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Organizational behavior 7e by luthans chap006

Chapter Six

Motivational Needs
and Processes

McGraw-Hill/Irwin

© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Learning Objectives
• Define motivation.
• Identify the primary, general, and secondary
needs.
• Discuss the major content theories of work
motivation.
• Explain the major process theories of work
motivation.
• Present the contemporary equity and
organizational justice theories.
• Analyze work motivation across cultures.



Introduction
• Motivation is a basic psychological
process.
– Many of today’s organizational behavior
theorists “think it is important for the field to
reemphasize behavior.”


Meaning of Motivation
• Motivation is a process that starts with a
physiological or psychological deficiency
or need that activates a behavior or a drive
that is aimed at a goal or incentive

– Human motives are variously called
physiological, biological, unlearned, or
primary.


Primary Motives
• A must be unlearned and must be
physiologically based
• People develop different appetites for the
various physiological motives because
people have the same basic physiological
makeup


General Motives
• A motive must be unlearned but not
physiologically based
– Curiosity, manipulation, and activity motives
• Not allowing these types of motives to be
expressed and fulfilled may have serious
consequences

– Affection motive
• Adds importance in the study of human behavior
and organizational behavior


Examples of Key
Secondary Motives


Secondary Motives
Continued

• Power motive
– Adler’s concepts of inferiority complex and
compensation

• Achievement motive
– Moderate risk taking
– Need for immediate feedback
– Satisfaction with accomplishments
– Preoccupation with the task


Secondary Motives
Continued

• Affiliation motive
– Is sometimes equated with social motives
and/or group dynamics

• Security motive
– Conscious
– Unconscious but greatly influential

• Status motive
– Relative ranking


Secondary Motives
Continued

• Intrinsic versus extrinsic motives
– Extrinsic motives are tangible and visible to
others
– Intrinsic motives are internally generated
– Cognitive evaluation theory suggests a more
intricate relationship


Work-Motivation Approaches


Content Theories of Work
Motivation
• Maslow’s hierarchy of needs


Content Theories of Work
Motivation Continued
• Hierarchy of work motivation (continued)


Content Theories of Work
Motivation Continued
• Herzberg’s two-factor theory of motivation


Content Theories of Work
Motivation Continued
• Herzberg’s two-factor theory of motivation
(continued)

– Relation to Maslow’s need hierarchy
• Closely related

– Contribution to work motivation
• New light on the content of work motivation

– Critical analysis of Herzberg’s theory
• Academic perspective: The theory oversimplifies
the complexities of work motivation


Content Theories of Work
Motivation Continued
• Alderfer’s ERG Theory
– Three groups of core needs:
• Existence
• Relatedness
• Growth

– Approach adds the term frustrationregression


Content Theories of Work
Motivation Continued
• Relationship between the three theories


Process Theories of Work
Motivation
• Vroom’s expectancy theory of motivation


Process Theories of Work
Motivation
• Vroom’s expectancy theory of motivation
(continued)

– Meaning of the variables
• Valance, instrumentality, and expectancy

– Implications of the Vroom model for
organizational behavior
– Importance of the Vroom model


Process Theories of Work
Motivation Continued
• Porter-Lawler model


Process Theories of Work
Motivation Continued
• Porter-Lawler model (continued)
– Implications for practice
• Attempts to be more applications oriented

– Contributions to work motivation
• Helps overcome barriers such as ability,
practicality, interdependence, and ambiguity


Contemporary Theories of Work
Motivation
• Equity theory of work motivation
– Equity occurs when

– Equity as an explanation of work motivation
• “Striving” to restore equity

– Research support for equity in workplace
• Fairly supportive


Contemporary Theories of Work
Motivation Continued
• Relationship between equity theory and
organizational justice
– Distributive justice
– Procedural justice
– Interactional justice


Contemporary Theories of Work
Motivation Continued
• Attribution
theory


Contemporary Theories of Work
Motivation Continued
• Attribution theory (continued)
– Overview of the theory
– Locus of control attributions
• Organizational symbolism

– Other attributions
– Attribution errors
• Fundamental attribution error
• Self-serving bias


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