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Organizational behavior 14th by robbins 08

Robbins, Judge, and Vohra

Organizational Behavior
14th Edition

Motivation:
Motivation: From
From Concepts
Concepts to
to
Applications
Applications
Kelli J. Schutte
William Jewell College

Copyright © 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd
Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational
Behavior, 14e

8-1



Chapter
Chapter Learning
Learning Objectives
Objectives
 After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
– Describe the job characteristics model and evaluate the way it
motivates by changing the work environment.
– Compare and contrast the main ways jobs can be redesigned.
– Identify three alternative work arrangements and show how they
might motivate employees.
– Give examples of employee involvement measures and show how
they can motivate employees.
– Demonstrate how the different types of variable-pay programs can
increase employee motivation.
– Show how flexible benefits turn benefits into motivators.
– Identify the motivational benefits of intrinsic rewards.

Copyright © 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd
Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational
Behavior, 14e

8-2


The
The Job
Job Characteristics
Characteristics Model
Model
 Five Core Job Dimensions
1. Skill Variety: degree to which the job incorporates a
number of different skills and talents
2. Task Identity: degree to which the job requires the
completion of a whole and identifiable piece of work

3. Task Significance: how the job impacts the lives of
others
4. Autonomy: identifies how much freedom and
independence the worker has over the job
5. Feedback: how much the job generates direct and clear
information about the worker’s performance

Copyright © 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd
Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational
Behavior, 14e

8-3


How
How Can
Can Jobs
Jobs be
be Redesigned?
Redesigned?

Copyright © 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd
Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational
Behavior, 14e

8-4


Strengths
Strengths of
of Job
Job Rotation
Rotation

Copyright © 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd
Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational
Behavior, 14e

8-5


Job
Job Enrichment
Enrichment –– Possible
Possible Actions
Actions

E X H I B I T 8-2
E X H I B I T 8-2
Copyright © 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd
Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational
Behavior, 14e

8-6


Alternative
Alternative Work
Work Arrangements
Arrangements
 Flextime
– Flextime allows employees to choose the hours they work
within a defined period of time.

 Job Sharing
– Job sharing allows two or more individuals to split a
traditional 40-hour-a-week job.

 Telecommuting
– Telecommuting allows workers to work from home at least 2
days a week on a computer linked to the employer’s office.

Copyright © 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd
Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational
Behavior, 14e

8-7


Social
Social and
and Physical
Physical Context
Context of
of Work
Work
 Social Context
– Some social characteristics that improve job performance include:
• Interdependence
• Social support
• Interactions with other people outside of work

 Physical Context
– The work context will also affect employee satisfaction
• Work that is hot, loud, and dangerous is less satisfying
• Work that is controlled, relatively quiet, and safe
will be more satisfying
Copyright © 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd
Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational
Behavior, 14e

8-8


Employee
Employee Involvement
Involvement
Employee involvement is a participative process
that uses employees’ input to increase their
commitment to the organization’s success.

Copyright © 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd
Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational
Behavior, 14e

8-9


Using
Using Rewards
Rewards to
to Motivate
Motivate Employees
Employees
 Although pay is not the primary factor driving job
satisfaction, it is a motivator.
– Establish a pay structure
– Variable-pay programs

Copyright © 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd
Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational
Behavior, 14e

8-10


Establishing
Establishing aa Pay
Pay Structure
Structure

Copyright © 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd
Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational
Behavior, 14e

8-11


How
How to
to Pay
Pay

Variable-Pay Programs








Piece-Rate Pay
Merit-Based Pay
Bonuses
Skill-Based Pay
Profit-Sharing Plans
Gainsharing
Employee Stock Ownership Plans

Copyright © 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd
Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational
Behavior, 14e

8-12


Types
Types of
of Variable-Pay
Variable-Pay Programs
Programs
 Piece-Rate Pay
– Pays a fixed sum of money for each unit of production
completed. For example: Workers selling peanuts and soda
get Rs.10 for each bag of peanuts sold.

 Merit-Based Pay
– Pays for individual performance based on performance
appraisal results. If appraisals are designed correctly,
workers performing at a high level will get more pay.

 Bonuses
– Pay a lump sum at the end of a designated period of time
based on individual and/or organizational performance.
Copyright © 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd
Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational
Behavior, 14e

8-13


More
More Types
Types of
of Variable-Pay
Variable-Pay Programs
Programs
 Skill-Based Pay
– Pays based on the number of skills employees have or the
number of jobs they can do.

 Profit-Sharing Plans
– Pays out a portion of the organization’s profitability. It is an
organization-wide program and is based on a predetermined
formula.

 Gainsharing
– Pays for improvements in group productivity from one
period to another. It is a group incentive plan.

 Employee Stock Ownership Plans (ESOP)
– Provides each employee with the opportunity to acquire
stock as part of their benefit package.
Copyright © 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd
Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational
Behavior, 14e

8-14


Flexible
Flexible Benefits
Benefits
 Flexible benefits give individual rewards by allowing
each employee to choose the compensation package
that best satisfies his or her current needs and
situations.

Copyright © 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd
Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational
Behavior, 14e

8-15


Employee
Employee Recognition
Recognition Programs
Programs
 Employee rewards need to be intrinsic and extrinsic.
Employee recognition programs are a good method
of intrinsic rewards.
– The rewards can range from a simple thank-you to more
widely publicized formal programs.
– Advantages of recognition programs are that they are
inexpensive and effective.
– Some critics say they can be politically
motivated and if they are perceived to be
applied unfairly, they can cause more harm
than good.

Copyright © 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd
Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational
Behavior, 14e

8-16


Global
Global Implications
Implications
 Job Characteristics and Job Enrichment
– Studies do not yield consistent results about applicability to other
cultures

 Telecommuting
– Most common in the United States

 Variable Pay
– Most believe variable pay systems work best in individualistic
cultures such as the United States.
– Fairness is an important factor

 Flexible Benefits
– Popular in all cultures

 Employee Involvement
– Differ among countries

Copyright © 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd
Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational
Behavior, 14e

8-17


Summary
Summary and
and Managerial
Managerial Implications
Implications
 Recognize individual differences
 Use goals and feedback
 Allow employees to participate in decisions that affect
them
 Link rewards to performance
 Check the system for equity

Copyright © 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd
Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational
Behavior, 14e

8-18


All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced,
stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any
means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise,
without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the
United States of America.

Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
 Publishing as Prentice Hall

Copyright © 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd
Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational
Behavior, 14e

8-19



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