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Organizational behavior 7e by luthans chap008

Chapter Eight

Stress and


© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Learning Objectives
• Define the meaning of stress.
• Identify the extraorganizational,
organizational, and group stressors.
• Examine individual dispositions of stress.
• Describe intraindividual and interactive
• Discuss the effects of stress and conflict.
• Present strategies for coping/managing
stress and negotiation skills for conflict

• Stress and conflict are conceptually similar
– Conflict: individuals, groups, and
– Stress and conflict: individual level

Emergence of Stress
• Contemporary environment demands
– Technostress

• Stress is, and is not

Hindrance stressors
Challenge stressors
Job stress
Stress is not:
• Simply anxiety
• Simply nervous tension
• Necessarily something damaging, bad, or to be avoided.

• Burnout

Causes of Stress
• Categories affecting occupational stress

Causes of Stress

• Extraorganizational stressors
– Societal/technological change
– Globalization
– Family, relocation, economic and financial
– Sociological-demographic
– Residential or community conditions

Causes of Stress

• Organizational stressors

Causes of Stress

• Group stressors
– Lack of group cohesiveness
– Lack of social support

• Individual stressors: role of dispositions
– Type A characteristics
– Personal control
– Learned helplessness
– Psychological hardiness

Causes of Stress

• Individual stressors (continued)
– Type A characteristics

Intraindividual Conflict
• Conflict in organizational behavior

Intraindividual Conflict

• Conflict due to frustration

Intraindividual Conflict

• Goal conflict
– Approach-approach conflict
– Approach-avoidance conflict
– Avoidance-avoidance conflict

• Role conflict and ambiguity
– The person and the role
– Intrarole
– Interrole

Interactive Conflict
• Interpersonal conflict

Personal differences
Information deficiency
Role incompatibility
Environmental stress

• Intergroup behavior and conflict

Competition for resources
Task interdependence
Jurisdictional ambiguity
Status struggles

Effect of Stress and Intra-individual
• Physical problems
– Immune system problems
– Cardiovascular system problems
– Musculoskeletal system problems
– Gastrointestinal system problems

• Psychological problems
– Anger, anxiety, depression, nervousness,
irritability, tension, and boredom

Effect of Stress and Intra-individual
Conflict Continued
• Behavioral problems
– Direct behaviors include under-eating or
overeating, sleeplessness, increased smoking
and drinking, and drug abuse.

Coping Strategies for Stress and
• Individual coping strategies
– Exercise
– Relaxation
– Behavioral self-control
– Cognitive therapy
– Networking

• Organizational coping strategies
– Reorganization initiatives
– Work and life benefit policies and programs

Coping Strategies for Stress and
• Organizational coping strategies (continued)
– In case of downsizing:

Be proactive
Acknowledge survivors’ emotions
Communicate after the downsizing
Clarify new roles

Negotiation Skills: Going Beyond
Conflict Management
• Traditional negotiation approaches
– Distributive bargaining
– Positional bargaining

Negotiation Skills: Going Beyond
Conflict Management Continued
• Contemporary negotiation skills
– Use of skills

Establishing superordinate goals
Separating the people from the problem
Focusing on interests, not on positions
Inventing options for mutual gain
Using objective criteria

– Based on degree of risk
• Low-risk negotiation techniques
• High-risk negotiation techniques


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