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Organizational behavior 4th by MShean chap001

1

Introduction to the Field of
Organizational Behavior
McGraw-Hill/Irwin

© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Google and OB

AP/Wide World Photos

Google has leveraged the power of organizational behavior
to attract talented employees who want to make a
difference in the Internet world.

McShane/Von Glinow OB4e

Slide 1-2


© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


What are Organizations?

AP/Wide World Photos

• Groups of people who work interdependently toward
some purpose
– Structured patterns of interaction
– Coordinated tasks
– Have common objectives (even if not fully agreed)

McShane/Von Glinow OB4e

Slide 1-3

© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Why Study Organizational Behavior
Understand
organizational
events

Influence
organizational
events

McShane/Von Glinow OB4e

Why study
organizational
behavior

Slide 1-4

Predict
organizational
events

© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Trends: Globalization
• Economic, social, and cultural connectivity (and
interdependence) with people in other parts of
the world
• Effects of globalization on organizations:
– New organizational structures
– Different forms of communication
– More diverse workforce.
– More competition, mergers, work intensification and
demands for work flexibility

McShane/Von Glinow OB4e

Slide 1-5

© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Trends: Changing Workforce
– Workforce has increasing
diversity along several
dimensions
– Primary categories
• gender, age, ethnicity,
etc.
– Secondary categories
• some control over (e.g.
education, marital
status)

McShane/Von Glinow OB4e

Slide 1-6

© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Trends: Changing Workforce
• Current trends
– Increased racial and ethnic diversity
– More women in workforce
– Generational diversity
– New age cohorts (e.g. Gen-X, Gen-Y)

• Implications
– Leverage diversity advantage
– Adjust to the new workforce

McShane/Von Glinow OB4e

Slide 1-7

© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Trends: Employment Relationships
• Work-life balance
– Number one indicator of career success
– Priority for many young people looking for new jobs

• Employability
– “New deal” employment relationship
– Continuously learn new skills

• Contingent work
– No explicit or implicit contract for long-term
employment, or minimum hours of work can vary in
a nonsystematic way
McShane/Von Glinow OB4e

Slide 1-8

© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Trends: Virtual Work
Using information technology to perform one’s job
away from the traditional physical workplace.
– Telecommuting (telework)
• working from home, usually internet connection to office

– Virtual teams
• operate across space, time, and organizational
boundaries with members who communicate mainly
through electronic technologies

McShane/Von Glinow OB4e

Slide 1-9

© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Values-based Leadership in Dubai

Department of Economic Development, Government of Dubai

McShane/Von Glinow OB4e

The Department of Economic
Development (DED) in the Emirate
of Dubai recently devoted several
months to identifying the agency’s
core values: accountability,
teamwork, and continuous
improvement. DED also organized
a series of workshops (shown in
photo) to help employees recognize
values-consistent behaviors.

Slide 1-10

© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Trends: Values/Ethics Defined
Long-lasting beliefs about
what is important in a variety
of situations
– Define right versus wrong --guide
our decisions
Department of Economic Development, Government of Dubai

McShane/Von Glinow OB4e

Ethics
– Study of moral principles or
values that determine whether
actions are right or wrong and
outcomes are good or bad

Slide 1-11

© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Trends: Why Values are Important
1. Need to guide employee decisions
and actions
2. Globalization increases awareness
of different values
3. Increasing emphasis on applying
ethical values

McShane/Von Glinow OB4e

Slide 1-12

© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Corporate Social Responsibility
• Corporate Social Responsibility
– Organization's moral obligation toward its
stakeholders

• Stakeholders
– Shareholders, customers, suppliers, governments etc.

• Triple bottom line philosophy
– Economic, social & environmental

McShane/Von Glinow OB4e

Slide 1-13

© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Organizational Behavior Anchors
Multidisciplinary
Anchor
Open Systems
Anchor

Organizational
Behavior
Anchors

Multiple Levels
of Analysis
Anchor

McShane/Von Glinow OB4e

Systematic
Research
Anchor

Contingency
Anchor

Slide 1-14

© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Organizational Behavior Anchors
• Multidisciplinary anchor
– Many OB concepts adopted from other disciplines
– OB develops its own models and theories, but also needs
to scan other fields for ideas

• Systematic research anchor
– OB researchers rely on scientific method
– OB also adopting grounded theory and similar qualitative
approaches to knowledge

McShane/Von Glinow OB4e

Slide 1-15

© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Organizational Behavior Anchors

(con’t)

• Contingency anchor
– A particular action may have different consequences in
different situations
– Need to diagnose the situation and select best strategy
under those conditions

• Multiple levels of analysis anchor
– OB issues can be studied from individual, team, and/or
organizational level
– Topics usually relate to all three levels

McShane/Von Glinow OB4e

Slide 1-16

© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Open Systems Anchor
• Need to monitor and adapt to environment
• External environment -- natural and social
conditions outside the organization
• Receive inputs from environment; transform
them into outputs back to the environment
• Stakeholders – anyone with a vested interest in
the organization
• Organizations consist of interdependent parts
(subsystems) that need to coordinate
McShane/Von Glinow OB4e

Slide 1-17

© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Open Systems Anchor
Environment
Feedback

Feedback

Feedback

Feedback

McShane/Von Glinow OB4e

Slide 1-18

© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Knowledge Management Defined
Any structured activity that
improves an organization’s
capacity to acquire, share, and
use knowledge for its survival
and success

McShane/Von Glinow OB4e

Slide 1-19

© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Intellectual Capital
Human Capital

Knowledge that people possess
and generate

Structural
Capital

Knowledge captured in systems
and structures

Relationship
Capital

McShane/Von Glinow OB4e

Value derived from satisfied
customers, reliable suppliers, etc.

Slide 1-20

© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Knowledge Management Processes
Knowledge
acquisition

Knowledge
sharing

Knowledge
use

• Hiring talent

• Communication

• Awareness

• Acquiring firms

• Communities of
practice

• Freedom to
apply

• Individual
learning
• Experimentation

McShane/Von Glinow OB4e

Slide 1-21

© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Organizational Memory
• The storage and preservation of intellectual
capital
• Retain intellectual capital by:
– Keeping knowledgeable employees
– Transferring knowledge to others
– Transferring human capital to structural capital

• Successful companies also unlearn

McShane/Von Glinow OB4e

Slide 1-22

© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


1

Introduction to the Field of
Organizational Behavior
McGraw-Hill/Irwin

© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


1

Chapter One
Extras
McGraw-Hill/Irwin

© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Job Security vs. Employability
Employability

Job Security
• Lifetime job security

• Limited job security

• Jobs are permanent

• Jobs are temporary

• Company manages
career

• Career selfmanagement

• Low emphasis on skill
development

• High emphasis on skill
development

McShane/Von Glinow OB4e

Slide 1-25

© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


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