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Transforming libraries to serve graduate students


T ransforming
L ibraries to
S erve G raduate
S tudents
Edited by Crystal Renfro and Cheryl Stiles

Association of College and Research Libraries
A division of the American Library Association
Chicago, Illinois 2018


The paper used in this publication meets the minimum requirements of American National Standard for Information Sciences–Permanence of Paper for
Printed Library Materials, ANSI Z39.48-1992. ∞

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Copyright ©2018 by The Association of College & Research Libraries, a division of the American Library Association.
All rights reserved except those which may be granted by Sections 107 and 108
of the Copyright Revision Act of 1976.
Printed in the United States of America.

1 2 3 4 5 22 21 20 19 18
Cover design by Aajay Murphy


C ontents
Acknowledgementsxv
Introduction
Section 1

xvii

ONE SIZE DOES NOT FIT ALL

1

Services by Discipline, Degree, and Delivery Method

Chapter 1

Understanding Graduate Students
3
Examining the Nature of Their Distinct Library Needs
Lelia June Rod-Welch
Understanding the Graduate Student  3
The Graduate Student and the Library  6
Conclusion and Further Reading  10
Notes 11
Bibliography 13

Chapter 2

Clearing a Pathway to Success
Online Graduate Students and Promoting Library
Resources

17

Samantha Harlow and Kelly McCallister
Introduction 17
Role of the Library  18
UNCG 19
Appalachian State University (ASU)  19
Accessing Students  20
Connecting in Virtual Space  21
Webinars 23
Reference and Consultations  26
Instruction and Tutorials  27
Conclusion and Recommendations  28
Notes 29
Bibliography 30

Chapter 3

Serving Art and Design Graduate Students

31

Ellen Petraits
Introduction 31
Phase One: Initial and Exploratory Research  32

iii


iv

Contents 
Phase Two: Intermediate or Research
Formulation 36
Phase Three: Sustained and Guided Research
toward the Graduate Thesis  37
Conclusion 38
Notes 38
Bibliography 38

Chapter 4

The Accidental Librarian Instructor
Teaching a Graduate Research Course

41

Anne Shelley
Introduction 41
Course Development  42
Instructional Methods and Strategies  44
Time Management  48
Contrast between Semesters  49
Conclusion 50
Note 50
Bibliography 50

Chapter 5

Academic Librarians as Advocates to the
Professoriate “Pipeline Problem”

51

Joy M. Doan and Melissa A. Rassibi
Introduction 52
Academic Librarians’ Role in Graduate School
Preparation 53
Pipeline Gap to the Professoriate  53
ACRL Documentation and Interactive Learning
as a Road Map for Graduate Information
Literacy 54
HSI Pathways to the Professoriate  54
Oviatt Library Collaboration with HSI  55
Strategic Exploration Session  55
Scholarship as Conversation/Authority Is
Constructed and Contextual  56
Information Has Value Workshops  57
Conclusion 60
Notes 60
Bibliography 61

Chapter 6

Serving the Professional Graduate Student
Health Sciences
Julie Evener

63


Contentsv
Resources 64
Instruction 68
Post-professional Graduate Students  71
Conclusion 71
Notes 72
Bibliography 73

Chapter 7

From Entrepreneurs to Executives
77
Supporting Graduate Business Students in the Library
Jordan Nielsen
Introduction 77
The Modern MBA Student  78
Specialized Master’s Degrees, Specialized
Needs 79
Learning by Doing  80
Conclusion 81
Notes 83
Bibliography 83

Chapter 8

Library Services and Resources in Graduate-level
Social Work Education
85
Margaret Bausman, John Pell, and Adina Mulliken
Engaging Graduate-Level Social Work Students  85
Teaching Social Work Students Systematic
Approaches to Literature Review  87
Two Information Areas with Needs Unique to Social
Work 90
The Ever-Evolving Information Universe  93
Apps and Websites  95
Conclusion 96

Chapter 9

Reflective Information Literacy
Empowering Graduate Student Teachers

103

Anne-Marie Deitering, Hannah Gascho Rempel, and
Tim Jensen
Testing Assumptions  104
Listening to and Learning from Graduate
Students 105
Teaching the Teachers  107
Notes 109
Bibliography 110


vi

Contents 

Chapter 10

Serving STEM Graduate Students

113

Jean L. Bossart
Science Research  113
Technology Innovations  115
Engineering Applications  117
Mathematics and Statistics  119
Tapping into Information Science  119
Conclusions 120
Notes 121
Bibliography 122

Chapter 11

Reading-Writing Groups for Chemistry Graduate
Students125
A Three-Year Experiment in Finding the Interesting
Thing
Sara Scheib and Amy Charles
Writing, Even in Science  125
Long Seasons for Science, Short Seasons for
Writing 126
At the Writing University  128
Just Doing It  128
The Pilot RWG  129
Ending the Pilot and Branching Out  133
Starting a STEM RWG  134
Barriers to Successful STEM RWGs  135
Hold on Loosely, but Don’t Let Go  136
Notes 136
Bibliography 137

Chapter 12

Providing Innovative Library Services to STEM
Graduate Students
139
Karen Stanley Grigg, Sarah H. Jeong, and Nina
Exner
Introduction 139
Advanced Searching Skills  141
Journal Clubs and Research Groups  142
Grants 143
Supporting Researchers in Finding Data Sets  147
Data Management  149
Citation Management Tools  149
Scholarly Communication  150
Conclusion 151


Contentsvii
Acknowledgements 151
Notes 151
Bibliography 153

Section 2

LIBRARIAN FUNCTIONS AND SPACES
TRANSFORMED TO MEET GRADUATE STUDENTS’
NEEDS155

Chapter 13

Designing Responsive Spaces for Graduate Student
Populations157
A Case Study
Scott Collard
Introduction 158
Background 158
Getting to Know Our Graduate Students  160
Results: What We Learned about Our Graduate
Students 164
Putting the Plan into Action  168
Assessing Results  169
Conclusion 170
Notes 170
Bibliography 171

Chapter 14

From Mop Closets to Sunny Spaces
173
Multifaceted Data Collection in Graduate Workspace
Design
Jonathan D. Schwarz, Mandy L. Havert, and Jessica
N. Kayongo
Background and History  174
Data Collection Prior to Planning and Design  177
Post-construction Data Collection and
Assessment 182
Lessons Learned  185
Notes 185
Bibliography 186

Chapter 15

A Graduate Room with a View
187
The Old versus New Graduate Study Space and the
Future
Lisa Thornell
Introduction 187
The Original Graduate Student Study Room (March
2016–August 2017)  188


viii

Contents 
Relocation 189
The “New” Relocated Graduate Student Study
Space (September 2017–TBD)  189
Student Needs  190
Individual Student Voices  191
Future Partnerships  192
Conclusion: The View from Here  193
Notes 194
Bibliography 194

Chapter 16

Training STEM Students in LaTeX

197

Tammy Stitz
Introduction 197
What Is LaTeX?  199
Why Training Should Be a Library Service  201
Development of the Workshop Series  202
Differences in Behavior of Students in the
Classroom and Those Online  206
Difficulties  207
Conclusion 208
Notes 208
Bibliography 209

Chapter 17

CartoShop
Inviting Interdisciplinary Research through GIS
Mapping Workshops

211

Erika Jenns and Theresa Quill
About Scholars’ Commons  211
About CartoShop  212
Promotion/Outreach 213
Who Comes to CartoShop?  214
Impact 216
Appendix 17A: Sample Flyers Promoting the
Cartoshop Miniseries  218

Chapter 18

The Digital Identity of Graduate Students

221

Juanjo Boté
The Digital Identity of Graduate Students  222
The Written Blog as a Starting Point  223
Generalized Social Network Sites  224
Scholarly Social Networks  225
The First Steps of Creating a Digital Identity  226


Contentsix
Technical Skills and Training to Use Social Media
Networks 227
The Graduate Library’s Role  228
Steps for Any Social Network Site  230
Some Thoughts on Online Reputation  231
Conclusion 231
Notes 231
Bibliography 233

Chapter 19

Using Citation Managers to Connect with Graduate
Students235
Greg R. Notess
Introduction 235
Outreach and Appeal  237
Teaching the Unknown: Digital Object Identifiers
and Style Numbers  238
Google Scholar  238
Issues and Potential Problems  239
Conclusion 240
Notes 240
Bibliography 241

Chapter 20

Makerspaces Empowering Graduate Student
Research243
Morgan Chivers
Why Make Such a Big Deal about
Makerspaces? 243
Academic Library Makerspaces Are an Invaluable
Campus Resource  247
Much More Than Machines: Makerspaces Are
Humans Helping Humans  248
Case Study: UTA FabLab  249
Looking Forward  252
Notes 252
Bibliography 253

Chapter 21

Interlibrary Loan and Serving Graduate Students 255
Jennifer Salvo-Eaton
Introduction 255
Literature Review  256
Interlibrary Loan as a Bridge  257
Building Bridges: A Case Study at an Urban-Serving
Public Research University  266


x

Contents 
Conclusion 268
Notes 269
Bibliography 271

Chapter 22

Traditional and Innovative Interlibrary Loan Services
for Twenty-First-Century Graduate Students
273
Beth Posner
Notes 277
Bibliography 278

Section 3

MORE THAN JUST INFORMATION LITERACY 279
Workshops and Data Services

Chapter 23

Data and Graduate Students
281
Less Naked and Less Afraid, or Giving Graduate
Students the Clothes and Confidence for Data Success
Mandy Swygart-Hobaugh
Data Services Needs of Graduate Students  282
Data Services across the Research Life Cycle  283
Data Services at Georgia State University  284
Data Services at Georgia State University for
Graduate Students—A Closer Look  289
Data and Graduate Students: Making Them Less
Naked and Less Afraid  295
Notes 296
Bibliography 298

Chapter 24

Teaching Data Management Skills in a One-Credit
Course301
A Case Study
Kyrille DeBose
Defining the Need  302
Leveraging Partnerships and Creating the Course
Proposal 303
Developing the Course  304
The Pilot Course  308
Lessons Learned  311
Moving Forward  312
Notes 313
Bibliography 313


Contentsxi

Chapter 25

Improving Graduate Students’ Research Skills 315
The Graduate Student Research Series at the University
of Florida
Hélène Huet and David Schwieder
Literature Review: The Graduate Student
Experience and the Academic Library  316
Involving the Library  317
Assessment 318
Issues and Lessons Learned  319
Best Practice Guidelines  320
Conclusion 321
Notes 322
Bibliography 322

Chapter 26

Not a Challenge but an Opportunity
325
Harnessing the ACRL Framework to Situate Graduate
Students as Active Members of the Academic
Community
Wendy C. Doucette
An Abbreviated History  325
Defining the ACRL Framework 326
From Theory to Practice for Graduate
Librarians 327
Scholarship Is a Conversation  328
The Framework as Road Map and Mirror  329
Notes 330
Bibliography 331

Chapter 27

Beyond Research
The Library’s Role in Graduate Student
Professionalization

333

Marcela Y. Isuster
Development 334
Content 334
Future Considerations  339
Notes 339
Bibliography 340

Chapter 28

Falling through the Cracks
343
Information Literacy Gaps among Graduate Students
Leila June Rod-Welch
Introduction 344


xii

Contents 
Methodology 345
Results 346
Conclusion 359
Notes 359
Bibliography 360

Section 4PARTNERSHIPS
Chapter 29

361

Thesis Writing Life Cycle
363
An Open House Collaboration Model for Point-of-Need
Services to Graduate Students
William Poluha and Marie Speare
Introduction 363
Background 363
Thesis Writing Life Cycle and Student Needs  365
Open House Events  366
A Personalized Open House  367
Survey 371
Conclusion 373
Notes 374
Bibliography 375

Chapter 30

From Inception to Fruition
377
How One Library Created a Library-wide Working
Group to Meet Campus-wide Graduate Student Needs
Nastasha E. Johnson
Convened Task Force Member Composition  377
Graduate Programs Exemplars  380
Produced a LibGuide  380
Group Became Legit  381
Ballooned into Something Larger Than
Anticipated 382
Full Calendar with Management Issues, Attendance
Issues, Marketing Challenges  383
Next Steps  383

Chapter 31

Teaming Up with Your Graduate School for
Academic and Career Success

385

Erin O’Toole, Rebecca Barham, Jo Monahan, and
Susan Smith
Introduction 385
Library Research Support Service Department  386
Eagle Dissertation Boot Camps  386


Contentsxiii
Proposal Preparation Workshops  389
Three Minute Thesis Competition  393
Lessons Learned and Conclusion  394
Special Acknowledgement  396
Notes 396
Bibliography 396

Chapter 32

Gearing Up for Research
397
Partnering to Transform Support for the Graduate
Student Research Life Cycle
Helen Josephine and Lora Leligdon
Introduction 397
Background 398
Gear Up for Research Events  400
Gear Up Information Fair  400
Additional Components of Gear Up  401
Suggested Potential Components  403
Partnerships 403
Best Practices for Gear Up Events  404
Conclusion 407
Notes 408
Bibliography 408

Chapter 33

Minding the Gap
409
Grassroots Efforts to Enhance the Graduate Student
Research Experience
Susan R. Franzen, Sarah Dick, and Jennifer Sharkey
Introduction 409
Background 410
The Evolution of the Collaborations and
Partnerships 411
Method for Key Conversations: Appreciative
Inquiry 413
Identifying and Creating Content  414
Sustaining Programming and Partnerships  416
Conclusion 418
Appendix 33A: Example Analysis for a Workshop
Topic 420
Notes 421
Bibliography 422


xiv

Contents 

Chapter 34

When the Only Constant Is Change
425
Best Practices for Developing a Graduate Student
Advisory Board to Engage with Changing Needs
Abby Scheel
Background 426
Literature Review  426
Benefits of a Graduate Student Advisory
Board 428
Convening a Grad Advisory Board  428
Conclusion 432
Notes 432
Bibliography 433

About the Editors/Authors

435


Acknowledgements
A significant undertaking such as the creation of this book requires the active
support and encouragement of numerous people. We would like to highlight
the contributions of the following individuals who have been essential to this
process:
Dr. David Evans, Assistant Vice President and Dean of Library Services,
for his vision of the Graduate Library, his unwavering support of library services
for graduate students, his sponsorship of our two national graduate librarian
conferences, Transforming Libraries for Graduate Students, and his enthusiasm
for this book project through its many months of development.
Dr. Elisabeth Shields, Graduate Librarian for the KSU College of Humanities and Social Sciences, for her leadership, her diplomacy, and her numerous community-making talents. Elisabeth was the driving force behind our first
national conference, and it is this conference that served as the birthplace for
this volume.
Jennifer Carter, Library Technical Paraprofessional I, and Jennifer Sarra,
Graduate Research Assistant, who served tirelessly and devotedly as members of
our extended editorial team. Each carefully read and edited multiple essays on
multiple occasions and seamlessly moved from electronic to print copies and
back again. Their editorial contributions to this book are incalculable.
Aajay Murphy, Repository and Publishing Manager of KSU’s Digital
Commons, for designing the our beautiful book cover, for creating an electronic
call for chapter contributions, for providing a venue by through which contributors could submit proposals and completed chapters, and for providing the book
a “real estate” presence on the web.
Erin Nevius, Content Strategist for ACRL, for enthusiastically and unconditionally supporting this book from its proposal stage to its final production
stage. Thank you for accepting our proposal and for shepherding the coeditors.
All our chapter contributors. Thank you for your hard work, your patience with the revisions process, and your excellent contribution to an area of
scholarship sometimes overlooked—the needs of our graduate students.
The members of the Graduate Library team at KSU for your support
of the coeditors as we navigated through the editorial and book production process. You were so very patient throughout our absorption with “The Book.”
And, finally, to ACRL for publishing this book and for bringing it to a larger audience.

xv



I ntroduction
I [Crystal] knew when I graduated from library school with my second master’s
degree that I wanted to work with graduate students and faculty. Upon sharing
that passion with the dean of the university library where I was interviewing, I
was told, in no uncertain terms, that serving undergraduates was the primary
mission of librarians at that institution. And, indeed, I found that serving undergraduates was all the rage in university libraries that were tying their viability to
the overall university focus on student retention. I learned a great deal about librarianship, and engineering librarianship in particular, during those early years,
but when an opportunity to be a charter member of a brand-new department,
the Faculty Engagement Department, came my way, I jumped at the chance to
return to my original passion, serving graduate students and faculty. And what a
dynamic opportunity it turned out to be.
My experiences in the Faculty Engagement Department still remain some
of my fondest professional memories, but when the opportunity to join another
brand-new graduate-focused librarian department arose, along with the chance
to broaden my disciplinary skills and become the first-ever Graduate Engineering Librarian at Kennesaw State University’s (KSU) Marietta campus, I knew it
was time to move on. And so I joined the Graduate Library Department at KSU,
headed by my coeditor of this book, Cheryl Stiles. I will let her tell you about us.
In the fall of 2012, and after a yearlong, million-dollar renovation project,
the KSU Library opened its Graduate Library on the third floor of the Sturgis
Library. The space featured new furniture and carpet, comfortable seating conducive to individual study, improved lighting and ventilation, eight collaborative
study rooms, and three classrooms. In addition, the floor was designated a “quiet
zone.” At the time of the renovation, KSU enrolled 1,849 students in twenty-six
master’s programs, four doctoral programs, and four certificate programs.
Revitalized spaces for graduate students are only a part of the story. Graduate students need librarians too. I [Cheryl] was the solo library instruction coordinator for KSU; by 2006, undergraduate instruction requests had grown exponentially, resulting in the necessary addition of a second instruction coordinator.
Rather than divide our duties related to undergraduate instruction, I decided
that it was time to focus on a growing but underserved population, our graduate
students. Thus the birth of specialized services for graduate students began.
In 2011, the year before the renovated Graduate Library space opened, I
was joined by two colleagues who served as graduate librarians for the College
of Humanities and Social Sciences and the Coles College of Business. The conxvii


xviii

Introduction 

solidation of KSU and Southern Polytechnic State University in 2015 increased
the total number of graduate programs to fifty-five and graduate student enrollment to 2,901. Since the inception of the Graduate Library, staffing has expanded to include five graduate librarians, a Scholarly Communications librarian,
the Repository/Publishing Manager and Repository/Publishing Specialist of
our Digital Commons, a library paraprofessional, and three graduate research
assistants.
KSU graduate librarians have had the pleasure of working almost exclusively with graduate students and their faculty members, providing classroom
and online instruction, workshops, one-to-one consultations, and specialized
LibGuides. One of the most gratifying aspects of our positions is that we work
with students from the start of their programs through the final phases of their
dissertation or capstone. Dr. David Evans, the Assistant Vice President and Dean
of the KSU Library System, has always championed library services for graduate
students, and he remains unwavering in this support. The Graduate College, the
Office of the CIO, Academic Affairs, and the Center for Excellence in Teaching
and Learning also offer support to the Graduate Library.
On April 1, 2016, the KSU Graduate Library hosted a conference entitled Transforming Libraries for Graduate Students. Originally intended to
be a regional conference, this one-day event attracted attendees and program
presenters from all over the country, all of whom were interested in discussing
innovative services, collections, and spaces for graduate students. The conference was discussed in the April 2017 College and Research Libraries News article
“Transforming Libraries to Serve Graduate Students: Trends and Issues from a
New Conference,” written by Crystal Renfro and Elisabeth Shields (pp. 202–5,
https://crln.acrl.org/index.php/crlnews/article/view/9649).
This book is an outgrowth of that initial conference held in 2016 and is
representative of the work that we and countless other pioneering graduate librarians have been doing at our individual campuses. The enthusiasm, diversity,
and shared expertise of the chapter authors have stunned, delighted, and inspired us each step along the way. What we have, within the covers of this book,
is a compilation of the very best expertise, experience, and knowledge from
graduate librarians around the world, covering a wide diversity of topics, best
practices, and programs geared specifically to serve the “forgotten” group: the
university graduate student community.
Graduate students are critical stakeholders for academic libraries. As libraries continue to reinvent themselves to remain relevant, spaces, services, and
instruction targeted specifically for the needs of the graduate student community are critical. This book begins with a thoughtful review of the literature examining the distinct library needs of graduate students and how they differ from
their undergraduate colleagues.


Introductionxix

The remaining chapters in section 1 further explore the differences of
graduate students, not only from undergraduates, but even among themselves.
Authors explore the unique needs of online students, masters’ students in the
various arts disciplines, versus doctoral students. The professional business students’ needs differ from those of the health sciences students and further from
the STEM students. Each chapter in this section explores a distinct type of graduate student group, elucidating how specialized services targeted directly for
them are critical for their success.
Section 2 of our book turns our focus to specific library functions and
spaces that can be designed to better serve our graduate student communities.
Within this section, physical space discussions can be found, as well as discussions of specialized technical needs of today’s graduate students. Chapters will
explore technical citation and formatting software such as LaTeX, GIS mapping,
and makerspace services, to name only a few. This section concludes with a closer look at the inventive work being done today by interlibrary loan librarians to
deliver obscure content faster and more conveniently than ever before.
Section 3 of our book will focus on workshops and data services for graduate students. Librarians share a number of workshop series and specialized services that they offer graduate students today.
Section 4, the concluding section of this book, focuses on partnerships. It
discusses several groundbreaking programs from major university libraries that
have developed key partnerships with other librarians, other departments, other
colleges within the university, graduate student groups, and even other university libraries. These vital programs have positioned these libraries to reach larger
numbers of their graduate student body, as well as cementing the position of
their libraries as viable partners with other units of their university also serving
the graduate student population.
And so, as you read the chapters in this book, allow yourself to become inspired. Take notes—share with your colleagues—don’t even hesitate to put the
book down in order to start designing and implementing new programs for your
own library. And after you do, share your results with us, write your own stories,
and get the word out about all the exciting initiatives that are occurring to help
our graduate students today. We can’t wait to hear all about it.



SECTION 1

One Size Does
Not Fit All:
Services by Discipline, Degree,
and Delivery Method



Chapter 1

U nderstanding
Graduate Students
Examining the Nature of
Their Distinct Library Needs
Leila June Rod-Welch

Understanding the Graduate Student
The literature reveals that a good deal of research has been conducted on the
library use patterns and information-seeking behavior of undergraduates as opposed to graduate students.1 Graduate students, as a library user group, have historically not seen the same amount of study as for undergraduate students.2 This
has begun to change in recent years, with a number of researchers dedicating
interest to graduate students since 2007.3 Significant research to date has examined the nature and needs of graduate student populations to improve services
provided to them, as well as their information-gathering habits and library use
patterns.
Research suggests that the needs of graduate students differ from those
of other university groups, such as undergraduates and faculty.4 Berger and
Hines noted that undergraduates typically use library resources to complete
assignments.5 Their study also found that undergraduates are more likely than
graduate students to seek help from reference librarians. In contrast, graduate
student library use is more likely to be focused on ongoing research. In general,
the graduate students’ use of libraries fell into a transitional place between that
of undergraduates and that of faculty. Beard and Bawden found that graduate
3


4

CHAPTER 1

students are less interested in, for instance, library social media integration than
undergraduates.6 Barrett found that humanities graduate students at the University of Western Ontario perceived clear differences between their current academic endeavors and their experiences as undergraduates. They reported higher
degrees of confidence in their research capabilities and stated that a degree of
respect was accorded to them as graduate students.7
Research on the space needs of graduate students reveals differences between graduate and undergraduate students. Perhaps the most telling example
is the widely corroborated desire of graduate students for study and work spaces
free of undergraduates, who are perceived as noisy, inconsiderate, or not serious
enough.8
While it is a good start to examine graduate students as a group with distinct needs, it is also important to recognize the diversity within this group. This
chapter will discuss who our graduate students are, what their distinct needs are,
and what differences they have in comparison to undergraduates and faculty. By
understanding these differences, librarians will be better able to understand and
serve this group of underserved students. In the long run, this will help graduate
students have a more positive, superior, and successful college experience.

Graduate Heterogeneity
As described by Covert-Vail and Collard in their 2012 report to the Association
of Research Libraries, graduate students are heterogeneous. They noted as well
that graduate students differ in their program type (e.g., master’s or doctoral), location in the academic life cycle, life/work situation, and academic department.
All of these categories may benefit from individual consideration when planning
library services for graduate students. In regard to the differing needs of master’s
and doctoral students, it is known that students who possess a master’s degree
are “more itinerant, more likely to have a job, to have families, and to be international students than their doctoral counterparts.”9 In terms of placement in
the academic life cycle, the Association of the Research Libraries report by Covert-Vail and Collard suggested that graduate students fall into several categories
with unique needs based on where they are located in the academic time line.
Students fall into the following categories: still primarily learners; those who are
teachers or becoming teachers; researchers and synthesizers of research; writers
(presently writing); authors (finished writing, interested in publishing); and job
hunters.
Barrett generally agreed in regard to the importance of recognizing academic life cycle disparity in the graduate population, stating “for example, a firstyear master’s student may initially appear to have little in common with a PhD


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