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Organizational behavior 7e by luthans chapter 13

Introduction
 Leadership is the focus of most of the other areas of organizational behavior


Joseph Campbell & George Lucas
 Lucas had read The Hero with a Thousand Faces while working on the script of the
first of the Star Wars movies, and had gone on to read the Masks of God and other
writings. When Star Wars debuted in 1977, it followed the Hero very closely.


Monomyth
This fundamental structure contains a number of
stages, which include:
(1) a call to adventure, which the hero has to accept or
decline,
(2) a road of trials, regarding which the hero succeeds or
fails,
(3) achieving the goal or "boon," which often results in
important self-knowledge,
(4) a return to the ordinary world, again as to which the
hero can succeed or fail, and finally,

(5) application of the boon in which what the hero has
gained can be used to improve the world.


What is Leadership?
 Has been controversial in terms of its definition

Leadership does remain pretty much of a
“black box,” or unexplainable concept.


One thing everyone can agree on…
 Leadership DOES make a difference


What is Leadership?
Continued

Characteristics of managers versus leaders


Historically Important Studies on
Leadership - Iowa
 Iowa leadership studies
Designed primarily to examine patterns of
aggressive behavior
Used scientific methodology
Demonstrated that different styles of
leadership can produce different reactions
from the same or similar groups
Laissez faire led group produced the greatest
number of aggressive acts


Historically Important Studies on
Leadership – Ohio State
 Ohio State leadership studies
Started with the premise that no satisfactory
definition of leadership existed
 The first study to point out and emphasize the importance of both task and human
dimensions in assessing leadership


Historically Important Studies on
Leadership - Michigan
 Early Michigan leadership studies
 Showed that supervisors of high producing groups
were more likely to have employee-centered and
general supervisory styles.
 Showed that low producing groups had supervisors
with task-oriented and close supervisory styles.


Traditional Theories of Leadership
 Trait theories of leadership – originally based on intelligence, now:

Five-factor model: “Big Five” personality
traits (extraversion has highest correlation)
 From traits to states and skills development

Focused on skill development besides traits
Optimism, hope, resilience, EI, and selfefficacy


Traditional Theories of Leadership
Continued
 Group and exchange theories of leadership

Followers’ impact on leaders
Leader-member exchange (LMX) model
(rewards vs. costs)


Traditional Theories of Leadership
Continued
 Three domains of leadership

Leader-based
Follower-based
Relationship-based


Traditional Theories of Leadership
Continued
 Contingency theory of leadership

Fielder’s contingency model of leadership
effectiveness
Leader-member relationship
Degree of task structure
Leader’s position power


Traditional Theories of Leadership
Continued

Fielder’s contingency model of leadership
effectiveness (continued)


Traditional Theories of Leadership
Continued
 Contingency theory of leadership (continued)

Research support for the contingency model
Methodologically sound validation studies have on
the whole provided substantial support for the
theory

Fielder’s contingency theory in perspective
First highly visible leadership theory
Emphasized the importance of both the situation
and characteristics
Stimulated a great deal of research


Traditional Theories of Leadership
Continued
 Path-goal leadership theory

Directive leadership
Supportive leadership
Participative leadership
Achievement-oriented leadership


Traditional Theories of Leadership
Continued
 Path-goal leadership theory (continued)


Modern Theoretical Processes of
Leadership
 Charismatic leadership theories


Modern Theoretical Processes of
Leadership Continued
 Transformational leadership theory


Modern Theoretical Processes of
Leadership Continued
 Social cognitive approach (reciprocal and continuous)


Modern Theoretical Processes of
Leadership Continued
 Authentic leadership


Modern Theoretical Processes of
Leadership Continued
 Leadership across cultures

Personal Values
Backgrounds of the managers
Interpersonal skills



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