Tải bản đầy đủ

The law of libraries and archives


TheLawofLibraries
andArchives


TheLawofLibraries
andArchives

BryanM.Carson


SCARECROWPRESS,INC.
PublishedintheUnitedStatesofAmerica
byScarecrowPress,Inc.
Awhollyownedsubsidiaryof
TheRowman&LittlefieldPublishingGroup,Inc.
4501ForbesBoulevard,Suite200,Lanham,Maryland20706
www.scarecrowpress.com
EstoverRoad
PlymouthPL67PY
UnitedKingdom

Copyright©2007byBryanM.Carson
Allrightsreserved.Nopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystem,ortransmittedinanyformorby
anymeans,electronic,mechanical,photocopying,recording,orotherwise,withoutthepriorpermissionofthepublisher.
BritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationInformationAvailable
LibraryofCongressCataloging-in-PublicationData
Carson,BryanM.,1965–
Thelawoflibrariesandarchives/BryanM.Carson.
p.cm.
Includesbibliographicalreferencesandindex.
ISBN-13:978-0-8108-5189-4(hardcover:alk.paper)
ISBN-10:0-8108-5189-X(hardcover:alk.paper)
1. Library legislation-United States. 2. Archives-Law and legislation-United States. 3. Fair use (Copyright)–United States. I.
Title.
KF4315.C372007



344.73'092-dc22

2006020318

The paper used in this publication meets the minimum requirements of American National Standard for Information
Sciences—PermanenceofPaperforPrintedLibraryMaterials,ANSI/NISOZ39.48-1992.
ManufacturedintheUnitedStatesofAmerica.


Tomyparents,
AdaLouCarsonandHerbertL.Carson,
whotaughtmehowtowrite
and
tomywife,GayleNovick,
whohasprovidedmyinspirationforthepastsixyears


Contents




Acknowledgments
1

LibrariesandtheU.S.LegalSystem

2

Contracts:AMeetingoftheMinds

3

CopyrightandPatentLaw

4

FairUseandIntellectualPropertyRights:TheBasicsofUsingInformationLegally

5

CopyrightandEducation

6

TrademarkandTradeSecretLaw

7

LicensingofIntellectualProperty

8

InformationMalpractice,Professionalism,andtheUnauthorizedPracticeofLaw
andMedicine

9

SearchWarrants,Investigations,LibraryRecords,andPrivacy

10

InternetUsePoliciesandtheFilteringDebate

11

EmploymentandWorkplaceLaw

12

FormingaNonprofitOrganization
Notes



Index



AbouttheAuthor


ExpandedTableofContents


Acknowledgments

Chapter1

LibrariesandtheU.S.LegalSystem



Chapter2.Contracts:AMeetingofMinds



Chapter3.CopyrightandPatentLaw



Chapter4.FairUseandIntellectualPropertyRights:TheBasicsofUsing
InformationLegally



Chapter5.CopyrightandEducation



Chapter6.TrademarkandTradeSecretLaw



Chapter7.LicensingofIntellectualProperty



Chapter8.InformationMalpractice,Professionalism,andthe
UnauthorizedPracticeofLawandMedicine



Chapter9.SearchWarrants,Investigations,LibraryRecords,andPrivacy



Chapter10.InternetUsePoliciesandtheFilteringDebate



Chapter11.EmploymentandWorkplaceLaw



Chapter12.FormingaNonprofitOrganization



SupplementalMaterialsonWebsite



HowtoReadaLegalCitation



Table1.1.ReportersContainingStateCourtCases



Table1.2.ReportersContainingFederalCourtCases



Table1.3.SetsContainingFederalStatutesandRegulations



Table1.4.Encyclopedias,Digests,andAnnotations



Conclusion

Chapter2

Contracts:AMeetingoftheMinds



DefinitionofaContract



AOffers




BAcceptance,Rejection,andCounter-Offers



CTheConceptsofConsiderationandReliance



DTheStatuteofFrauds



GovernmentalContracts



LegalDamagesforBreachofContract



ACompensatoryDamages



BPunitiveDamages



CConsequentialDamages



DLiquidatedDamages



EPromissoryEstoppel



EquitableDamages



AInjunctionsandSpecificPerformance



BReformationofContracts



CQuasi-contractualRemedies



IllegalContractsandAgreementsAgainstPublicPolicy



Conclusion

Chapter3

CopyrightandPatentLaw



CopyrightLaw



ADerivativeWorks



BInternationalProtectionforCopyrightLaw



CFairUse



InfringementofCopyright



ARemediesforCopyrightInfringement



BActualDamagesandStatutoryDamages



CTheSonyCase



DTheFile-SharingCases



TheWorkforHireDoctrine




AEmployeesversusIndependentContractors:TheReidCase


BStatutoryCategoriesandWorkforHireAgreements



Figure3.1.CopyrightAssignmentClause



CWorkforHireontheCollegeCampus



ExceptionstoCopyrightLawforLibrariesandArchives



Figure3.2.CopyrightNoticeforLibraries



DurationofCopyright



Table3.1.DurationofCopyright



TheU.S.PatentSystem



Conclusion

Chapter4

FairUseandIntellectualPropertyRights:TheBasicsofUsing
InformationLegally



WhatIsFairUse?



ATheNatureoftheUse



BTheNatureoftheCopyrightedWork



CAmountUsed,Substantiality,andEffectonPotentialMarket



DCananArtistPlagiarizeHimself?TheCaseofJohnFogerty



FairUseandtheConstitution:AFirstAmendmentRight?



FairUseandtheCommonLawofCopyrights



AStateCommonLaw,FederalCopyright,andtheQuestionofPreEmption



BCommonLawCopyrightandtheFairUseDoctrine



CCopyrightLawandUnfixedWorks



DUnpublishedManuscripts



Conclusion

Chapter5


CopyrightandEducation
WhatCanYouDoinaClassroomorLibrary?




ACopyrightandE-Reserves



DistanceEducationandCopyrightLaw



AThe1976CopyrightActandDistanceEducation



BTheTEACHActandTransmissionofPerformances



CWhattheTEACHActCovers



Figure5.1.CopyrightNoticeforOnlineClass



Conclusion

Chapter6

TrademarkandTradeSecretLaw



TrademarkLaw



ADilutionofTrademarks



BPalmingandReversePalming



CTheDastarCaseandtheRelationshipbetweenTrademarkand
Copyright



Trademarks,DomainNames,andCybersquatting



InternetLinkingandFraminginCopyrightandTrademarkLaw



ACopying,Displaying,andTransmittingFiles



BCopyrightandTrademarkIssueswithDeepLinkingandFraming



COtherLegalIssueswithLinkingandFraming



TradeSecrets



ATheCaseofthe“AncientFamilySecret!”



BReasonableEffortstoMaintainSecrecy



CLegalandEquitableRemediesforTradeSecrets



DLibrarianConfidentialityandTradeSecretLaw



Conclusion

Chapter7


LicensingofIntellectualProperty
TheUniformComputerInformationTransactionsActandtheAttempt
toCreateaSpecialLawofLicensing




AWhatIsUCITA?



BObjectionstoUCC2BandtheWithdrawaloftheAmericanLaw
Institute



CUCITARisesfromtheAshes



DObjectionstoUCITA



LicensingFreelanceArticlesforDatabases:TheCaseofTasiniv.
NewYorkTimes



ATasiniintheSupremeCourt



TheProcessofGettingPermission



Conclusion

Chapter8

InformationMalpractice,Professionalism,andtheUnauthorizedPractice
ofLawandMedicine



AvoidingtheUnauthorizedPracticeofLawandMedicine



AWhatKindsofAssistanceMayLibrariansProvide?



BTheVirginiaBarAssociationWeighsIn



CHowtoKeepOutofTrouble



DTheLibraryProfession’sEthicalCode



DoesInformationMalpracticeExist?



AWhatIsaProfessional?



BDefiningtheInformationProfessional’sDutyofCaretoPatrons



Conclusion

Chapter9

SearchWarrants,Investigations,LibraryRecords,andPrivacy



TheBasicsofSearchWarrantsforLibrariesandArchives



ATheFBILibraryAwarenessProgram



BTheFourthAmendmentandSearchWarrants



CProbableCause



DParticularity




EDueProcessintheLibrarySetting



StatePrivacyLawsforLibrariesandArchives



AWhatTypeofLibraryIsCovered?



BWhatTypeofInformationIsPrivate?



CWhatTypesofInformationMayBeDisclosed?



DPrivilegedCommunicationforLibrariesinGeorgiaandNew
York



EKentucky,Hawaii,andtheAttorneyGeneralOpinions



TheUSAPATRIOTAct



ATheFISACourt



BPenRegisterandWiretapProvisionsofthePATRIOTAct



CTheStandardforSearchWarrantsinSection215



DSection505andNationalSecurityLetters



ETheNondisclosureProvisionsofthePATRIOTAct



FHowtoHandleaLawEnforcementVisit



GRenewalofthePATRIOTAct



PatronConfidentialityandDutytoSociety:AnEthicalQuandary



ATheEthicalBackground



BTheSuicidalPatron



CTheImmediateThreatofPhysicalViolence



Conclusion



Table9.1.SourcesofStateandTerritorialLibraryPrivacyLaws



Table9.2.TypesofLibraryMaterialsProtectedbyStateand
TerritorialPrivacyLaws



NotesforTable9.1andTable9.2

Chapter10

InternetUsePoliciesandtheFilteringDebate



TheCIPADistrictCourtDecision



TheCIPAPluralityRulingbytheU.S.SupremeCourt




AChiefJusticeRehnquist’sOpinion



BJusticeBreyer’sConcurringOpinion



CJusticeKennedy’sConcurringOpinion



DJusticeStevens’Dissent



EJusticeSouter’sDissent



ReviewingInternetUsePolicies



NecessaryResourcesDiscussingInternetUsePolicies



Conclusion

Chapter11

EmploymentandWorkplaceLaw



AgencyLaw



TheEmploymentRelationship



AEmployeeorIndependentContractor?



BEmployment-at-WillandEmploymentContracts



CTerminatinganEmployee



Figure11.1.SampleLetterofWarningforanEmployee



DLaborUnionsandCollectiveBargaining



ETheFairLaborStandardsAct(FLSA)



FChildLaborLawsundertheFLSA



GHiringNewWorkers



Figure11.2.SampleAdvertisementforJobOpening



HDrugTestingintheWorkplace



IDiscriminationandHarassment



JTheAmericanswithDisabilitiesAct



KTheFamilyandMedicalLeaveAct



Conclusion



Table11.1.InappropriateandAppropriateUsesofPersonal
Questions


Chapter12

FormingaNonprofitOrganization



FormingaMissionStatementandSelectingaBoard



CreatingtheGoverningDocuments



AArticlesofIncorporation



BCreatingBylaws



CEthicsforBoardMembers



DTheSarbanes-OxleyActandNonprofits



ObtainingandMaintainingTax-ExemptStatus



Table12.1.Limitsfor26U.S.C.501(h)and26U.S.C.4911(c)(2)



Conclusion



Notes



Index



AbouttheAuthor


Acknowledgments
Iwouldliketothankthefollowingpeople,withoutwhomthisbookwouldnotbepossible:
Michael Binder, Dean of the Western Kentucky University Libraries, and Brian Coutts,
HeadoftheDepartmentofLibraryPublicServices.Dr.BinderandDr.Couttsencouragedme
topursuethisprojectandsupportedmethroughoutinmanyways,includinggrantingmeleave
toworkonmywriting.PhilMyers,thechairoftheIntellectualPropertyCommitteeatWKU,
and Laura Hagan, WKU’s intellectual property attorney, both contributed information and
suggestions.SallyKuhlenschmidtandtheTeachingResourceFacultygrantcommitteeprovided
financialsupportsothatIcouldattendtheconferenceIntellectualPropertyintheDigitalAge.
Terri Baker, Debra Day, Selina Langford, and Jan Gao in the Interlibrary Loan office
helped to facilitate myresearchbyfindingmaterialstheuniversitydidn’town.Withouttheir
assistance, my work would have been much more difficult. My colleague Haiwang Yuan
providedemotionalsupportandadvice,andhelpedmefindsourcesforsomequotes.
ItwasmycolleagueJackMontgomerywhofirstsuggestedthatIapplymylawbackground
toananalysisoflegalissuesinlibraries.JackintroducedmetoKatinaStrauch,theeditorof
Against the Grain. Many of the concepts discussed in this book began life as columns in
AgainsttheGrain.Katina’sassistanceandsupportwereinstrumentaltothecompletionofthis
project.
MycolleagueRobinMcGinnisassistedmewithproofreading.Evenmoreimportantly,it
was Robin who suggested that I write about the legal aspects of lobbying and marketing
campaigns, and she became my co-author for an article on that topic in Against the Grain.
WendyDrakehelpedmebyprovidinginformationontheJetLibrariansatNorthwestAirlines.
Laura“Lolly”Gassaway,directorofthelawlibraryattheUniversityofNorthCarolina,
ChapelHill,gavemepermissiontoincludeatablefromherWebsitewithinformationonthe
durationofcopyright.IalsoreceivedpermissiontousematerialthefromWebsiteofGeorgia
Harper, theintellectualpropertyexpertfortheGeneralCounsel’sOfficeattheUniversityof
TexasSystem.
I would be remiss if I didn’t thank my staff for all the assistance and understanding that
theyhavegivenmeduringthetimeIwaswritingthisbook.Theyhavehelpedmeinwaystoo
numeroustomention.Ireallycouldnothavecompletedthisworkwithouttheassistanceof(in
alphabeticalorder)PaulaBowles,PhilipEdwards,AlanLogsdon,NancyMarshall,Christina
Muia,ReneeReader,andCarubieRodgers.
SallyCraleyandtheproofreadersatScarecrowworkedhardtohelpeliminateerrors.If
youfindanymistakesinthetext,itismyfault,nottheirs.Myindexingteam,ColleenDunham
Indexing,Inc.,andChrisBantainparticular,tookextrastepstoensurethatreaderswillbeable
tofindinformationinthebook.
Ineedtothankmyeditor,MartinDillon,forprovidingassistance,answeringmyquestions,
andgenerallyguidingmetowardsabetterbook.Martin,Icouldn’thavedonethiswithoutyou.
Thankyouforeverything!


Lastbutnotleast,Ineedtothankmyparents,AdaLouCarsonandHerbertL.Carson,who
taughtmehowtowrite;andmywife,GayleNovick,forputtingupwithmeandprovidingas
muchassistanceaspossiblewhileIfinishedthebook.


1
LibrariesandtheU.S.LegalSystem
Lawisoftenconsideredtobeaspecializedarea,inaccessibletotheordinaryperson,asubject
youhavetogotolawschooltounderstand.Yetatthesametime,lawsimpactusonadaily
basis.Thelawbindseveryone;afterall,societylivesbytheoldmaximthat“ignoranceofthe
lawisnoexcuse.”
Thephilosophybehindthisbookisthatthelawshouldbeaccessibletoeveryone.Mygoal
is to explainlegalconceptsinplainEnglishsothatlibrariansandarchivistswillbeableto
understandtheprinciplesthataffectthemonadailybasis.Thisbookwillprovideitsreaders
withanswers,oratleastitwillraiseissuesforthereaderstothinkabout.Althoughthiswork
isabasicoverview,itcontainsenoughdetailstoallowreaderstomakeinformedchoicesand
totalkintelligentlywithlegalcounsel.
Ibelievethatlibrariansandarchivistsshouldlearnthebasiclegalprinciplesthatapplyto
ourdailylives.Librariansandarchivistswhoknowthelawarenotjustoperatinginthedark;
theyhaveanunderstandingofthelegalforcesthatimpacttheirprofession.Itismybeliefthat,
as professionals, librarians and archivists need to have a much deeper understanding of the
principlesoflibrarylawthanmostofuscurrentlyhave.
Manypeopleknowafewrulesthatseemtoprovidequickanswers.However,mostpeople
don’tunderstandwhythelawisthewayitis.Thereisalargeamountoflegalinformationin
thisbook.Mygoalisnottomakeyouintoalawyer,buttohelpyouunderstandthelawsothat
youcanstaywithinthelaw.
Alexander Pope oncesaid,“Alittlelearningisadangerousthing.”1Justknowing a few
rulescanbedangerous;understandingthelawisnotlikeapplyingacatalogingrule.Whenyou
apply a cataloging rule, “The rule is the rule is the rule.” There are no exceptions, no
“applications” to the situation. In the law, on the other hand, it is the policy and the history
behindtherulethatismoreimportantthantheruleitself.Inthelaw,rulesareflexibleenough
toapplytoeachparticularsetoffacts.Forthatreason,librariansneedtoknowthepolicyand
historybehindtherulesinordertostaywithinthelaw.
Sometimesthisbookmayreadmorelikealawbookthanalibrarysciencebook;however,
thatisdeliberate.Theideaisthat,afteryouhavereadthisbook,youwillnotonlyunderstand
therules,butyouwillalsounderstandwhythelawisfashionedthewayitis.Beingableto
understandthereasonsforthelawwillhelplibrariesandarchivestoruninamoreefficient
way, and will also allow information professionals to work with attorneys at a much higher
level. This will, in turn, allow legal counsel to do a better job of representing libraries and
archives.Ofcourse,themaingoalofunderstandingthelawistoenableustobetterassistour
patrons.
Inthisbook,Iwilloccasionallyofferadvicebaseduponmyeducationandexperiencein


law and librarianship. In some cases, I will advocate principles not specifically relating to
librariansorarchivists,norspecificallyaddressedbyprofessionalethicalcodes.TheadviceI
offerrepresentsonlymyviewsanddoesnotrepresenttheviewofmyemployer,mypublisher,
ormyeditors.
The medieval philosopher Maimonides once said that the highest form of charity is to
teach a person to help himself. My goal is to educate readers so that they understand the
fundamentalconcepts,keepingthemselveswithinthelawandavoidingproblems.
Thefollowingpagescontainbriefsummariesofthebook’sremainingchapters.

Chapter2.Contracts:AMeetingoftheMinds
Thebasicglueofourlivesisthecontract,whichwillbediscussedinChapter2.Contractlaw
is the underpinning for everything else we do. We sign contracts on a daily basis, for
everything from buying books to licensing databases, and from hiring new employees to
orderingnewcomputers.Chapter2willtellyouhowcontractsareformed,andwillexplain
thelawbehindcontractformation—includingoffers,acceptance,rejection,andcounteroffers.
This chapter will also discuss which contracts need to be put into writing so as to be
enforceable.
Sincemanylibrariesaregovernmentalentities,Chapter2willalsodiscusstheprocessfor
forming governmental contracts, including an overview of the Request for Proposal (RFP)
processandtheFederalAcquisitionRegulationSystem.2Thischapterwillalsodiscusslegal
andequitableremediesforbreach ofcontract.Chapter 2 willconcludewithadiscussionof
illegalcontractsandcontractsagainstpublicpolicy.

Chapter3.CopyrightandPatentLaw
Chapter3willdiscusscopyrightlawandpatentlaw.Copyrightsandpatentsarebasicforms
ofintellectualproperty guaranteed bytheU.S.Constitution. Intellectualpropertyprotectsthe
creationsofthemind,suchastheworkofauthors,artists,andinventors.Thereasonwehave
copyright law and patent law is to encourage authors, artists, inventors, and other creative
individuals, while also allowing the public to have access to written materials and to new
inventions.
Chapter 3 will begin with the basics of copyright law, a discussion of what types of
materials can be copyrighted, and an indication of how international copyright protection
works.Copyrightinfringementisanimportanttopicinanydiscussionofintellectualproperty.
ThissectionofChapter3willalso discussremediesforcopyright infringement.Thesection
willalsodiscusstheSonyBetamax3caseandtherecentfile-sharingcasesinvolvingNapster,4
Grokster,5 and StreamCast.6 These cases have great significance for the free exchange of
informationandfortheabilityoflibrarypatronstoaccesscopyrightedmaterials.
One very important concept in all areas of intellectual property is the Work for Hire
doctrine.7 This section of Chapter 3 will help to answer questions about what kind of


employmentisincludedintheWorkforHiredoctrine.TherewillalsobeadiscussionofWork
forHire on college campuses. In addition, Chapter3 will discuss the duration of copyright,
includingtheSonnyBonoCopyrightTermExtensionAct.8
Next, Chapter3 will discuss patentlaw. Librarians and archivists are a very important
partofthepatentsystembecauseinventors,lawyers,andpatentagentsmustsearchscientific
and popular literature. Information professionals can assist in determining whether the
inventionwastheresultof“priorart”(publishedmaterialsandwidelycirculatedunpublished
materials).Finally,thissectiongivesdetailsontheU.S.patentrequirementof“FirsttoInvent,”
anddiscussescurrentproposalstochangethispatentrequirementto“FirsttoFile.”

Chapter4.FairUseandIntellectualPropertyRights:The
BasicsofUsingInformationLegally
Thefairusedoctrine9isthebasicprinciplethatkeepscopyrightlawfromcreatinganabsolute
monopoly. Because of fair use, we are free to quote and comment on published and
unpublishedmaterials.FairuseistheprinciplethathelpstoreconciletheFreedomofSpeech
guaranteesoftheFirstAmendmentwiththeintellectualpropertyrestrictionsofcopyright.The
fairusedoctrineisthesubjectofChapter4,whichdiscusseshowmuchofawriter’sproduct
canbeborrowed,copied,orquotedbyanotherwriter.
Inordertodeterminewhetheraspecificsituationconstitutesfairuse,researchersneedto
askbasicquestionsaboutthenatureoftheutilization,thenatureofthecopyrightedmaterial,the
amount of the material that is used, and the effect of that use on the potential market for the
copyrighteditem.Anotherquestioninvolvesthedifferencebetweenthestyleofanartistversus
plagiarismofthatartist’smaterials.Thisissueisillustratedbythecaseofsinger/songwriter
JohnFogerty.
Fair use may also apply to common law copyright, although there is some controversy
about this issue. Common law copyright applies to materials that don’t qualify for Federal
copyright protection. Unfixed works such as lectures are covered by state common law.
Chapter4willdiscussthequestionoffairuseincommonlawcopyright.

Chapter5.CopyrightandEducation
How does copyright law affect the library and classroom? How does copyright law affect
librarye-reserves?Whatkindsofusesarelegalfordistanceeducation?Thesequestionsabout
copyrightandeducationwillbediscussedinChapter5.
Thischapterwilldiscussissuesrelatingtocopyrightlawbothoncampusandindistance
education.Chapter5 will include the basic rules for classroom use. There will also be an
extensive discussion of the TEACH Act,10 which allows for transmission of some
performancesinadistanceeducationclass.


Chapter6.TrademarkandTradeSecretLaw
Trademark law and trade secret law are often thought of as only pertaining to large
companies.Nothingcouldbefurtherfromthetruth,asyouwillseeinChapter6.
Trademarks consist of “[w]ords, names, symbols, or devices used by manufacturers of
goodsandprovidersofservicestoidentifytheirgoodsandservices,andtodistinguishtheir
goods and services from goods manufactured and sold by others.”11 The trademark must be
“famous”and“distinctive.”12 Libraries and archives not only use trademarked material on a
dailybasis,buttheyalsocreatematerialthatcouldbetrademarked.Therearealsoissuesthat
involvelibrariesandconcerntherelationshipbetweencopyrightlawandtrademarklaw.
One issue of great importance to the library and archival world involves the use of
trademarksontheWorldWideWeb.Thistopicbeginswithdomainnamesandcybersquatting,
butalsoinvolvesthelegalityoflinkingandframing.Libraryandarchivalworkersneedtobe
especiallyawareoftheselegalconcernswhencreatingwebpages.
Tradesecretlawinvolves,amongothermatters,effortstomaintainsecrecyaboutbusiness
materials,secretformulas,andinventionsthathavenotyetbeenpatented.Inthesecases,the
informationhasindependenteconomicvalue,andacompetitorwholearnsatradesecretcould
bringeconomicruin forthepersonororganizationthatistryingtomaintainthetradesecret.
Tradesecretlawhasimportantimplicationsforlibrariansandarchivists,particularlyinterms
ofpatronconfidentiality.

Chapter7.LicensingofIntellectualProperty
Mostintellectualpropertyislicensedratherthansold.Thisstatementisparticularlytrueinthe
libraryworldforonlinedatabasesande-journals.Chapter7discussesthelawspertainingto
licensingofintellectualproperty.
Therulespertaining tolicensing ofintellectualproperty arecreatedbystatelaw,which
varies from one state to the next. The Uniform Computer Information Transactions Act
(UCITA)isanattempttostandardizetheselaws.Unfortunately,UCITAisverycontroversial,
andmanypeople(andprofessionalassociations)disagreewithsomeoftheprovisionsofthis
proposedlaw.Chapter7willdiscussUCITAandwillexplainthecontroversialprovisions.
Anotherissuerelatingtolicensinginvolvestheinclusionindatabasesofarticleswritten
by freelance writers. This topic was the basis of the case of Tasini v. New York Times.13
Chapter7willdiscusstheTasinicaseindetail.
In order to stay within the law, you need to get permission to use intellectual property.
Luckily this doesn’t mean that you have to write to each property holder individually. There
areanumberofagenciesthatexistsolelytoassistusersingettingthenecessarypermissions.
Chapter7containsalistoftheseagencies,alongwiththeircontactinformation.Byusing
these agencies, permissions and licensing issues can be handled in an effective way, so that
intellectualpropertycanbeusedlegally.


Chapter8.InformationMalpractice,Professionalism,andthe
UnauthorizedPracticeofLawandMedicine
Whathappensiflibrariansorarchivistsprovideincorrectinformation?Arewethensubjectto
lawsuitsformalpractice?ThisissueprovidestheframeworkforChapter8.
Nowherearelibrariansandarchivistsmorevulnerablethanwhenansweringquestionsthat
involve law or medicine. Nowhere is there more potential for damage from incorrect
information. As a result, it is vital for information professionals to avoid the unauthorized
practiceoflawandmedicine.
Whenservingpatronswithlegalormedicalquestions,theamountofhelpthatcanlegally
beprovideddependsonwhothepatronisandwhatkindofquestionheorsheisasking.Since
the unauthorized practice of law or medicine is a crime, it is vital that information
professionalshandlethesequestionsappropriately.
TheVirginiaBarAssociationhaswrittenseveralopinionsonhowlibrariesshoulddeal
withpatronswhohavelegalquestions.Theseprinciplescanbeappliedbyanalogytopatrons
withhealth-relatedquestions.Libraryassociationshavealsocreatedguidelinesforanswering
legalandmedicalquestionswithoutstrayingacrosstheline.
In addition to the potential of legal liability for giving incorrect information in law and
medicine, there are also problems relating to information malpractice in other areas.
Malpracticeoccurswhenaprofessionalhasbreachedhisorherdutyofcaretowardsaclient
or patron. A professional is not liable for ordinary negligence as long as the professional’s
standardofcarehasbeenmet.Thisiswhyitisimportantforlibrariansandarchiviststobe
consideredprofessionals.
Thisissueraisesthequestion:Whatisaprofessional?Doesthelawdefinelibrariansand
archivistsasbeingprofessionals?ThisissuewillbediscussedinChapter8.Thechapterwill
also define the duty of care that information professionals owe to our patrons. I will also
discusssomeofthecasesinwhichincorrectinformationhasledtolawsuits.

Chapter9.SearchWarrants,Investigations,LibraryRecords,
andPrivacy
Searchwarrantsareanimportantpartofanyinvestigation.Libraryandarchivalpatronrecords
have always been subject to requests by law enforcement officials if they have a search
warrant. However, libraries do not have to turn over records without a search warrant.
Chapter9discussesthebasicsofsearchwarrants,investigations,andstatelibraryprivacy
laws.
Inordertobalancetheindividual’srightsofprivacywithlawenforcement’sneedtokeep
ussecure,informationprofessionalsshouldlearnthebasicsofsearchwarrants.Librariansand
archivists also need to understand how search warrants relate to investigations of library
crime. Chapter 9 discusses the Fourth Amendment requirement for search warrants and


explainstheconceptsofprobablecauseandparticularity. This chapter also discusses how
the Due Process clauses of the Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments relate to the library or
archival setting, and how Due Process applies to investigations, including stopping a patron
whoissuspectedofstealingmaterials.
The laws relating to library privacy vary from state to state. Chapter9 will explain the
similaritiesanddifferencesamongtheselaws.Someoftheissuesthatwillbediscussedinthis
chapterinclude(A)whattypeoflibraryiscovered,(B)whattypeofinformationisprivate,
and(C)whattypeofinformationcanorcan’tbedisclosed.Thestatutesfromeachjurisdiction
areavailableattheScarecrowPresssupportWebsiteforthisbook.
Two states—Kentucky and Hawaii—do not have library privacy statutes. Instead, these
states protect library patrons with opinions from the state Attorney General’s office. (The
KentuckyandHawaiiopinionsarealsoavailableattheScarecrowPresssupportWebsitefor
this book.) Chapter9 will discuss these opinions on library privacy. The chapter will also
discuss the controversial USA PATRIOT Act, and will explain how this statute affects the
libraryworld.
Sometimes patron confidentiality is not entirely supreme. Under certain circumstances,
librarians and archivists may have an ethical duty to society not to keep patron information
confidential.Themostcommonscenariosinvolveasuicidalpatronorapatronwhoposesan
immediatethreatofphysicalviolencetoanidentifiabletarget.
Chapter9willdiscussthisethicalquandary,andwilluseanalogieswithotherprofessions
inordertohelplibrariansandarchivistsdeterminewhattodowhenfacedwithasuicidalor
homicidal patron. Although this book can’t tell you what to do in such a situation, reading
Chapter9willhelpyouworkthroughtheethicalquestionsandpotentialresponsesinorderto
cometoyourownconclusion.

Chapter10.InternetUsePolicies
andtheFilteringDebate
ThedebateoverfilteringofWebsitesinlibrariesandarchiveshasbeenragingalmostsince
the beginning of the World Wide Web. The Children’s Internet Protection Act (CIPA)14
mandatesthatschoolsandlibrariesthatreceiveFederalfundingmustusefilteringsoftwarefor
juveniles.ThisissueisthebasisforChapter10.
The chapter will discuss the CIPA District Court decision,15 which was eventually
overturnedbytheU.S.SupremeCourt.16Unfortunately,theSupremeCourtdecisionwasoneof
themostcomplicatedopinionsinrecenthistory.Thisopinionwasapluralitydecision.While
fiveJusticeswereabletoagreethatfilteringwaslegalinsomecircumstances,theywerenot
abletoagreeonthelegalreasonsforthisruling.Thereare,however,severalprinciplesthat
canbeascertainedfromthisdecision.Asaresult,theSupremeCourtopinionrequiresclose
readinginordertodeterminejustwhattherulesareforlibrariesandarchives.
ThedecisionintheCIPAcaserequiresanumberofchangesinlibrarypolicies.Chapter10
willinterpretthisopinion,andwillalsoprovidesomeguidanceforthecreationofInternetuse


policies in libraries and archives. The chapter will also include some articles and Websites
withinformationtohelpwritepoliciesandproceduresforInternetuse,bothamongadultsand
byminors.

Chapter11.EmploymentandWorkplaceLaw
Librariesandarchivesareemployers,andinordertoavoidproblemstheseorganizationsmust
knowwhatislegalandwhatisnotlegal.Chapter11willdiscussemploymentandworkplace
law. Library and archival workers need to know the basics of workplace law in order to
remainlegal.
Employment law is based on the law of agency. Agency law is also important for
determining when an individual is acting on his or her own behalf or on behalf of an
organization. It is also important to determine whether the individual is an employee or an
independentcontractor.
Many workers don’t have employment contracts. These people are subject to the
employment-at-will doctrine. However, some organizations do have personnel policies or
employment handbooks that operate as an employment contract. It is very important for both
organizations and employees to understand how these policies work and what they mean for
theemploymentrelationship.Laborunionsandcollectivebargainingaddanotherlayertothis
relationship.
Allemployeesandorganizationsshouldunderstandsomeofthelegalprovisionsrelating
to the Fair Labor Standards Act17 and to child labor laws. Chapter 11 also discusses drug
testing,discriminationandharassment,theAmericanswithDisabilitiesAct,18andtheFamily
and Medical Leave Act.19 The chapter will also explain how to hire and fire employees
withoutbeingsued.

Chapter12.FormingaNonprofitOrganization
Because many libraries and archives are nonprofit organizations, it is imperative for
informationprofessionalstounderstandthebasicsofforminganonprofitorganization. This
is the topic of Chapter 12. Knowledge about nonprofits will also be valuable for creating
FriendsoftheLibrarygroupsandforformingprivatefoundationstohandledonations.
Some of the issues that will be discussed in Chapter 12 include creating a mission
statement and selecting a board, writing the organizational articles of incorporation and the
bylaws, and creating ethical policies for board members. The chapter will also discuss the
Sarbanes-OxleyAct20anditsrelevancetothenonprofitworld.Lastbutnotleast,Chapter12
willprovideinformationonobtainingandmaintainingatax-exemptstatus.

SupplementalMaterialsonWebsite


ScarecrowPressprovidesasupplementalWebsiteforthisbook.TheWebsiteincludesthetext
oflibraryprivacylawsfromeverystate,alongwiththeAttorneyGeneralopinionsonlibrary
privacy from Kentucky and Hawaii. The site also includes opinions and guidelines on the
unauthorized practice of law in the library context. There are also valuable sources that
discuss serving library patrons with disabilities. In addition, the Website lists articles about
Website accessibility under Section 508, as well as articles about the ADA and employees
with disabilities. To access this Website, go to the bibliographic record for this book at
http://www.scarecrowpress.com/ISBN/081085189X.
The remainder of Chapter 1 will cover the very important topic of how to read legal
citations.

HowtoReadaLegalCitation
Like any other subject area, the ability to conduct legal research is dependent upon good
referencesandgoodcitations.ThebasicbuildingblockoflegalcitationisAUniformSystem
ofCitation,alsoknownastheHarvardBluebook.21TheBluebook—compiledbytheeditors
oftheColumbiaLawReview,HarvardLawReview,UniversityofPennsylvaniaLawReview,
andYaleLawReview—hasbeenpublishedsince1926.
Manyofthemainstyleformats,suchastheAmericanPsychologicalAssociation(APA)
andModernLanguageAssociation(MLA)handbooks,referuserstotheBluebookforlegal
citations.TheChicagoManualofStylealsosuggeststhatwritersconsulttheBluebookwhen
citinglegalmaterials.TheBluebookstyle,however,isvastlydifferentfromanyoftheother
styleguides.
Inthisbook,IwillbeusingBluebookformat(17thed.)forallcitations.Thereareseveral
reasonsforthisuseoftheBluebook.Firstofall,sincethepurposeofthisbookistointroduce
librariansandarchiviststothelawsthataffecttheirprofessionallives,Ihaveincludedmany
legal citations. It makes sense to keep to a single style instead of switching styles back and
forth. Secondly, usingBluebook style in the book will help readers to become familiar with
thiscitationformat.Finally,usinglegalcitationformatswillnotonlyhelplibraryandarchival
workerstoresearchlegalissuesfortheirwork,butwillalsohelptheminansweringpatron’s
questions,workingoncollectiondevelopment,andcataloginglegalmaterials.
Thebasicfoundationof thelegalcitationistheabbreviation.Eachofthestandardlegal
research sets has a standardized abbreviation. For example, the United States Reports (the
officialpublicationwhichcontainscasesfromtheU.S.SupremeCourt)isalwaysdesignated
asU.S.
Oftenthesamecaseorstatuteispublishedinmorethanonelocation.Whenthathappens,
the official publication put out by the government is always listed first. Privately published
setsarethenlistedaftertheofficialpublicationinformation.
Itisnotconsideredimpropertogiveacitationtotheofficialset,evenifyouhaveusedan
unofficialversion.Infact,itisrecommended.Sincethetextofthecase,statute,orregulationis
alwaysthesameineachversion,youshouldprovidethecitationtotheofficialsource.Citing


theunofficialsourcesisoptional.
Whenever you see a legal citation, the number before the abbreviation is the volume
number, and the number after the abbreviation is the page number. A legal citation may look
likethefollowing:
UnitedStatesv.AmericanLibraryAssociation,539U.S.194;123S.Ct.2297;156
L. Ed. 2d 221; 2003 U.S. LEXIS 4799; 71 U.S.L.W. 4465 (2003), available at
http://laws.findlaw.com/us/000/02-361.html.
Thiscitationbreaksdownasfollows:

Afterthecasename(UnitedStatesv.AmericanLibraryAssociation),thefirstcitationis
totheofficialpublication.Involume539oftheUnitedStatesReports,thecasewillbeginon
page194.Theofficialcitationshouldalwaysbeused,evenifthecasehasbeenretrievedfrom
another source. The other citations that follow are privately published sets that also include
thiscase:

TheSupremeCourtReporterispublishedbyWestGroupandcontainsthefulltextofall
SupremeCourtopinions.Thissetalsocontainsanumberofeditorialenhancements,including
a classification system (similar to the Library of Congress Classification System) for legal
principlesfoundineachcase.TheSupremeCourtReporteralsoincludeshelpfulsummaries
ofthecases.


Tài liệu bạn tìm kiếm đã sẵn sàng tải về

Tải bản đầy đủ ngay

×

×