
a salary that is out of line with the others?
c. Draw a cumulative relative frequency distribution of team salary. Using this distribution, forty percent of the teams have a salary of less than what amount? About how
many teams have a total salary of more than $220 million?
Refer to the Lincolnville School District bus data. Select the variable referring to
53.
the number of miles traveled since the last maintenance, and then organize these data
into a frequency distribution.
a. What is a typical amount of miles traveled? What is the range?
b. Comment on the shape of the distribution. Are there any outliers in terms of miles
driven?
c. Draw a cumulative relative frequency distribution. Forty percent of the buses
were driven fewer than how many miles? How many buses were driven less than
10,500 miles?
d. Refer to the variables regarding the bus manufacturer and the bus capacity. Draw a

9/20/17 9:26 AM


53.

Practice Test

many teams have a total salary of more than $220 million?
Refer to the Lincolnville School District bus data. Select the variable referring to
the number of miles traveled since the last maintenance, and then organize these data
into a frequency distribution.
a. What is a typical amount of miles traveled? What is the range?
b. Comment on the shape of the distribution. Are there any outliers in terms of miles
driven?
c. Draw a cumulative relative frequency distribution. Forty percent of the buses
were driven fewer than how many miles? How many buses were driven less than
10,500 miles?
d. Refer to the variables regarding the bus manufacturer and the bus capacity. Draw a
pie chart of each variable and write a description of your results.

PRACTICE TEST

The Practice Test is intended to
give students an idea of content
that might appear on a test and
how the test might be structured.
The Practice Test includes both
objective questions and problems
covering the material studied in
the section.

Part 1—Objective

1. A grouping of qualitative data into mutually exclusive classes showing the number of observations in each class is
15–2. The MegaStat commands to cre
.
known as a
of-fitin
test
on class
pageis483 are:
2. A grouping of quantitative data into mutually exclusive classes showing the number of observations
each
a. Enter the information from T
.
known as a
shown. (propor3. A graph in which the classes for qualitative data are reported on the horizontal axis and the class frequencies
.
tional to the heights of the bars) on the vertical axis is called a
b. Select MegaStat, Chi-Squar
4. A circular chart that shows the proportion or percentage that each class represents of the total is calledFit
a Test, and. hit Enter.
5. A graph in which the classes of a quantitative variable are marked on the horizontal axis and the class
c. Infrequencies
the dialogon
box, select B2
the vertical axis is called a
.
C2:C5 as the Expected valu
6. A set of data included 70 observations. How many classes would you suggest to construct a frequency
distribution?estimated fro
of parameters
7.
8.
9.
10.

The distance between successive lower class limits is called the
.
The average of the respective class limits of two consecutive classes is the class
In a relative frequency distribution, the class frequencies are divided by the
A cumulative frequency polygon is created by line segments connecting the class
sponding cumulative frequencies.

.

.
and the corre-

CHAPTER 14

A PPE N D IX M ATE R IA L

Software Commands

Lin87500_ch02_019-052.indd 51

Software examples using Excel, MegaStat,
and Minitab are included throughout the
text. The explanations of the computer
­input commands are placed at the end of
the text in Appendix C.

Note: We do not show steps for all the statistical software in Chapter 14.
The following shows the basic steps.
14–1. The Excel commands to produce the multiple regression output on page 422 are:
a. Import the data from Connect. The file name is Tbl14.
b. Select the Data tab on the top menu. Then on the far right,
select Data Analysis. Select Regression and click OK.
c. Make the Input Y Range A1:A21, the Input X Range
B1:D21, check the Labels box, the Output Range is F1,
then click OK.

15–3. The MegaStat commands to cre
7/28/17 7:44 AM
of-fit tests on pages 488 and 48
number of items in the observe
umns. Only one dialog box is sh
a. Enter the Levels of Manag
page 488.
b. Select MegaStat, Chi-Squar
Fit Test, and hit Enter.
c. In the dialog box, select B1
C1:C7 as the Expected valu
of parameters estimated fro

A PPE N D IX E : A N SWE RS TO S E LF - RE V I E W

CHAPTER 1

c. Class frequencies.
15–4. The MegaStat commands for the
d. The largest concentration of commissions is $1,500
1–1 a. Inferential statistics, because a sample was used to draw a
page up
493toare:
CHAPTER
15
$1,600.
The
smallest
commission
is
about
$1,400
the
conclusion about how all consumers in the population
a. and
Enter
Table 15–5 on page
15–1. The MegaStat commands
two-sample
testThe
of proporlargestforisthe
about
$1,800.
typical amount earned
is the row and colum
Include
would react if the chicken dinner were marketed.
tions on page 477 are:
Total
column
or row.
$1,550.
b. On the basis of the sample of 1,960 consumers, we estia. Select MegaStat from
the Add-Ins tab. From the menu,
se6
b. Select
2–3 a. 2Tests,
= and
64 then
< 73
< 128 = 2 7 , so seven classes
areMegaStat from the
mate that, if it is marketed, 60% of all consumers will pur- lect Hypothesis
Compare Two Indepenselect Chi-square/Crossta
recommended.
chase the chicken dinner: (1,176/1,960) × 100 = 60%.
dent Proportions.
Table.
b. For
TheGroup
interval
width
should
benat
= 24.
1–2 a. Age is a ratio-scale variable. A 40-year-old is twice as old
b. Enter the data.
1, enter
x as
19 and
asleast
100. (488 − 320)/7
c. For the Input range, select c
The worked-out
solutions to the Self-Reviews are For Group 2, enter
Class
25 orOK.
30 are reasonable.
x asintervals
62 and n of
as either
200. Select
as someone 20 years old.
chi-square and Expected va
provided
at the
of the
text
in Appendix
E. car, and
c. Assuming a class interval of 25 and beginning with a lower
b. The
two end
variables
are: 1)
if a person
owns a luxury
limit of 300, eight classes are required. If we use an interval
2) the state of residence. Both are measured on a nominal scale.
of 30 and begin with a lower limit of 300, only seven classes
CHAPTER 2
are required. Seven classes is the better alternative.
2–1 a. Qualitative data, because the customers’ response to the
taste test is the name of a beverage.
Distance Classes
Frequency
Percent
b. Frequency table. It shows the number of people who prefer
300 up to 330
2
2.7%
each beverage.
c.
330 up to 360
2
2.7
360 up to 390
17
23.3
390 up to 420
27
37.0
40
420 up to 450
22
30.1
450 up to 480
1
1.4
30
480 up to 510
2
2.7
Grand Total

20
10



0
Cola-Plus Coca-Cola

73

100.00

d. 17
e. 23.3%, found by 17/73
f. 71.2%, found by (27 + 22 + 1 + 2)/73
2–4 a.
Lin87500_appc_526-533.indd 533

Pepsi

Beverage

20

Lemon-Lime

f

Frequency

Answers to Self-Review

20

xi


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simple and intuitive interface.
▪ The Connect eBook makes it easy for students to
access their reading material on smartphones
and tablets. They can study on the go and don’t
need internet access to use the eBook as a
reference, with full functionality.
▪ Multimedia content such as videos, simulations,
and games drive student engagement and critical
thinking skills.

©McGraw-Hill Education


Robust Analytics and Reporting
▪ Connect Insight® generates easy-to-read



reports on individual students, the class as a
whole, and on specific assignments.
▪ The Connect Insight dashboard delivers data
on performance, study behavior, and effort.
Instructors can quickly identify students who
struggle and focus on material that the class
has yet to master.
▪ Connect automatically grades assignments
and quizzes, providing easy-to-read reports
on individual and class performance.

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More students earn
As and Bs when they
use Connect.

Trusted Service and Support
▪ Connect integrates with your LMS to provide single sign-on and automatic syncing



of grades. Integration with Blackboard®, D2L®, and Canvas also provides automatic
syncing of the course calendar and assignment-level linking.
▪ Connect offers comprehensive service, support, and training throughout every
phase of your implementation.
▪ If you’re looking for some guidance on how to use Connect, or want to learn
tips and tricks from super users, you can find tutorials as you work. Our Digital
Faculty Consultants and Student Ambassadors offer insight into how to achieve
the results you want with Connect.


www.mheducation.com/connect


A D D ITI O N A L R E SOU RC E S

INSTRUCTOR LIBRARY
The McGraw-Hill Education Connect Business Statistics Instructor Library is your repository for additional resources
to improve student engagement in and out of class. You can select and use any asset that enhances your lecture,
including:
• Solutions Manual  The Solutions Manual, carefully revised by the authors, contains solutions to all basic, intermediate, and challenge problems found at the end of each chapter. 
• Test Bank  The Test Bank, revised by Wendy Bailey of Troy University, contains hundreds of true/false, multiple
choice, and short-answer/discussions, updated based on the revisions of the authors. The level of difficulty
­varies, as indicated by the easy, medium, and difficult labels. 
• PowerPoint Presentations  Prepared by Stephanie Campbell of Mineral Area College, the presentations contain exhibits, tables, key points, and summaries in a visually stimulating collection of slides. 
• Excel Templates  There are templates for various end-of-chapter problems that have been set as Excel
spreadsheets—all denoted by an icon. Students can easily download and save the files and use the data to
solve end-of-chapter problems. 

MEGASTAT® FOR MICROSOFT EXCEL®
MegaStat by J. B. Orris of Butler University is a full-featured Excel statistical analysis add-in that is available on the
MegaStat website at www.mhhe.com/megastat (for purchase). MegaStat works with recent versions of Microsoft Excel
(Windows and Mac OS X). See the website for details on supported versions.
Once installed, MegaStat will always be available on the Excel add-ins ribbon with no expiration date or data limitations. MegaStat performs statistical analyses within an Excel workbook. When a MegaStat menu item is selected, a
dialog box pops up for data selection and options. Since MegaStat is an easy-to-use extension of Excel, students
can focus on learning statistics without being distracted by the software. Ease-of-use features include Auto Expand
for quick data selection and Auto Label detect.
MegaStat does most calculations found in introductory statistics textbooks, such as computing descriptive statistics,
creating frequency distributions, and computing probabilities, as well as hypothesis testing, ANOVA, chi-square
analysis, and regression analysis (simple and multiple). MegaStat output is carefully formatted and appended to an
output worksheet.
Video tutorials are included that provide a walk-through using MegaStat for typical business statistics topics. A context-sensitive help system is built into MegaStat, and a User’s Guide is included in PDF format.

MINITAB®/SPSS®/JMP®
Minitab Version 17, SPSS Student Version 18.0, and
JMP Student Edition Version 8 are software products
that are available to help students solve the exercises
with data files. Each software product can be packaged
with any McGraw-Hill business statistics text.

xiv


AC KN OWLE DG M E NTS

This edition of Basic Statistics for Business and Economics is the product of many people: students, colleagues, reviewers, and the
staff at McGraw-Hill Education. We thank them all. We wish to express our sincere gratitude to the reviewers:

Stefan Ruediger
Arizona State University

Golnaz Taghvatalab
Central Michigan University

Anthony Clark
St. Louis Community College

John Yarber
Northeast Mississippi Community
College

Umair Khalil
West Virginia University

John Beyers
University of Maryland

Leonie Stone
SUNY Geneseo

Mohammad Kazemi
University of North Carolina
Charlotte
Anna Terzyan
Loyola Marymount University
Lee O. Cannell
El Paso Community College

Their suggestions and thorough reviews of the previous edition and the manuscript of this edition make this a better text.
Special thanks go to a number of people. Shelly Moore, College of Western Idaho, and John
­Arcaro, Lakeland Community College, accuracy checked the Connect exercises. Ed Pappanastos, Troy
University, built new data sets and revised SmartBook. Rene Ordonez, Southern Oregon University,
built the Connect guided examples. Wendy Bailey, Tory University, prepared the test bank. Stephanie
Campbell, Mineral Area College, prepared the PowerPoint decks. Vickie Fry, Westmoreland County
Community College, provided countless hours of digital accuracy checking and support.
We also wish to thank the staff at McGraw-Hill Education. This includes Noelle Bathurst, Portfolio
Manager; Michele Janicek, Lead Product Developer; Ryan McAndrews, Product Developer; Lori Koetters,
Content Project Manager; Daryl Horrocks, Program Manager; and others we do not know personally, but
who have made valuable contributions.



xv


xvi
CONTENTS
EN
H A N C E M E NTS TO

BA S I C STATI STI C S
FO R BUS I N E S S & E CO N O M I C S , 9 E

CHANGES MADE TO INDIVIDUAL CHAPTERS

• New contingency table in Exercise 31.

CHAPTER 1  What Is Statistics?

• Revised Example/Solution demonstrating the combination
formula.

• Revised Self-Review 1–2.

• New Data Analytics section with new data and questions.

• New section describing business analytics and its integration
with the text.

CHAPTER 6  Discrete Probability Distributions

• Updated Exercises 2, 3, 17, and 19.

• Expanded discussion of random variables.

• New photo and chapter opening exercise.

• Revised the Example/Solution in the section on Poisson
distribution.

• New introduction with new graphic showing the increasing
amount of information collected and processed with new
technologies.

• Updated Exercise 18 and added new Exercises 54, 55, and 56.
• Revised the section on the binomial distribution.

• New ordinal scale example based on rankings of states by
business climate.

• Revised Example/Solution demonstrating the binomial
distribution.

• The chapter includes several new examples.

• New exercise using a raffle at a local golf club to demonstrate
probability and expected returns.

• Chapter is more focused on the revised learning objectives,
improving the chapter’s flow.
• Revised Exercise 17 is based on economic data.
• New Data Analytics section with new data and questions. 

• New Data Analytics section with new data and questions.

CHAPTER 7  Continuous Probability Distributions
• Revised Self-Review 7–1.

CHAPTER 2  Describing Data: Frequency Tables,
Frequency Distributions, and Graphic Presentation

• Revised the Example/Solutions using Uber as the context.

• Revised chapter introduction.

• Updated Statistics in Action.

• Added more explanation about cumulative relative frequency
distributions.

• Revised Self-Review 7–2 based on daily personal water
consumption.

• Updated Exercises 38, 45, 47, and 48 using real data.
• Revised Self-Review 2–3 to include data.

• Revised explanation of the Empirical Rule as it relates to the
normal distribution.

• New Data Analytics section with new data and questions.

• New Data Analytics section with new data and questions.

CHAPTER 3  Describing Data: Numerical Measures

CHAPTER 8  Sampling Methods and the Central
Limit Theorem

• Updated Self-Review 3–2.
• Reorganized chapter based on revised learning objectives.
• Replaced the mean deviation with more emphasis on the
­variance and standard deviation.
• Updated Statistics in Action.
• New Data Analytics section with new data and questions.

• Updated Exercises 19, 22, 28, 37, and 48.

• New example of simple random sampling and the application
of the table of random numbers.
• The discussions of systematic random, stratified random, and
cluster sampling have been revised.
• Revised Exercise 44 based on the price of a gallon of milk.
• New Data Analytics section with new data and questions.

CHAPTER 4  Describing Data: Displaying and
Exploring Data

CHAPTER 9  Estimation and Confidence Intervals

• Updated Exercise 22 with 2016 New York Yankee player
salaries.

• Updated Exercises 5, 6, 12, 14, 24, 37, 39, and 55.

• New Data Analytics section with new data and questions.

CHAPTER 5  A Survey of Probability Concepts
• Updated Exercises 39 and 52 using real data.

• New Self-Review 9–3 problem description.
• New Statistics in Action describing EPA fuel economy.
• New separate section on point estimates.
• Integration and application of the central limit theorem.

• New explanation of odds compared to probabilities.

• A revised simulation demonstrating the interpretation of confidence level.

• New Exercise 21.

• New presentation on using the t table to find z values.

• New Example/Solution for demonstrating contingency tables
and tree diagrams.

• A revised discussion of determining the confidence interval
for the population mean.

xvi


• Expanded section on calculating sample size.

CHAPTER 13  Correlation and Linear Regression

• New Data Analytics section with new data and questions.

• Added new conceptual formula to relate the standard error to
the regression ANOVA table.

CHAPTER 10  One-Sample Tests of Hypothesis
• Revised the Example/Solutions using an airport cell phone
parking lot as the context.
• Revised software solution and explanation of p-values.
• Conducting a test of hypothesis about a population proportion is moved to Chapter 15.
• New example introducing the concept of hypothesis
testing.
• Sixth step added to the hypothesis testing procedure emphasizing the interpretation of the hypothesis test results.
• New Data Analytics section with new data and questions.

CHAPTER 11  Two-Sample Tests of Hypothesis

• Updated Exercises 41 and 57.
• Rewrote the introduction section to the chapter.
• The data used as the basis for the North American Copier
Sales Example/Solution used throughout the chapter have
been changed and expanded to 15 observations to more
clearly demonstrate the chapter’s learning objectives.
• Revised section on transforming data using the economic
­relationship between price and sales.
• New Exercises 35 (transforming data), 36 (Masters prizes and
scores), 43 (2012 NFL points scored versus points allowed),
44 (store size and sales), and 61 (airline distance and fare).
• New Data Analytics section with new data and questions.

• Updated Exercises 5, 9, 30, and 44.

CHAPTER 14  Multiple Regression Analysis

• New introduction to the chapter.

• Updated Exercises 19, 22, and 25.

• Section of two-sample tests about proportions moved to
Chapter 15.

• Rewrote the section on evaluating the multiple regression
equation.

• Changed subscripts in Example/Solution for easier
understanding.

• More emphasis on the regression ANOVA table.

• New Data Analytics section with new data and questions.

• More emphasis on calculating the variance inflation factor to
evaluate multicollinearity.

CHAPTER 12  Analysis of Variance
• Revised Self-Reviews 12–1 and 12–3.

• Enhanced the discussion of the p-value in decision making.

• New Data Analytics section with new data and questions.

• New introduction to the chapter.

CHAPTER 15  Nonparametric Methods: NominalLevel Hypothesis Tests

• New Exercise 16 using the speed of browsers to search the
Internet.

• Updated the context of Manelli Perfume Company Example/
Solution.

• Revised Exercise 25 comparing learning in traditional versus
online courses.

• Revised the “Hypothesis Test of Unequal Expected Frequencies” Example/Solution.

• New section on comparing two population variances.

• Moved one-sample and two-sample tests of proportions from
Chapters 10 and 11 to Chapter 15.

• Updated Exercises 10, 16, 25, and 30.

• New example illustrating the comparison of variances.
• Revised the names of the airlines in the one-way ANOVA
example.

• New example introducing goodness-of-fit tests.

• Changed the subscripts in Example/Solution for easier
understanding.

• Revised section on contingency table analysis with a new
­Example/Solution.

• New Data Analytics section with new data and questions.

• New Data Analytics section with new data and questions.



• Removed the graphical methods to evaluate normality.

xvii



BRIEF CONTENTS

1 What is Statistics?  1
2 Describing Data: Frequency Tables, Frequency Distributions,
and Graphic Presentation 

19

3 Describing Data: Numerical Measures  53
4 Describing Data: Displaying and Exploring Data  88
5 A Survey of Probability Concepts  117
6 Discrete Probability Distributions  155
7 Continuous Probability Distributions  184
8 Sampling Methods and the Central Limit Theorem 
9 Estimation and Confidence Intervals  242
10 One-Sample Tests of Hypothesis  274
11 Two-Sample Tests of Hypothesis  305
12 Analysis of Variance  334
13 Correlation and Linear Regression  365
14 Multiple Regression Analysis  418
15 Nonparametric Methods:
Nominal-Level Hypothesis Tests 

469

Appendixes:
Data Sets, Tables, Software Commands, Answers 
Glossary 
Index 



210

503

578

581

xix


CONTENTS

A Note from the Authors 
Preface  vii

vi
Cumulative Distributions  39

1What is Statistics? 

E X E RC ISE S  42
1

Chapter Summary  43

Introduction  2

Chapter Exercises  44

Why Study Statistics?  2

Data Analytics  51

What is Meant by Statistics?  3

Practice Test  51

Types of Statistics  4
Descriptive Statistics  4
Inferential Statistics  5
Types of Variables  6
Levels of Measurement  7
Nominal-Level Data  7
Ordinal-Level Data  8
Interval-Level Data  9
Ratio-Level Data  10
EX ERC I SES   11

3Describing Data:

NUMERICAL MEASURES 
53
Introduction  54
Measures of Location  54
The Population Mean  55
The Sample Mean  56
Properties of the Arithmetic Mean  57

Ethics and Statistics  12

E X E RC ISE S  58

Basic Business Analytics  12

The Median  59
The Mode  61

Chapter Summary  13
Chapter Exercises  14

E X E RC ISE S  63

Data Analytics  17

The Relative Positions of the Mean,
Median, and Mode  64

Practice Test  17

E X E RC ISE S  65
Software Solution  66

2Describing Data:


FREQUENCY TABLES, FREQUENCY
DISTRIBUTIONS, AND GRAPHIC
PRESENTATION  19

E X E RC ISE S  68
Why Study Dispersion?  68

Introduction  20

Range 69
Variance 70

Constructing Frequency Tables  20

E X E RC ISE S  72

Relative Class Frequencies  21
Graphic Presentation
of Qualitative Data  22
EX ERC I SES   26
Constructing Frequency Distributions  27
Relative Frequency Distribution  31
EX ERC I SES   32
Graphic Presentation of a Distribution  33

xx

The Weighted Mean  67

Population Variance  73
Population Standard Deviation  75
E X E RC ISE S  75
Sample Variance and Standard
Deviation 76
Software Solution  77
E X E RC ISE S  78
Interpretation and Uses of the Standard
Deviation 78

Histogram 33
Frequency Polygon  36

Chebyshev’s Theorem  78
The Empirical Rule  79

EX ERC I SES   38

E X E RC ISE S  80


xxi

CONTENTS

Ethics and Reporting Results  81
Chapter Summary  81
Pronunciation Key  82
Chapter Exercises  83
Data Analytics  86

Rules of Multiplication
to Calculate Probability  132
Special Rule of Multiplication  132
General Rule of Multiplication  133
Contingency Tables  135
Tree Diagrams  138

Practice Test  86

E X E RC ISE S  140

4Describing Data:


DISPLAYING AND EXPLORING DATA  88
Introduction  89

Principles of Counting  142
The Multiplication Formula  142
The Permutation Formula  143
The Combination Formula  145
E X E RC ISE S  147

Dot Plots  89
EXER C ISES   91

Chapter Summary  147

Measures of Position  92

Pronunciation Key  148

Quartiles, Deciles, and Percentiles  92

Chapter Exercises  148

EXER C ISES   96

Data Analytics  153
Practice Test  154

Box Plots  96
EXER C ISES   99
Skewness  100
EXER C ISES   103
Describing the Relationship between
Two Variables  104
Contingency Tables  106
EXER C ISES   108
Chapter Summary  109
Pronunciation Key  110
Chapter Exercises  110
Data Analytics  115

6Discrete Probability
Distributions  155
Introduction  156
What is a Probability Distribution?  156
Random Variables  158
Discrete Random Variable  159
Continuous Random Variable  160
The Mean, Variance, and Standard Deviation of a
Discrete Probability Distribution  160
Mean 160
Variance and Standard Deviation  160

Practice Test  115

E X E RC ISE S   162

5A Survey of Probability
Concepts  117

Binomial Probability Distribution  164

Introduction  118

How is a Binomial Probability
Computed? 165
Binomial Probability Tables  167

What is a Probability?  119

E X E RC ISE S   170

Approaches to Assigning Probabilities  121

Cumulative Binomial Probability
Distributions 171

Classical Probability  121
Empirical Probability  122
Subjective Probability  124
EXER C ISES   125
Rules of Addition for Computing
Probabilities  126
Special Rule of Addition  126
Complement Rule  128
The General Rule of Addition  129
EXER C ISES   131



E X E RC ISE S   172
Poisson Probability Distribution  173
E X E RC ISE S   178
Chapter Summary  178
Chapter Exercises  179
Data Analytics  183
Practice Test  183


xxiiCONTENTS

7Continuous Probability
Distributions  184
Introduction  185

Introduction  243

The Family of Uniform Probability
Distributions  185

Point Estimate for a Population Mean  243

EX ERC I SES   188
The Family of Normal Probability
Distributions  189
The Standard Normal Probability
Distribution  192
Applications of the Standard Normal
Distribution 193
The Empirical Rule  193
EX ERC I SES   195
Finding Areas under the Normal Curve  196
EX ERC I SES   199
EX ERC I SES   201
EX ERC I SES   204
Chapter Summary  204
Chapter Exercises  205
Data Analytics  208
Practice Test  209

8Sampling Methods and the
Central Limit Theorem  210
Introduction  211
Sampling Methods  211
Reasons to Sample  211
Simple Random Sampling  212
Systematic Random Sampling  215
Stratified Random Sampling  215
Cluster Sampling  216
EX ERC I SES   217
Sampling “Error”  219
Sampling Distribution of the Sample
Mean  221
EX ERC I SES   224
The Central Limit Theorem  225
EX ERC I SES   231
Using the Sampling Distribution of the
Sample Mean  232
EX ERC I SES   234
Chapter Summary  235
Pronunciation Key  236



9Estimation and Confidence
Intervals  242
Confidence Intervals for a Population Mean  244
Population Standard Deviation, Known σ  244
A Computer Simulation  249
E X E RC ISE S   251
Population Standard Deviation, σ Unknown  252
E X E RC ISE S   259
A Confidence Interval for a Population
Proportion  260
E X E RC ISE S   263
Choosing an Appropriate Sample Size  263
Sample Size to Estimate a Population Mean  264
Sample Size to Estimate a Population
Proportion 265
E X E RC ISE S   267
Chapter Summary  267
Chapter Exercises  268
Data Analytics  272
Practice Test  273

10One-Sample Tests
of Hypothesis  274
Introduction  275
What is Hypothesis Testing?  275
Six-Step Procedure for Testing a Hypothesis  276
Step 1: State the Null Hypothesis (H0) and the
Alternate Hypothesis (H1) 276
Step 2: Select a Level of Significance  277
Step 3: Select the Test Statistic  279
Step 4: Formulate the Decision Rule  279
Step 5: Make a Decision  280
Step 6: Interpret the Result  280
One-Tailed and Two-Tailed Hypothesis Tests  281
Hypothesis Testing for a Population Mean: Known
Population Standard Deviation  283
A Two-Tailed Test  283
A One-Tailed Test  286
p-Value in Hypothesis Testing  287
E X E RC ISE S   289
Hypothesis Testing for a Population Mean:
Population Standard Deviation Unknown  290

Chapter Exercises  236

E X E RC ISE S   295

Data Analytics  241

A Statistical Software Solution  296

Practice Test  241

E X E RC ISE S   297


xxiii

CONTENTS

13Correlation and
Linear Regression 

Chapter Summary  299
Pronunciation Key  299
Chapter Exercises  300

365

Introduction  366

Data Analytics  303

What is Correlation Analysis?  366

Practice Test  303

The Correlation Coefficient  369
E X E RC ISE S  374

11Two-Sample Tests
of Hypothesis  305

Testing the Significance of the Correlation
Coefficient 376
E X E RC ISE S  379

Introduction  306
Two-Sample Tests of Hypothesis: Independent
Samples  306
EXER C ISES   311
Comparing Population Means with Unknown
Population Standard Deviations  312

Regression Analysis  380
Least Squares Principle  380
Drawing the Regression Line  383
E X E RC ISE S  386
Testing the Significance of the Slope  388
E X E RC ISE S  390

Two-Sample Pooled Test  312

Evaluating a Regression Equation’s
Ability to Predict  391

EXER C ISES   316
Two-Sample Tests of Hypothesis:
Dependent Samples  318

The Standard Error of Estimate  391
The Coefficient of Determination  392

Comparing Dependent
and Independent Samples  321

E X E RC ISE S  393
Relationships among the Correlation
Coefficient, the Coefficient of
Determination, and the Standard
Error of Estimate  393

EXER C ISES   324
Chapter Summary  325
Pronunciation Key  326
Chapter Exercises  326

E X E RC ISE S  395

Data Analytics  332

Interval Estimates of Prediction  396

Practice Test  332

12Analysis of Variance 

334

Introduction  335

Assumptions Underlying Linear
Regression 396
Constructing Confidence and Prediction
Intervals 397
E X E RC ISE S  400

Comparing Two Population Variances  335
The F Distribution  335
Testing a Hypothesis of Equal Population
Variances 336
EXER C ISES   339
ANOVA: Analysis of Variance  340
ANOVA Assumptions  340
The ANOVA Test  342
EXER C ISES   349
Inferences about Pairs of Treatment Means  350
EXER C ISES   352
Chapter Summary  354
Pronunciation Key  355
Chapter Exercises  355
Data Analytics  362

Transforming Data  400
E X E RC ISE S  403
Chapter Summary  404
Pronunciation Key  406
Chapter Exercises  406
Data Analytics  415
Practice Test  416

14Multiple Regression
Analysis  418
Introduction  419
Multiple Regression Analysis  419
E X E RC ISE S  423
Evaluating a Multiple Regression Equation  425

Practice Test  363

The ANOVA Table  425




xxivCONTENTS
Multiple Standard Error of Estimate  426
Coefficient of Multiple Determination  427
Adjusted Coefficient of Determination  428

Goodness-of-Fit Tests: Comparing Observed and
Expected Frequency Distributions  479
Hypothesis Test of Equal Expected
Frequencies 479

EX ERC I SES   429

E X E RC ISE S  484

Inferences in Multiple Linear Regression  429
Global Test: Testing the Multiple
Regression Model  429
Evaluating Individual Regression Coefficients  432
EX ERC I SES   435
Evaluating the Assumptions of Multiple
Regression  436
Linear Relationship  437
Variation in Residuals Same for Large
and Small ŷ Values  438
Distribution of Residuals  439
Multicollinearity 439
Independent Observations  441
Qualitative Independent Variables  442

Hypothesis Test of Unequal Expected
Frequencies 486
Limitations of Chi-Square  487
E X E RC ISE S  489
Contingency Table Analysis  490
E X E RC ISE S  493
Chapter Summary  494
Pronunciation Key  495
Chapter Exercises  495
Data Analytics  500
Practice Test  501

Stepwise Regression  445
EX ERC I SES   447
Review of Multiple Regression  448
Chapter Summary  454

APPENDIXES 503
Appendix A: Data Sets  504

Pronunciation Key  455

Appendix B: Tables  513

Chapter Exercises  456

Appendix C: Software Commands  526

Data Analytics  466

Appendix D: Answers to Odd-Numbered
Chapter Exercises  534

Practice Test  467



15Nonparametric Methods:
NOMINAL-LEVEL HYPOTHESIS
TESTS  469
Introduction  470
Test a Hypothesis of a Population
Proportion  470
EX ERC I SES   473
Two-Sample Tests about Proportions  474
EX ERC I SES   478



Solutions to Practice Tests  566

Appendix E: Answers to Self-Review  570

Glossary  578
Index  581
Key Formulas
Student’s t Distribution
Areas under the Normal Curve


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