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• Provide an overview of major challenges and the
paradigm shift facing management.
• Outline an organizational behavior perspective.
• Summarize the Hawthorne studies, a starting
point of modern organizational behavior.
• Explain methodology used to accumulate
knowledge and facilitate understanding.
• Relate the various theoretical framework that
serves as a foundation.
• Present the social cognitive model, serves as a
• Competitive advantage of an organization
today is represented by:
– Human resource of an organization and how
they are managed.
– Widely recognized as human capital, social
capital and positive psychological capital.
Challenges Facing Management
• Problems facing managers of human
organization have not changed over the ages.
– Emphasis and surrounding environmental context has
– 21st-century environment requires new thinking and
new ways of managing.
– This environment represents disruptive and
– It represents a new paradigm, a new way of thinking
about the workplace.
Undergoing a Paradigm Shift
• Paradigm, establishes rules, defines boundaries,
and tells one how to behave within these
boundaries to be successful.
– Paradigm shifts have invalidated advantages of
certain firms and created new opportunities for others.
– Paradigm effect, not seeing the change occurring.
• There is considerable resistance to change.
• There is a discontinuous change in the shift to the
New Perspective for Management
• Management has three major dimensions:
– Technical, conceptual, and human.
• New perspective is based on the assumption:
– Employees are extremely complex.
– There is a need for theoretical understanding backed
by rigorous empirical research.
• Jeff Pfeffer has summarized the status of the
organizational behavior approach as:
– “One-eighth” situation
– “The Knowing-Doing Gap”
• Provided historical roots for the notion of a
– The illumination studies: A serendipitous
– Subsequent phases of the Hawthorne studies.
– Implications of the Hawthorne studies
• Hawthorne effect
• Overall scientific perspective
– Organizational behavior principles can be
provided for the effective management of
human behavior in organizations.
• Starting with theory
– Theories allow the researcher to deduce
logical propositions or hypotheses that can be
tested by acceptable research designs.
• Use of research designs
– Three designs most often used today are the
experiment, the case, and the survey.
• Validity of studies
– Study must have both internal validity and
external validity in order to make a meaningful
contribution to the body of knowledge.
Defining Organization Behavior
• The understanding, prediction, and
management of human behavior in
– Relationship to other fields
• All managers need to have an understanding and
perspective of organizational behavior.
– Organizational behavioral approach to
• The human side of management
Defining Organizational Behavior
• Cognitive Framework
– Precede behavior and constitute input into the
person’s thinking, perception, problem solving, and
• Behavioristic Framework
– Dealing with observable behaviors.
• Social Cognitive Framework
– Behavior can best be explained in terms of a
continuous reciprocal interaction among cognitive,
behavioral, and environmental determinants.
Social Cognitive Framework
Social Cognitive Framework
Conceptual Framework for the Text