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Strategic human resource management ch08

1

Training and Developing Employees`


Purpose of Orientation
Orientation Helps
New Employees

Feel
Welcome and
At Ease

Understand
the
Organization

Know What
Is Expected
in Work and
Behavior


Begin the
Socialization
Process

8–2


The Orientation Process
Company
Organization and
Operations

Employee Benefit
Information

Personnel
Policies

Daily
Routine

Employee
Orientation

Safety Measures
and Regulations

Facilities
Tour

8–3


The Training Process
• Training
 The process of teaching new employees the basic

skills they need to perform their jobs.

• Training’s Strategic Context
 The firm’s training programs must make sense in

terms of the company’s strategic goals.

• Work place learning and performance
 Taking an integrated, goal-oriented approach to

assigning, training, assessing, and rewarding
employees’ performance.

8–4


The Training Process (cont’d)
The Five-Step Training and Development Process
1

Needs analysis

2

Instructional design

3

Validation

4

Implement the program

5

Evaluation

8–5


Training, Learning, and Motivation
• Make the Learning Meaningful
1. At the start of training, provide a bird’s-eye view of

the material to be presented to facilitate learning.
2. Use a variety of familiar examples.
3. Organize the information so you can present it

logically, and in meaningful way.
4. Use terms and concepts that are already familiar

to trainees.
5. Use as many visual aids as possible.

8–6


Training, Learning, and Motivation (cont’d)
• Make Skills Transfer Easy
1. Maximize the similarity between the training situation

and the work situation.
2. Provide adequate practice.
3. Label or identify each feature of the machine and/or

step in the process.
4. Direct the trainees’ attention to important aspects of the

job.
5. Provide “heads-up,” preparatory information that lets

trainees know what might happen back on the job.
6. Let them pace themselves.
8–7


Training, Learning, and Motivation (cont’d)
• Reinforce the learning
 People learn best by doing—provide as much

realistic practice as possible.
 Immediately reinforce correct responses.
 The schedule is important—the learning curve goes
down late in the day; less than full day training is
most effective.

8–8


Analyzing Training Needs
Training Needs
Analysis

Task Analysis:
Assessing New Employees’
Training Needs

Performance Analysis:
Assessing Current Employees’
Training Needs

8–9


Task analysis
• Detailed study of the job to determine what
specific skills the job requires.
 Competency model


Includes, usually in a diagram ,a precise overview of the
competencies someone would need to do a job well.

8–10


TABLE 8–1
Task
Analysis
Record
Form

Note: Task analysis record form showing some of the tasks and subtasks performed by a printing press operator.
8–11


Performance analysis: Assessing Current
Employees’ Training Needs
Assessment Center
Results

Individual Diaries

Attitude Surveys

Tests

Performance Appraisals

Methods for
Identifying
Training
Needs

Job-Related
Performance Data
Observations

Interviews

8–12


Designing the training program





Setting training objectives
Working out a training budget
Deciding training design or actual content
Deciding training method

8–13


Implementing training programs:
Training Methods
• On-the-Job Training
• Apprenticeship Training
• Informal Learning
• Job Instruction Training
• Lectures
• Programmed Learning
• Audiovisual Training
• Simulated Training (also Vestibule Training)
• Computer-Based Training (CBT)
• Electronic Performance Support Systems (EPSS)
• Distance and Internet-Based Training
8–14


Training Methods (cont’d)
• On-the-Job Training (OJT)
 Having a person learn a job

by actually doing the job.

• Types of On-the-Job Training
 Coaching or understudy
 Job rotation
 Special assignments

• Advantages
 Inexpensive
 Learn by doing
 Immediate feedback
8–15


On-the-Job Training
Steps to Help Ensure OJT Success
1

Prepare the Learner

2

Present the Operation

3

Do a Tryout

4

Follow Up

8–16


Training Methods (cont’d)
Apprenticeship Training
A structured process by which people become skilled workers
through a combination of classroom instruction and long time
on-the-job training.

Informal Learning
Performing the job on a daily basis in collaboration with the
colleagues.

Job Instruction Training
Listening each job’s basic tasks, along with key points, in order
to provide step-by-step training for employees.

8–17


FIGURE 8–2

The 25 Most Popular Apprenticeships*

According to the U.S. Department of Labor apprenticeship database, the
occupations listed below had the highest numbers of apprentices in 2001. These
findings are approximate because the database includes only about 70% of
registered apprenticeship programs—and none of the unregistered ones.














Boilermaker
Bricklayer (construction)
Carpenter
Construction craft laborer
Cook (any industry)
Cook (hotel and restaurant)
Correction officer
Electrician
Electrician (aircraft)
Electrician (maintenance)
Electronics mechanic
Firefighter
Machinist














Maintenance mechanic (any industry)
Millwright
Operating engineer
Painter (construction)
Pipefitter (construction)
Plumber
Power plant operator
Roofer
Sheet-metal worker
Structural-steel worker
Telecommunications technician
Tool and die maker

* Listed alphabetically
Source: Olivia Crosby, “Apprenticeships,” Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 46, no. 2 (Summer 2002), p.
5.

8–18


Training Methods (cont’d)
• Effective Lectures
 Don’t start out on the wrong foot.
 Give listeners signals.
 Be alert to your audience.
 Maintain eye contact with audience.
 Make sure everyone in the room can hear.
 Control your hands.
 Talk from notes rather than from a script.
 Break a long talk into a series of five-minute talks.
 Practice and rehearse your presentation.
8–19


Training Methods (cont’d)
Programmed Learning
Step by step self learning process
Presenting
questions, facts,
or problems to
the learner

Allowing the
person to
respond

Providing
feedback on the
accuracy of
answers

• Advantages
 Reduced training time
 Self-paced learning
 Immediate feedback
 Reduced risk of error for learner
8–20


Computer-Based Training (CBT)
• Advantages
 Reduced learning time
 Cost-effectiveness
 Instructional consistency

• Types of CBT
 Interactive multimedia training
 Virtual reality training

8–21


Training Methods (cont’d)
• Audio visual based training
• Based on techniques like DVDs, films, Power Point and
audiotapes.
 When there's a need to follow a certain sequence.
The stop action, instant replay, and fast or slow
motion capabilities of audiovisuals can be useful.
 Need to expose trainees to the events not easily

demonstrable e.g. open heart surgery etc
 When organization wide training is needed and its

too costly to move the trainers from place to place.
8–22


Training Methods (cont’d)
• Simulated learning
 Putting trainee in an artificial environment offering

events and situations that might be experienced on
the job.
Interactive technologies reduce learning time by 50%
 Computers unlike humans don’t have good or bad days.
 Mastery of learning, if one doesn't learn one cant move
further.
 Increased retention


8–23


Training Methods (cont’d)
• Vestibule training
 Training takes place off the job with actual

equipment.

• Electronic Performance and Support
System(EPSS)
 Computerized tools and displays that automate

training, documentation and phone support.

8–24


Training Methods (cont’d)
• The virtual classroom
 Method that uses special collaboration software to

enable multiple remote learners, using their PCs and
laptops, to participate in live audio and visual
discussions, communicate via written text, and learn
via content such as power point slides.

8–25


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