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Organizational behavior 7e by luthans chap007

Chapter Seven

Positive
Organizational
Behavior

McGraw-Hill/Irwin

© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Learning Objectives
• Frame, in terms of the positive psychology movement.
• Discuss the theory, research, and application of self
efficacy/confidence, optimism, hope and resiliency as best
POB criteria-meeting capacities and when in combination
represent psychological capital (PsyCap).
• Present the theory, research, and application of
happiness/subjective well-being (SWB) as a potential POB
capacity.
• Present the theory, research, and application of emotional

intelligence (EI) as another potential POB capacity.
• Explain the specific roles that emotion and intelligence play in
emotional intelligence.


Introduction
• POB operational criteria:
– Based on theory and research
– Valid measures
– Unique concepts
– Open to development
– Managed for performance improvement


Positive Psychology
• Positive psychology is concerned with
optimal human functioning
• Three levels of positive psychology are:
– Valued subjective experiences
– Positive individual traits
– Civic virtues and the institutions that
move individuals toward better citizenship


Self-Efficacy
• Theoretical background and meaning
– Specific versus general self-efficacy
• Specific/ task oriented: statelike
• General: traitlike

– Self-efficacy differs from established
organizational behavior concepts
• Self-esteem
• Expectancy concepts
• Attribution/locus of control


Self-Efficacy
Continued

• Process and impact
– Choice behavior
– Motivational effort
– Perseverance
– Facilitative thought patterns
– Vulnerability to stress


Self-Efficacy
Continued

• Sources of self-efficacy


Self-Efficacy
Continued

• Implications in the workplace


Self-Efficacy
Continued

• Implications in the workplace (continued)
– Selection of human resources
• Based on magnitude and strength

– Training and development
• Bandura’s three categories: guided mastery,
cognitive mastery, and development of selfregulatory competencies
• Behavior modeling training

– Other applications


Self-Efficacy
Continued

• Example of self-efficacy scale:
– Auto sales position


Optimism
• Dimensions of optimism
– Optimism as human nature
– Optimism as an individual difference
• Explanatory style
• Learned helplessness
• Pessimists and optimists

– Some unresolved optimism issues
• Little vs. big optimism.
• Optimism vs. pessimism.
• Learning and sustaining optimism


Optimism
Continued

• Optimism in the workplace
– Downside of optimism
– Seligman’s met life studies
– Other research and application in the
workplace


Hope
• Willpower – agency
• Waypower – pathways


Resiliency
• Bouncing back
• Enhance the assets
– Manage risk factors
– Adaptational process


Psychological Capital (PsyCap)





Confidence (self-efficacy)
Positive attribution (optimism)
Persevering toward goals (hope)
Bouncing back and beyond (resiliency)


Other Potential POB Dimensions
• Happiness or subjective well-being (SWB)
– Background on SWB





Life satisfaction
Satisfaction with important domains
Positive affect
Low levels of negative affect

– Temperament and personality dispositions
– Role of goals
– Adapting and coping


Other Potential POB Dimensions
Continued

• Happiness or subjective well-being (SWB)
(continued)
– SWB across cultures
– SWB in work


Other Potential POB Dimensions
Continued

• Emotional intelligence (EI)
– Role of emotion
• Emotional processing
• Emotional categories and continuum


Other Potential POB Dimensions
Continued

• Emotional intelligence (EI) (continued)
• Types of emotions


Other Potential POB Dimensions
Continued

• Emotional intelligence (EI) (continued)
– Role of Intelligence
• Nature versus nurture intelligence
• Recognition of multiple intelligences (illustrated)
• Intelligence as cognitive mental ability (illustrated)


Other Potential POB Dimensions
Continued

• Emotional intelligence (EI) (continued)
• Recognition of multiple intelligences


Other Potential POB Dimensions
Continued

• Emotional intelligence (EI) (continued)
• Intelligence as cognitive mental ability


Other Potential POB Dimensions
Continued

• Meaning of Emotional Intelligence
– The capacity for:
• Recognizing our own feelings and those of others
• Motivating ourselves
• Managing emotions well in ourselves and in our
relationships


Other Potential POB Dimensions
Continued

• Emotional Intelligence in workplace
– Goleman’s approach to EI in workplace
– Initial supporting evidence
– Conflict with selection research
– Application to leadership (illustrated)
– Other EI applications


Other Potential POB Dimensions
Continued

• Emotional Intelligence in workplace
– Application to leadership

(continued)


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