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Mệnh đề quan hệ Tiếng Anh (lý thuyết + bài tập)

MỆNH ĐỀ QUAN HỆ
I. Định nghĩa
- Mệnh đề quan hệ là mệnh đề phụ được nối với mệnh đề chính bởi các đại từ quan
hệ (who, whom, whose, which, that ) hay các trạng từ quan hệ như (where, when, why).
Mệnh đề quan hệ đứng ngay đằng sau danh từ, đại từ trong mệnh đề chính để bổ sung ý
nghĩa cho danh từ, đại từ ấy,phân biệt danh từ đại từ ấy với các danh từ đại từ khác. Chức
năng của nó giống như một tính từ do vậy nó còn được gọi là mệnh đề tính ngữ.
II. CÁC ĐẠI TỪ QUAN HỆ
1. Who: -Là đại từ quan hệ chỉ người làm chủ ngữ, đứng sau tiền ngữ chỉ người để
làm chủ ngữ cho động từ đứng sau nó.-Theo sau who là một động từ
Eg: The man who is sitting by the fire is my father. ->That is the boy who helped me
to find your house.
2. Whom: -Là đại từ quan hệ chỉ người làm tân ngữ, đứng sau tiền ngữ chỉ người để
làm tân ngữ cho động từ đứng sau nó.-Theo sau whom là một chủ ngữ
Eg: The woman whom you saw yesterday is my aunt.->The boy whom we are looking
for is Tom.
3. Which: Là đại từ quan hệ chỉ vật, làm chủ ngữ hoặc tân ngữ cho động từ sau nó.
-Theo sau which có thể là một động từ hoặc một chủ ngữ.
Eg: This is the book. I like it best.=> This is the book which I like best.
The hat is red. It is mine.=> The hat which is red is mine.
-Khi which làm tân ngữ, ta có thể lược bỏ which

Eg: This is the book I like best . .The dress (which) I bought yesterday is very
beautiful.
4. That: Là đại từ quan hệ chỉ cả người lẫn vật, có thể được dùng thay cho Who,
Whom, Which trong mệnh đề quan hệ thuộc loại Restricted Clause (Mệnh đề xác định)
Eg: That is the book that I like best.=>That is the bicycle that belongs to Tom.
My father is the person that I admire most.
I can see the girl and her dog that are running in the park.
5.Whose:Là đại từ quan hệ chỉ người, thay cho tính từ sở hữu. Whose cũng được
dùng cho of which.
-Theo sau Whose luôn là 1 danh từ
Eg: The boy is Tom. You borrowed his bicycle yesterday.
=> The boy whose bicycle you borrowed yesterday is Tom.
John found a cat. Its leg was broken.
 John found a cat whose leg was broken.
III. CÁC TRẠNG TỪ QUAN HỆ
1. When: là trạng từ quan hệ chỉ thời gian, đứng sau tiền ngữ chỉ thời gian, dùng thay
cho at, on, in + which, then
Eg: May Day is the day when people hold a meeting. (= on which)
I’ll never forget the day when I met her.
(=on which)
That was the time when he managed the company. (= at which)
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2. Where: là trạng từ quan hệ chỉ nơi trốn, thay cho a, on, in + which; there)
Eg: That is the house where we used to live. (= in which)
Do you know the country where I was born?
Hanoi is the place where I like to come.
3. Why: là trạng từ quan hệ chỉ lí do, đứng sau tiền ngữ “the reason”, dùng thay cho “for
the reason”
Eg: Please tell me the reason why you are so sad. (= for which)
He told me the reason why he had been absent from class the day before.
IV. CÁC LOẠI MỆNH ĐỀ QUAN HỆ: có ba loại mệnh đề quan hệ
Mệnh đề quan hệ xác định ( restrictive relative clause)
-Mệnh đề quan hệ xác định dùng để bổ nghĩa cho danh từ đứng trước, là bộ phận quan
trọng của câu,nếu bỏ đi mệnh đề chính không có nghĩa rõ ràng.
Eg The girl who is wearing the blue dress is my sister.
The book which I borrowed from you is very interesting.
2. Mệnh đề quan hệ không xác định (non- restrictive relative clause )
-Mệnh đề quan hệ không xác định dùng để bổ nghĩa cho danh từ đứng trước,là phần giải
thích thêm, nếu bỏ đi mệnh đề chính vẫn còn nghĩa rõ ràng.
-Mệnh đề quan hệ không xác định thường được ngăn với mệnh đề chính bởi các dấu
phẩy. Danh từ đứng trước thường là tên riêng hoặc trước các danh từ thường có các từ
như: this, that, these, those, my, his her…đứng trước.
- Không được dùng that trong mệnh đề không xác định.
Eg My father, who is 50 years old, is a doctor.
This girl, whom you met yesterday, is my daughter.
3.Mệnh đề quan hệ nối tiếp.
- Mệnh đề quan hệ nối tiếp dùng để giải thích cả một câu, trường hợp này chỉ dùng đại từ
quan hệ which và dùng dấu phẩy để tách hai mệnh đề. Mệnh đề này luôn đứng ở cuối
câu.
Eg He admires Mr. Brown, which surprises me.
Mary tore Tom’s letter, which made him sad.
V. DẠNG RÚT GỌN CỦA MỆNH ĐỀ QUAN HỆ: mệnh đề quan hệ có thể rút gọn
theo 4 cách:
1.Using participle phrases (sử dụng hiện tại phân từ)
-Present participle: Dùng cho các động từ trong mệnh đề quan hệ ở thể chủ động. Ta dùng
present participle phrase thay cho mệnh đề đó (bỏ đại từ quan hệ và trợ động từ, đưa
động từ chính về nguyên mẫu rồi thêm –ing)
The man (who is sitting next to you) is my uncle.
 The man sitting to you is my uncle.
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Do you know the boy who broke the windows last night?
 Do you know the boy breaking the windows last night?
2.Using past participle:
-Past participle: Dùng cho các động từ trong mệnh đề quan hệ ở thể bị động (Bỏ đại từ
quan hệ, trợ động từ và bắt đầu cụm từ bằng past participle)
Eg1The books which were written by To Hoai are interesting.
The books written by To Hoai are interesting.
Eg2 The students who were punished by the teacher are lazy.
The students punished by the teacher are lazy.
Eg3 The house which is being built now belongs to Mr. Pike.
The house built now belongs to Mr. Pike.
3.Using “to infinitive” or “infinitive phrase” (for sb to do): Bỏ đại từ quan hệ, bỏ
chủ ngữ và trợ động từ, bắt đầu cụm từ bằng “infinitive”
English is an important language which we have to master.
=> English is an important language to master.
There is a good restaurant where we can eat good food.
=> There is a good restaurant to eat good food.
That is the hotel where we can stay.
=> That is the hotel to stay.
Here is the form that you must fill in.
=> Here is the form for you to fill in.
4.Using noun phrases: mệnh đề quan hệ không xách định có thể được rút gọn
bằng cách dùng cụm danh từ.
Eg1 George Washington, who was the first presidentof the United States, was a
general in the army.
George Washington, the first president of the United States, was a general in the
army.
Eg2 We visited Barcelona, which is a city in northern Spain.
We visited Barcelona, a city in northern Spain.
VI. GIỚI TỪ ĐI VỚI MÊNH ĐỀ QUAN HỆ:
- Chỉ có hai đại từ quan hệ là Whom và which thường có giới từ đi kèm và giới từ có
thể đứng trước các đại từ quan hệ hoặc cuối mệnh đề quan hệ.
Eg1 The man about whom you are talkingis my brother.
The man (whom) you are talking about is my brother.
Eg2 The picture at which you are looking is very expensive.
The picture (which) you are looking at is very expensive.
Chú ý:
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-Khi giới từ đứng cuối mệnh đề quan hệ thì ta có thể bỏ đại từ quan hệ và có thể dùng
that thay cho whom và which trong mệnh đề quan hệ xác định.
-Khi giới từ đứng trước đại từ quan hệ thì ta có không thể bỏ đại từ quan hệ và có không
thể dùng that thay cho whom và which .
VII.Lưu ý về mệnh đề quan hệ
1. Các đại từ quan hệ có chức năng tân ngữ trong mệnh đề quan hệ xác định đều có
thể lược bỏ.
Eg Do you know the boy (whom) we met yesterday?
That’s the house (which) I have bought.
-Tuy nhiên các đại từ quan hệ có chức năng tân ngữ trong mệnh đề quan hệ không xác
định không thể lược bỏ.
Eg Mr Tom, whom I spoke on the phone to , is very interested in our plan.
2. Khi danh từ được nói đến là tân ngữ của giới từ, ta có thể đưa giới từ đó đứng
trước đại từ quan hệ. Trường hợp này chỉ được dùng Whom và Which
Miss Brown, with whom we studied last year, is a very nice teacher.
Mr. Cater, to whom I spoke on the phone last night, is very interested in our plan.
Fortunately we had a map, without which we would have got lost.
3. Chú ý cách dùng của các cấu trúc mở đầu cho mệnh đề quan hệ: all, most, none,
neither, any, either, some, (a)few, both, half, each, one, two, several, many, much, +
of which/whom
Daisy has three brothers, all of whom are teachers.
I tried on three pairs of shoes, none of which fitted me.
He asked me a lot of questions, most of which I couldn’t answer.
Two boys, neither of whom I had seen before, came into my class.
They have got two cars, one of which they seldom use.
There were a lot of people at the meeting, few of whom I had met before.
4. Các trường hợp sau đây thường phải dùng ‘that’
a. Khi cụm từ đứng trước vừa là danh từ chỉ người và vật
He told me about the places and people that he had seen in London
b. Sau các tính từ so sánh hơn nhất, first và last
This is the most interesting film that I’ve ever seen.
Moscow is the finest city that she’s ever visited.
That is the last letter that he wrote.
She was the first person that broke the silence.
c. Sau các từ all, only (duy nhất) và very (chính là)
All that he can say is this.
I bought the only book that they had.
You’re the very man that I would like to see.
d. Sau các đại từ bất định
He never says anything that is worth listening to.
I’ll tell you something that is very interesting.
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VIII.EXERCISES ON RELATIVE CLAUSES
I. Combine each pair of sentences using a relative pronoun or relative adverb
1. She is the most intelligent woman. I’ve ever met this woman.
…………………………………………………………………………………
2. This doctor is famous. You visited him yesterday.
…………………………………………………………………………………
3. These children are orphans. She is taking care of these children.
…………………………………………………………………………………
4. The two young men are not good persons. You are acquainted with them.
…………………………………………………………………………………
5. My father goes swimming everyday. You met him this morning.
…………………………………………………………………………………
6. The man is my father. I respect this man most.
…………………………………………………………………………………
7. The man is my father. I respect his opinion most.
…………………………………………………………………………………
8. Mary and Margaret are twins. You met them yesterday.
9. I’ll introduce you to the man. His support is necessary for your project.
…………………………………………………………………………………
10. The middle-aged man is the director. My father is talking to him.
…………………………………………………………………………………
11. The boy is my cousin. You make fun of him.
…………………………………………………………………………………
12. The student is from china. He sits next to me.
…………………………………………………………………………………
13. I thanked the woman. This woman had helped me.
…………………………………………………………………………………
14. The professor is excellent. I am taking his course.
…………………………………………………………………………………
15. Mr. Smith said he was too busy to speak to me. I had come to see him.
…………………………………………………………………………………
16. I saw a lot of people and horses. They went to market.
…………………………………………………………………………………
17. Tom has three sisters. All of them are married.
…………………………………………………………………………………
18. I recently went back to Paris. It is still as beautiful as a pearl.
…………………………………………………………………………………
19. I recently went back to Paris. I was born in Paris nearly 50 years ago.
…………………………………………………………………………………
20. Do you know the music? It is being played on the radio.
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…………………………………………………………………………………
21. You didn’t tell us the reason. We have to cut down our daily expenses for that reason.
…………………………………………………………………………………
22. The day was rainy. She left on that day.
…………………………………………………………………………………
23. I’ve sent him two letters. He has received neither of them.
…………………………………………………………………………………
24. That man is an artist. I don’t remember the man’s name.
…………………………………………………………………………………
25. One of the elephants had only one tusk. We saw these elephants at the zoo.
…………………………………………………………………………………
26. That car belongs to Dr. Clark. Its engine is very good.
…………………………………………………………………………………
27. You sent me a present. Thank you very much for it.
…………………………………………………………………………………
28. This is Mrs. Jones. Her son won the championship last year.
…………………………………………………………………………………
29. Rod Lee has won an Oscar. I know his sister.
…………………………………………………………………………………
30. Is this the style of hair? Your wife wants to have it.
…………………………………………………………………………………
31. A man answered the phone. He said Tom was out.
…………………………………………………………………………………
32. 7.05 is the time. My plane arrives then.
…………………………………………………………………………………
33. Max isn’t home yet. That worries me.
…………………………………………………………………………………
34. Do you know the building? The windows of the building are painted green.
…………………………………………………………………………………
35. Last week I went to see the house. I used to live in it.
…………………………………………………………………………………
36. I don’t know the girl’s name. She’s just gone into the hall.
…………………………………………………………………………………
37. Be sure to follow the instructions. They are given at the top of the page.
…………………………………………………………………………………
38. Hoan Kiem lake is a historical place. Its water is always blue.
II. Fill in the blanks with Relative pronouns or Relative adverbs where necessary
1. Let me see all the letters _______ you have written.
2. Is there any one ________ can help me do this?
3. Mr. Brown, _________ is only 34, is the director of this company.
4. I know a place __________ roses grow in abundance.
5. It was the nurse ________ told me to come in.
6. The teacher with ________, we studied last year no longer teaches in our school.
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7. They showed me the hospital ________ buildings had been destroyed by US
bombings.
8. We saw many soldiers and tanks ______ were moving to the front.
9. Dr. Fleming, _______ discovered penicillin, was awarded the Nobel Prize for medicine
in 1945.
10. He joined the political party _______ was in power.
11. Love, ________ is a wonderful feeling, comes to everyone at some time in his life.
12. Freedom is something for _______ millions have given their lives.
13. It is easy to find faults in people ________ we dislike.
14. The really happy people are those _______ enjoy their daily work.
15. We must find a time _______ we can meet and a place _______ we can talk.
III. Use a Relative pronoun preceded by a preposition to combine each pair of
sentences below:
1. This is a rare opportunity. You should take advantage of it to get a better job.\
…………………………………………………………………………………..
2. The boy is my cousin. You made fun of him.
…………………………………………………………………………………..
3. This matter is of great importance. You should pay attention to it.
…………………………………………………………………………………..
4. The woman lives next door to me. You gave place to her on the bus.
…………………………………………………………………………………..
5. The examination lasted two days. I was successful in this examination.
…………………………………………………………………………………..
6. This is the result of our work. I’m pleased with it.
…………………………………………………………………………………..
7. There is a No parking sign. I do not take notice of it.
…………………………………………………………………………………..
8. Mr. Brown is the man. I am responsible to him for my work.
…………………………………………………………………………………..
9. Do you see my pen? I have just written the lesson with it.
…………………………………………………………………………………..
10. We are crossing the meadow. We flew kites over it in our childhood.
…………………………………………………………………………………..
IV. Use Relative adverb to combine each pair of sentences below:
1. This is the house. We often stay in this house in summer.
…………………………………………………………………………………..
2. I’ll show you the second hand bookshop. You can find valuable books in this shop.
…………………………………………………………………………………..
3. I have not decided the day. I’ll go to London on that day.
…………………………………………………………………………………..
4. He was born on the day. His father was away on that day.
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…………………………………………………………………………………..
5. The book is a telephone directory. We can look up telephone numbers in this book.
…………………………………………………………………………………..
6. Mrs. Brown rang Dr. Brown. He was going to carry out an urgent operation at that
moment.
…………………………………………………………………………………..
7. The airport is the most modern one. We’re going to arrive at this airport.
…………………………………………………………………………………..
8. She doesn’t want to speak of the cause. She divorced her husband of this cause.
…………………………………………………………………………………..
9. The days were the saddest ones. I lived far from home on those days.
…………………………………………………………………………………..
10. I never forget the park. We met each other for the first time at this park.
…………………………………………………………………………………..
V. Change the adjective clauses to adjective phrases
1. Do you know the woman who is coming towards us?
…………………………………………………………………………………..
2. I come from a city that is located in the southern part of the country.
…………………………………………………………………………………..
3. The children who attend that school receive a good education.
…………………………………………………………………………………..
4. The fence which surrounds our house is made of wood.
…………………………………………………………………………………..
5. Be sure to follow the instructions that are given at the top of the page.
…………………………………………………………………………………..
6. They live in the house that was built in 1890.
…………………………………………………………………………………..
7. The papers that are on the table belong to Patrica.
…………………………………………………………………………………..
8. The man who is talking to the policeman is my uncle.
…………………………………………………………………………………..
9. The number of students who have been counted is quite high.
…………………………………………………………………………………..
10. George is the man who was chosen to represent the committee at the convention.
…………………………………………………………………………………..
VI. Replace the underlined clauses by an infinitive or infinitive phrase
1. I don’t like him playing in the street. I wish we had a garden that he could play in.
…………………………………………………………………………………..
2. He simply loves parties. He is always the first who comes and the last who leaves.
…………………………………………………………………………………..
3. The last person who leaves the room must turn off the lights.
…………………………………………………………………………………..
4. The first man who was interviewed was entirely unsuitable.
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…………………………………………………………………………………..
5. I’ve got a bottle of wine but I haven’t got anything that I could open it with.
…………………………………………………………………………………..
VII. Rewrite these sentences using a relative clause in place of the infinitive or
infinitive phrases
1. The floor is dusty but I haven’t got a brush to sweep it.
…………………………………………………………………………………..
2. The pilot was the only man to survive in the crash.
…………………………………………………………………………………..
3. He was the second person to be killed in this way.
…………………………………………………………………………………..
4. I have just found a river to swim. (in)
…………………………………………………………………………………..
5. This is a form for you to fill. (in)
…………………………………………………………………………………..
VIII Choose the best answer
1) The book ____ I bought at the bookstore yesterday is expensive.
A. who
B. whose
C. that
D. B & C are corre
2) What’s the name of the blonde girl ____ just came in?
A. whoB. whose
C. whom
D. A & B are correct
3) I don’t like people ____ lose their tempers easily.
A. who B. whose
C. that
D. A & C are correct
4) Mexico City, ____ has a population of over 10 million, is probably the fastest
growing city in the world.
A. which
B. whose
C. that
D. A & B are corre
5) This is Henry, ____ sister works for my father.
A. who
B. whose
C. that
D.All are correct
6) He’s the man ____ people like at first sight.
A. who B. whom
C. that
D. A & C are correct
7) Could you iron the trousers ____ are hanging up behind the door?
A. who
B. which
C. that
D. B & C are correct
8) Where is the girl ____ sells tickets?
A. who
B. whose
C. whom
D. A & C are correct
9) The man____ we consider our leader had much experience in climbing
mountains.
A. who
B. whose
C. whom
D. A & C are correct
10) The artist ____ name I couldn’t remember was one of the best I had ever seen.
A. who
B. whose
C. that
D. A & C are correct
11) Frank invited Janet, ____ he had met in Japan, to the party.
A. who
B. whose
C. that
D. A & C are correct
12 The girl ___ design had been chosen stepped to the platform to receive the
award.
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13)
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A. whose
B. whom
C. that
D. which
I need to find a painting ____ will match the rest of my room.
A. whose
B. whom
C. who
D. which
There are too many poor people ____ do not have enough to eat in the world.
A. whose
B. whom
C. who
D. which
The trees ____ have the beautiful flowers grow near the gate of the garden.
A. whose
B. whom
C. who
D. which
The teacher ____ teaches us French is coming today.
A. whom
B. who
C. that
D. B & C are correct
What’s the music to ____ you are listening?
A. whose
B. which
C. that
D. B & C are correct
I don’t like the stories ____ have unhappy endings.
A. who
B. which
C. that
D. B & C are correct
The students ____ don’t have library cards can’t borrow books from the library.
A. who
B. whichC. whomD. A & C are correct
Betty is the most intelligent girl ____ I have ever met.
A. who
B. whom
C. that
D. All are correct
Do you know the music ____ is being played on the radio?
A. who
B. which
C. that
D. B & C are correct
This channel often shows the cartoons of ____ the children are very fond.
A. whom
B. which
C. that
D. B & C are correct
The dress ____ she bought last week doesn’t fit her well.
A. whom
B. which
C. whose
D. B & C are correct
Do you know a shop ____ sells good coffee?
A. which
B. that
C. whose
D. A & B are correct
The teacher punished the student ____ was naughty.
A. whom
B. who
C. which
D. A & B are correct
She fell in love with a man ____ was from another country.
A. who
B. whom
C. which
D. whose
I like to write to friends ____ are living far away from me.
A. who
B. whom
C. that
D. A & C are correct
I bought some pencils ____ are in different colours.
A. whose
B. which
C. that
D. B & C are correct
She ate an apple ____ was still green.
A. who
B. which
C. whose
D. whom
This is my beloved school ____ I studied when I was young.
A. which
B. that
C. where
D. A & B are correct
Here’s the paper ____ you need.
A. whom
B. that
C. who
D. whose
The woman ____ has been arrested lives in an apartment.
A. that
B. which
C. whom
D. A & C are correct
The teacher notices the students ____ often come to class late.
A. that
B. which
C. who
D. A & C are correct
10


34) The house in ____ I was born is for sale.
A. which
B. whom
C. that
D. A & C are correct
35) That is the chair ____ he used to sit on for meals.
A. which
B. whose
C. that
D. A & C are correct
36) What is the picture ____ you are looking at?
A. which
B. when
C. whose
D. A & C are correct
37) In the middle of the village, there is a well from ____ the villagers take water to
drink.
A. that
B. which
C. whom
D. A & B are correct
38) There is a NO PARKING sign ____ I did not take notice of.
A. that
B. which
C. who
D. A & B are correct
39) I must thank the people ____ I got the present from.
A. who
B. whom
C. that
D. All are correct
4o) Do you know the doctor for ____ I send?
A. whom
B. that
C. who
D. All are correct
41) The man about ____ I was telling you is standing over there.
A. who
B. that
C. whom
D. All are correct
42) The woman ____ Ann must take care of is very poor and old.
A. whom
B. that
C. who
D. All are correct
43) This is the man to ____ I gave some money this morning.
A. who
B. whom
C. that
D. All are correct
44) This is the result of our work ____ I’m pleased with.
A. that
B. whose
C. which
D. A & C are correct
45) The problem in ____ we are very interested has been discussed in class.
A. that
B. whom
C. which
D. A & C are correct
46) The boy ____ you made fun of yesterday is my cousin.
A. who
B. whom
C. that
D. All are correct
47)Ann, ____ lives next door, is very friendly.
A. who
B. whom
C. that
D. All are correct
48) We went to Sandra’s party, ____ we enjoyed very much.
A. which
B. whom
C. that
D. who
49) John, ____ I have known for a very long time, is one of my closest friends.
A. whose
B. whom
C. that
D. B & C are correct
50) Sheila, ____ job involves a lot of travelling, is away from home a lot.
A. whose
B. whom
C. that
D. which
51) This new stadium, ____ can hold 90,000 people, will be opened next month.
A. that
B. whose
C. which
D. A & B are correct
52) My brother, ____ lives in Houston, is a doctor.
A. who
B. whom
C.that
D. A & B are correct
53) My office, ____ is on the second floor, is small.
A. whose B. which
C. who. .D. A & B are correct
54) She told me her address ____ I wrote down on a piece of paper.
A. which
B. that
C. whose
D. A & B are correct
55) The sun, ____ is one of millions of stars in the universe, provides us with heat and light.
11


A. which
B. that
C. who
D. A & B are correct
56) Tom made a number of suggestions, most of ____ were very helpful.
A. them
B. which
C. that
D. B & C are correct
57) Mary has three brothers, all of ____ are married.
60) The meeting ………I went was interesting.
A. to which B. which
C. that
D. B & C are correct
58) We were given a lot of information, most of ____ was useless.
A. which
B. it
C. that
D. All are correct
59) There were a lot of people at the party, only a few of ____ I had met before.
A. them
B. whom
C. who
D. B & C are correct
60) I sent her two letters, neither of ____ she has received.
A. that
B. these
C. which
D. whom
61) A café is a small restaurant ____ people can get a light meal.
A. where
B. which
C. that
D. All are correct
62) My room has a very large window ____ you can see the whole lake.
A. which
B. that
C. where
D. All are correct
63)Alaska, ____ my brother lives, is the largest state in the United States.
A. which
B. where
C. who
D. All are correct
64) This is the house ____ we often stay in the summer.
A. where
B. which
C. that
D. All are correct
65) Do you remember the clock tower ____ I first met you?
A. where
B. which
C. that
D. All are correct
66) Tell me the reason ____ you were absent yesterday.
A. where
B. when
C. why
D. that
67) Do you know the reason ____ Laura doesn’t like me?
A. which
B. where
C. that
D. why
68) There was a time ____ dinosaurs dominated the earth.
A. which
B. when
C. that
D. A & B are correct
69) The house in ____ I was born and grew up was destroyed in an earthquake ten
years ago.
A. which
B. where
C. that
D. All are correct
70) Summer is the time of the year ____ the weather is the hottest.
A. when
B. which
C. that
D. B & C are correct
71) The reason ____ Jim has just lost his job is that he didn’t work hard enough.
A. why
B. which
C. that
D. B & C are correct
72) They hid the money in a place ____ it was safe from robbers.
A. which
B. where
C. that
D. All are correct
73 ) Please tell me the reason for ____ I should let you go.
A. that
B. which
C. why
D. B & C are correct
74) I know a wood ____ you can find wild strawberries.
A. where
B. which
C. that
D. All are correct
75) Can you suggest a time at ____ it will be convenient to meet?
A. which
B. when
C. why
D. that
76) Is there any reason for ____ you should have a holiday?
12


A. why
B. which
C. that
D. A & B are correct
77) Tell me the countries ____ the traffic moves on the left-hand side.
A. where
B. which
C. that
D. A & B are correct
78) We keep our bread in the bridge ____ it doesn’t go bad.
A. since
B. so that
C. although
D. after
79) ____ these cars are cheap, they last a long time.
A. Because B. In order that C. Although
D. After
80) You should give the iron time to heat up ____ you iron your clothes.
A. because
B. so that
C. even though D. before
B. Combine the following pairs of sentences by using: WHO, WHOM, WHICH, or
WHOSE.
1. I have some homework. I must do them tonight.
______________________________________________________________________
2. Mrs. Brooks is an experienced teacher. I have great respect for her.
______________________________________________________________________
3. I have seen several houses. Most of them are quite unsuitable.
______________________________________________________________________
4. I talked to a woman. Her car had broken on the way to the party.
______________________________________________________________________
5. The street is bad and narrow. It leads to the my school.
______________________________________________________________________
6. She lives in a city. This city is one of the largest cities in Viet Nam.
______________________________________________________________________
C. Reduce the following relative pronouns by using : VING, V3/VED, or TO-V
1. The couples who live in the house next door are both college
professors.

______________________________________________________________________
2. Our solar system is in a galaxy that is called the Milky Way.
______________________________________________________________________
3. She is the only person who receives this scholarship.
______________________________________________________________________
4. They refused to carry out the plan which was worked out by the city council.
______________________________________________________________________
5. The people who were waiting for their children in the examination room looked
nervous.
______________________________________________________________________
6. My brother was the only man who realized the danger.
______________________________________________________________________
1. The girl is my cousin. She chatted with you yesterday.
à………………………………………………….……………………………..
2. The man is very kind. He spent 15 minutes measuring our kitchen
à………………………………………………….……………………………..
13


3. The architect designed these flats. He has moved to HCM City.
à………………………………………………….……………………………..
4. The young boy is naughty. He rides an expensive motorbike.
à………………………………………………….……………………………..
5. I’m reading the book. I bought it in 1996.
à………………………………………………….……………………………..
6. Do you know the man? He is sharing the flat with me.
à………………………………………………….……………………………..
7. The young man is Ba’s brother. He is talking to our teacher.
à………………………………………………….……………………………..
8. We visited the monument. It was built a hundred years ago.
à………………………………………………….……………………………..
9. The boys are interested in the game. It is a popular game all over the world.
à………………………………………………….……………………………..
10. You have no need to tell me the reason. You are often late for work for that reason.
à………………………………………………….……………………………..
11. We visited the people. They are homeless after the flood.
à………………………………………………….……………………………..
12. I don’t like the films. They have unhappy ending.
à………………………………………………….……………………………..
13. I know the man. His son broke your windows.
à………………………………………………….……………………………..
14. The girl is very kind. Her parents work with me.
à………………………………………………….……………………………..
15. The village has around 200 people. The majority of them are farmers.
à………………………………………………….……………………………..
16. She hasn’t eat anything. This makes her parents worried.
à………………………………………………….……………………………..
17. The student is from China. He sits next to me.
à…………………………………………………………………………………………
18. I thanked the woman. This woman had helped me.
à …………………………………………………………………………………………
19. Mr. Pike is excellent. I am taking his course.
à…………………………………………………………………………………………
20. Shakespeare wrote plays . People have enjoyed them for four centuries.
à…………………………………………………………………………………………
PHƯƠNG PHÁP LÀM BÀI LOẠI RÚT GỌN:
Bước 1 : - Tìm xem mệnh đề tính từ nằm chổ nào
Bước này dễ vì mệnh đề tính từ thường bắt đầu bằng WHO,WHICH,THAT...
Bước 2 :
Bước này chủ yếu là rút gọn mệnh đề quan hệ thành cụm từ
1. Nhìn xem mệnh đề có công thức S + BE + CỤM DANH TỪ không ? Nếu có áp dụng
14


công thức 3 .
2. Nếu không có công thức đó thì xem tiếp trứoc who which... có các dấu hiệu first
,only...v..v không ,nếu có thì áp dụng công thức 2 (to inf. ) lưu ý thêm xem 2 chủ từ có
khác nhau không ( để dùng for sb )
3. Nếu không có 2 trừong hợp trên mới xét xem câu đó chủ động hay bị động mà dùng VNG hay P.P..
EXERCISE 2: Use reduced relative clauses in place of the relative clauses
1. The child is lonely, he would be happier if he had someone that he could play with.
à…………………………………………………………………………………………
1.
I’ve got a bottle of wine but I haven’t got anything that I could open it with.
à…………………………………………………………………………………………
2.
I don’t like him playing in the streets; I wish we had a garden that he could play in.
à…………………………………………………………………………………………
3.
The floor is dirty but I haven’t got a brush that I can sweep it with.
à…………………………………………………………………………………………
4.
My files are all over the place. I wish I had a box that I could keep them in.
à…………………………………………………………………………………………
5.
She said that she wasn’t going to buy any cards; she hadn’t anyone to whom she
could send cards.
à…………………………………………………………………………………………
6.
You are the last person who saw her alive.
à…………………………………………………………………………………………
7.
He simple loves parties. He is always the first who comes and the last who goes.
à…………………………………………………………………………………………
8.
The Queen Elizabeth is the largest ship which had been built on the Clyde.
à…………………………………………………………………………………………
9.
He was the second man who was killed in this way.
à…………………………………………………………………………………………
10. Neil Armstrong was the first man who walked on the moon.
à…………………………………………………………………………………………
11. Lady Astor was the first woman who took her seat in Parliament.
à…………………………………………………………………………………………
12. Here are some accounts that you must check.
à…………………………………………………………………………………………
13. People who listen to very loud music may suffer gradual hearing loss .
à…………………………………………………………………………………………
14. He was the man who was saved in the fire .
à…………………………………………………………………………………………
15. Anyone who doesn’t want to take part in the meeting must inform the board.
à…………………………………………………………………………………………
16. The teacher who takes the responsibility for the class is Ms Lan.
à…………………………………………………………………………………………
17. .She’s just bought a handbag which was made of crocodile skin.
à…………………………………………………………………………………………
15


18. I met a man who had been working in this factory for a long time.
à…………………………………………………………………………………………
19. The story which was told by my grandma was interesting.
à…………………………………………………………………………………………
EXERCISE 3: CHOOSE THE BEST ANSWER:
1. That’s my friend,_______________ comes from Japan.
A. which
B. who
C. whom
D. where.
2. The plants which______________ in the living room need a lot of water.
A. are
B. be
C. is
D. was
3. She’s the woman_______________ sister looks after the baby for us.
A. who
B. which
C. that’s
D. whose
4. That’s the doctor for________________ Cliff works.
A. that
B. which
C. whom
D. whose
5. Marie,______________ I met at the party, called me last night.
A. that
B. whom
C. which
D. whose
6. I remember Alice,______________ rode the bus to school with.
A. I
B. whom I
C. which I
D. who
7. I used to enjoy the summer, ______________ we had a big family picnic.
A. where
B. when
C. which
D. that
8. Tell me about the city ______________ you grew up.
A. that
B. where
C. which
D. ø
9. Anna found the book that ________________ wanted at the bookshop.
A. ø
B. where
C. she
D. which
10. Please remember to take back to the library all the books ________ are due this week.
A. ø
B. that
C. when
D. they
11. He likes the dress. Huong is wearing it
A. He likes the dress which Huong is wearing it
B. He likes the dress Huong is wearing it
C. He likes the dress who Huong is wearing
D. He likes the dress Huong is wearing
12. Most of the classmates couldn't come. He invited them to the birthday party
A. Most of the classmates he invited to the birthday party couldn't come.
B. Most of the classmates he was invited to the birthday party couldn't come.
C. Most of the classmates that he invited them to the birthday party couldn't come.
D. Most of the classmates which he invited to the birthday party couldn't come.
13. What was the name of the man? You met and talked to him this morning.
A. What was the name of the man who you met and talked to him this morning?
B. What was the name of the man you met and talked to this morning?
C. What was the name of the man you met and talked to whom this morning?
D. What was the name of the man whose you met and talked to this morning?
14. The church is over 500 years old. Our class visited it last summer.
A. The church which our class visited it last summer is over 500 years old.
B. The church that our class visited it last summer is over 500 years old.
C. The church which our class visited last summer is over 500 years old.
D. The church our class visit last summer is over 500 years old.
16


15. The song says about the love of two young stdents. She is singing the song.
A. The song which she is singing it says about the love of two young stdents.
B. The song she is singing says about the love of two young stdents.
C. The song says about the love of two young stdents which she is singing.
D. The song says about the love of two young stdents that she is singing it.

KEY TO EXERCISES ON RELATIVE CLAUSES
I.
1. She is the most intelligent woman whom I’ve ever met.
2.This doctor whom you visited yesterday is famous.
3. These children whom she is taking care of are orphans.
4. The two young men whom you are acquainted with are not good persons.
5. My father whom you met this morning goes swimming everyday.
6. The man whom I respect most is my father.
7. The man whose opinion I respect most is my father.
8. Mary and Margaret whom you met yesterday are twins.
9. I’ll introduce you to the man whose support is necessary for your project.
10. The middle-aged man is the director whom my father is talking to.
11. The boy whom you make fun of is my cousin.
12. The student who sits next to me is from China.
13. I thanked the woman who had helped me.
14. The professor whose course I am taking is excellent.
15. Mr. Smith, who I had come to see, said he was too busy to speak to me.
16. I saw a lot of people and horses that went to the market.
17. Tom has three sisters, all of whom are married.
18. I recently went back to Paris, which is still as beautiful as a pearl.
19. I recently went back to Paris, in which I was born nearly 50 years ago.
20.Do you know the music which is being played on the radio?
21. You didn’t tell us the reason for which we have to cut down our daily expenses.
22. The day on which she left was rainy.
23. I’ve sent him two letters, neither of which he has received.
24. That man, whose name I don’t remember, is an artist.
25. One of the elephants which we saw at the zoo had only one tusk.
26. That car, the engine of which is very good, belongs to Dr. Clark.
27. Thank you very much for the present which you sent me.
17


28. This is Mrs. Jones, whose son won the championship last year.
29. I’ll introduce you the man whose support is necessary for your project.
30. Rod Lee, whose sister I know has won an Oscar.
31. Is this the style of hair which your wife wants to have?
32. A man who answered the phone said Tom was out.
33. 7.05 is the time at which my plane arrives.
34. Max isn’t home yet, that worries me.
35. Do you know the building the windows of which are painted green?
36. Last week I went to see the house in which I used to live.
37. I don’t know the name of the girl who has just gone into the hall.
38. Be sure to follow the instructions that are given at the top of the page.
39. Hoan Kiem lake, the water of which is always blue, is a historical place.
II.
1. 
2. that
3. who
4. where
5. who
6.
whom
7. where
8. that
9. who
10. that (which) 11. which 12. which
13. 
14. who
15. when/where
III.
1. This is a rare opportunity of which you should take advantage to get a better job.
2. The boy of whom you made fun of is my cousin.
3. This matter, to which you should,….is of great…
4. The woman to whom …. lives next door to me.
5. The examination in which I …. lasted two days.
6. This is the result of our work, with which I am pleased.
7. There is a No parking sign of which we don’t take notice.
8. Mr. Brown is the man to whom I am responsible for my work.
9. Do you see my pen, with which I’ve just written the lesson.
10. We are crossing the meadow over which we flew kites in our childhood.
IV.
1. This is the house where we often stay in summer.
2. I’ll show you the secondhand bookshop where you can find valuable books.
3. I have not decided the day when I’ll go to London.
4. He was born on the day when his father was away.
5. The book in which we can look up telephone numbers is a telephone directory.
6. Mrs. Brown rang Dr. Brown when he was going to carry out an urgent operation.
7. The airport where we’re going to arrive is the most modern one.
8. She doesn’t want to speak of the cause why she divorced her husband.
9. The days when I lived far from home were the saddest ones.
10. I never forget the park where we met each other for the first time.
V.
1. Do you know the woman coming towards us?
2. I come from a city located in the southern part of the country.
3. The children attending that school receive a good education.
4. The fence surrounding our house is made of wood.
5. Be sure to follow the instructions given at the top of the page.
18


6. uncle.
7. The number of students counted They live in the house built in 1890.
8. The papers being on the table belong to Patrica.
9. The man talking to the policeman is my is quite high.
10. George is the man chosen to represent the committee at the convention.
VI.
1. I wish we had a garden for him to play.
2. He is always the first to come and the last to leave.
3. The last person to leave the room must turn off the lights.
4. The first man to be interviewed was entirely unsuitable.
5. I’ve got ….. anything to open it.
VII.
1. The floor is dusty but I haven’t got a brush which sweeps it with.
2. The pilot was the only man who survived the crash.
3. He was the second person who was killed in this way.
4. I have just found a river in which we can swim.
5. This is a form which you have to fill in.
ANSWER:
EXERCISE 1: Combine each pair of sentences, using a relative pronoun.
1. The girl who/that chatted with you yesterday is my cousin.
2. The man who/that spent 15 minutes measuring our kitchen is very kind.
3. The architect who/that designed these flats has moved to HCM City.
4. The young boy who/that rides an expensive motorbike is naughty.
5. I’m reading the book which/that I bought in 1996.
6. Do you know the man who/that is sharing the flat with me?
7. The young man who is talking to our teacher is Ba’s brother.
8. The monument which we visited was built a hundred years ago.
9. The game which/that the boys are interested in is a popular game all over the world.
10. You have no need to tell me the reason why/ for which you are often late for work.
11. The people who/that we visited are homeless after the flood.
12. I don’t like the films which/that have unhappy ending.
13. I know the man whose son broke your windows.
14. The girl whose parents work with me is very kind.
15. The village has around 200 people, the majority of whom are farmers.
16. She hasn’t eat anything, which makes her parents worried.
17. The student who/that sits next to me is from China.
18. I thanked the woman who/that had helped me.
19. Mr.Pike, whose course I am taking, is excellent.
20. People have enjoyed plays which/that Shakespeare wrote for four centuries.
EXERCISE 2: Use reduced relative clauses in place of the relative clauses
1.
The child is lonely, he would be happier if he had someone to play with.
2.
I’ve got a bottle of wine but I haven’t got anything to open with.
3.
I don’t like him playing in the streets; I wish we had a garden for him to play in.
4.
The floor is dirty but I haven’t got a brush to sweep with.
19


5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.

My files are all over the place. I wish I had a box to keep in.
She said that she wasn’t going to buy any cards; she hadn’t anyone to send cards
to.
You are the last person to see her alive.
He simple loves parties. He is always the first to come and the last to go.
The Queen Elizabeth is the largest ship to be built on the Clyde.
He was the second man to be killed in this way.
Neil Armstrong was the first man to walk on the moon.
Lady Astor was the first woman to take her seat in Parliament.
Here are some accounts for you to check.
People listening to very loud music may suffer gradual hearing loss .
He was the man saved in the fire .
Anyone not wanting to take part in the meeting must inform the board.
The teacher taking the responsibility for the class is Ms Lan.
.She’s just bought a handbag made of crocodile skin.
I met a man working in this factory for a long time.
The story told by my grandma was interesting.

EXERCISE 3: CHOOSE THE BEST ANSWER:
1. B.
2. A.
3. D
4. C.
5. B. 6. B.
11. D. 12. A. 13. B. 14. C. 15. B.

7. B.

1. Khi cụm từ đứng trước vừa là danh từ chỉ người và vật
2. Sau các tính từ so sánh hơn nhất, first và last
3. Sau các từ all, only (duy nhất) và very (chính là)
4. Sau các đại từ bất định

20

8. B

9. C.

10. B.


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