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Organizational behavior 4th by MShean chap005

5

Motivation in the Workplace
McGraw-Hill/Irwin

© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Motivation
Motivation refers to the forces within a person that
affect the direction, intensity, and persistence of
voluntary behavior.
Motivated employees are willing to exert a
particular level of effort (intensity) for a certain
amount of time (persistence) toward a particular
goal (direction).

McShane/Von Glinow OB4e

Slide 5-2


© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Challenges of Motivating Employees
• Revised employment relationship
– Due to globalization, technology, restructuring
– Potentially undermines trust and commitment

• Flatter organizations
– Fewer supervisors to monitor performance

• Changing workforce
– Gen-X/Gen-Y bring different expectations

McShane/Von Glinow OB4e

Slide 5-3

© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Needs, Drives, and Employee Motivation
• Needs
– Deficiencies that energize or trigger
behaviors to satisfy those needs.

• Drives
– Instinctive or innate tendencies to seek
certain goals or maintain internal stability.

McShane/Von Glinow OB4e

Slide 5-4

© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy Objectives
• Holistic
– integrative view of needs rather than
studying each need in isolation of others

• Humanistic
– responses to higher needs are influenced by
social dynamics, not just instinct

• Positivistic
– need gratification is just as important as
need deprivation

McShane/Von Glinow OB4e

Slide 5-5

© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy Theory
Seven categories
capture most needs
Five categories placed
in a hierarchy

Selfactualization

Need to
know
Need for
beauty

Esteem
Belongingness
Safety
Physiological

McShane/Von Glinow OB4e

Slide 5-6

© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Deficiencies…
Esteem Needs
• Recognition (external motivator), Attention (external
motivator), Social Status (external motivator),
Accomplishment (internal motivator), Self-respect (internal
motivator)
Social Needs
• Friendship, Belonging to a group, Giving and receiving love
Safety Needs
• Living in a safe area, Medical insurance, Job security,
Financial reserves
Physiological Needs
• Air, Water, Food, Sleep

McShane/Von Glinow OB4e

Slide 5-7

© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy Theory
Need to
know
Selfactualization

Need for
beauty

Esteem

– Lowest unmet need has
strongest effect
– When lower need is satisfied,
next higher need becomes the
primary motivator
– Self-actualization -- a growth
need because people desire
more rather than less of it
when satisfied

Belongingness

Safety

Physiological

McShane/Von Glinow OB4e

Slide 5-8

© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Characteristics of Self-Actualized People
• Acceptance and Realism: have realistic perceptions of themselves,
others and the world around them.
• Problem-centering: are concerned with solving problems outside of
themselves, including helping others and finding solutions to problems
in the external world.
• Spontaneity: are spontaneous in their internal thoughts and outward
behavior. While they can conform to rules and social expectations, they
also tend to be open and unconventional.
• Autonomy and Solitude: have the need for independence and privacy.
• Continued Freshness of Appreciation: tend to view the world with a
continual sense of appreciation, wonder and awe.
• Peak Experiences: have what Maslow termed peak experiences, or
moments of intense joy, wonder, awe and ecstasy.

McShane/Von Glinow OB4e

Slide 5-9

© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Evaluating Maslow’s Theory
Need to
know
Selfactualization

– Lack of support for theory
– Values influence needs

Need for
beauty

Esteem

• People have different
needs hierarchies -- not
universal
– Maslow’s categories don’t
cover all needs

Belongingness

Safety

– Needs change more rapidly
than Maslow stated

Physiological

McShane/Von Glinow OB4e

Slide 5-10

© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Four-Drive Theory

McShane/Von Glinow OB4e

Drive to Acquire

• Need to take/keep objects and
experiences
• Basis of hierarchy and status

Drive to Bond

• Need to form relationships and
social commitments
• Basis of social identity

Drive to Learn

• Need to satisfy curiosity and
resolve conflicting information
• Basis of self-actualization

Drive to Defend

• Need to protect ourselves
• Reactive (not proactive) drive
• Basis of fight or flight

Slide 5-11

© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Features of Four Drives
• Innate and hardwired -- everyone has them
• Independent of each other (no hierarchy of
drives)
• Complete set -- no drives are excluded from
the model

McShane/Von Glinow OB4e

Slide 5-12

© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


How Four Drives Affect Needs
1. Four drives determine which emotions are
automatically tagged to incoming information
2. Drives generate independent and often
competing emotions that demand our attention
3. Social skill set determines how to translate
drives into needs and effort

McShane/Von Glinow OB4e

Slide 5-13

© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Learned Needs Theory
• Some needs can be learned
• Need for achievement
– Desire for challenging and somewhat risky goals,
feedback, recognition

• Need for affiliation
– Desire to seek approval, conform, and avoid conflict
– Try to project a favorable self-image

• Need for power
– Desire to control one’s environment
– Personalized versus socialized power

McShane/Von Glinow OB4e

Slide 5-14

© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Implications of Needs/Drives Theories
• Four-drive theory
– provide a balanced opportunity for employees to fulfill
drives
– employees continually seek fulfillment of drives
– avoid having conditions support one drive over others

• Maslow
– allow employees to self-actualize
– power of positive experiences

• Offer employees a choice of rewards

McShane/Von Glinow OB4e

Slide 5-15

© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Expectancy Theory of Motivation
P-to-O
Expectancy

E-to-P
Expectancy

Outcomes
& Valences

Outcome 1
+ or -

Effort

Performance

Outcome 2
+ or -

Outcome 3
+ or -

McShane/Von Glinow OB4e

Slide 5-16

© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Increasing E-to-P Expectancy
• Train employees
• Select people with required competencies
• Provide role clarification
• Provide sufficient resources
• Provide coaching and feedback

McShane/Von Glinow OB4e

Slide 5-17

© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Increasing P-to-O Expectancy
• Measure performance accurately
• Describe outcomes of good and poor
performance
• Explain how rewards are linked to past
performance

McShane/Von Glinow OB4e

Slide 5-18

© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Increasing Outcome Valences
• Ensure that rewards are valued
• Individualize rewards
• Minimize countervalent outcomes

McShane/Von Glinow OB4e

Slide 5-19

© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Goal Setting at Speedera
Speedera Networks
employees achieved a
challenging revenue goal in
one quarter, for which all
employees in California and
India were rewarded with a
free Hawaiian trip.

McShane/Von Glinow OB4e

Slide 5-20

Courtesy of Akamai

© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Effective Goal Setting
Specific
Relevant
Challenging

Task
Effort

Commitment

Task
Performance

Participation
Feedback

McShane/Von Glinow OB4e

Slide 5-21

© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Goal Difficulty and Performance

Task Performance

High

Low

Area of
Optimal
Goal
Difficulty

Moderate

Challenging

Impossible

Goal Difficulty
McShane/Von Glinow OB4e

Slide 5-22

© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Characteristics of Effective Feedback

Specific

Credible

Effective
Feedback

Sufficiently
frequent

McShane/Von Glinow OB4e

Relevant

Timely

Slide 5-23

© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Multisource (360-degree) Feedback
Supervisor
Customer

Co-worker

Evaluated
Employee

Subordinate

Project
leader

Co-worker

Subordinate
Subordinate

McShane/Von Glinow OB4e

Slide 5-24

© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Executive Coaching
• Uses various behavioral methods to help
clients identify and achieve goals
• Just-in-time personal development using
feedback and other techniques
• Generally effective, but many techniques
make it difficult to pinpoint what is effective

McShane/Von Glinow OB4e

Slide 5-25

© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


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