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Library management for the digital age


LibraryManagementfortheDigitalAge


EditorialAdvisoryBoard
YvonneChandler,associateprofessor,UniversityofNorthTexas
EdwinM.Cortez,dean,SchoolofLibraryandInformationScience,UniversityofTennessee
KenHaycock,researchprofessorofmanagementandorganizationanddirectorofgraduate
programsinlibraryandinformationmanagement,UniversityofSouthernCalifornia
MaureenSullivan,pastpresident,AmericanLibraryAssociation
Jennifer Weber, assistant professor and head librarian, Riverside Campus Library, Austin
CommunityCollege


LibraryManagementfortheDigitalAge
ANewParadigm
JulieTodaro

ROWMAN&LITTLEFIELD

Lanham•Boulder•NewYork•Toronto•Plymouth,UK



PublishedbyRowman&Littlefield
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Copyright©2014byRowman&Littlefield
Allrightsreserved.Nopartofthisbookmaybereproducedinanyformorbyanyelectronicormechanicalmeans,including
informationstorageandretrievalsystems,withoutwrittenpermissionfromthepublisher,exceptbyareviewerwhomayquote
passagesinareview.
BritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationInformationAvailable
LibraryofCongressCataloging-in-PublicationData
Todaro,Julie,1950–
Librarymanagementforthedigitalage:anewparadigm/JulieTodaro.
pagescm
Includesbibliographicalreferencesandindex.
ISBN978-1-4422-3069-9(cloth:alk.paper)—ISBN978-1-4422-3015-6(pbk.:alk.paper)—ISBN978-1-4422-3016-3
(ebook)
1.Libraryadministration.2.Libraryadministration—Casestudies.I.Title.
Z678.T632014
025.1—dc232014001672
™ThepaperusedinthispublicationmeetstheminimumrequirementsofAmericanNationalStandardforInformation
Sciences—PermanenceofPaperforPrintedLibraryMaterials,ANSI/NISOZ39.48-1992.PrintedintheUnitedStatesof
America


Contents
Contents
Contents
Preface
Acknowledgments
Introduction
PARTI:TWENTY-FIRST-CENTURYMANAGEMENTINLIBRARIES
Chapter1:ClassicManagementvs.NewManagement
Chapter2:PreparingandMaintainingtheNewManager
Chapter3:“Managing”NewEmployees/Staff/HumanResources/Stakeholders
Chapter4:NewManagementofChange
Chapter5:NewManagersDesigningNewOrganizations
Chapter6:ManagementInfrastructureDocumentsinNewOrganizations
Chapter7:ManagingNewServicesandResources
Chapter8:ManagingThoseOutsidethe“Sphere”
Chapter9:NewManagement“inAction”Communication
Chapter10:NewManagerswithinClassicandNewOrganizations
Chapter11:NewManagersinClassicandNewFacilitiesandEnvironments
Chapter12:New“Landscapes”forLibraryandInformationSettings
Chapter13:ManagingtheBalancetoMeetNewConstituent/CustomerExpectations
Chapter14:Accountability,Measurement,andAssessmentinNewManagementOrganizations
Chapter15:NewBudgetingwith(Mostly)ClassicBudgetingIssues
Chapter16:EmergencyManagementRolesandResponsibilitiesofNewManagers
PARTII:THECASES
IntroductiontotheCaseMethod
Case1:ADifficultPathofMovingUpandOut
Case2:BuildingYourOwnManagementTrainingProgram
Case3:RumorHasIt
Case4:DoYouHaveAnyChangeonYou?
Case5:RackingUptheLibraryPoolTable
Case6:Manuals,Handbooks,Policies,Procedures,Budgets,Minutes,andPlans,OhMy!
Case7:What’sOldIsNew—IftheMoneyIsThere


Case8:ButEnoughaboutMe—WhatDoYouThinkaboutMe?
Case9:SufferingfromPastMistakes
Case10:WhatYouDon’tKnowCanHurtYou
Case11:AFixerUpper
Case12:Penny’sPartnersProliferateduetoPunctual,Prioritized,andPositivePlanning
Case13:KeepingUpwiththe“Joneses”
Case14:TorturetheData
Case15:MatchingDatatoDataRequests
Case16:BuildingTomorrow’sFutureonToday’sExpertise
APPENDIXES
AppendixA
AppendixB
AppendixC
AbouttheAuthor


Preface
Theprofessionoflibraryandinformationsciencehaschangedsodramaticallyinthelasttwo
decades that content about libraries in general as well as content about managing libraries,
libraryemployees,services,andresourcesisoftentooquicklyoutofdate.Historical,classic,
orevenrecentcontentishelpfulinoutliningdirectionsandidentifyinghowprocessesmaybe
accomplishedbut,onceappliedtoanenvironment,maynolongermatchthereality.
In my over thirty-five years in the profession in all types and sizes of libraries, the most
challenging aspects of my job included the general management of the organization and the
managementofthemyriadofemployeesworkingintheorganization.Other“mostchallenging”
aspectsonmylistincludethemanagementrolesandresponsibilitiesofworkingacrosslinesof
the organization with peers and colleagues as well as managing “up” to my immediate
supervisorsandotheradministratorsandstakeholders.
In the search for content and techniques to assist me in creating contemporary structures to
better manage activities, issues, and people in my own libraries, I realized that the best
techniques were those that identified context in the workplace, meaningful connections of
issuesandactivitiestoindividualemployeerolesandresponsibilities,and,mostimportantly,
managingchangeandtheidentificationofspecificmanagementissuesandactivitieschanging
orbeingintroducedintotheworkplace.
Whileeachworkplaceisunique,myexperienceinavarietyoftypesandsizesoflibraries
and my commitment to a focus on all types and sizes of libraries, has provided me with a
uniqueperspectivethathasenrichedallofmypositionsandgivenmeanappreciationnotonly
oftheextentofdifferencesamonglibrariesandlibrarians,butalsoofthesimilaritieswithin
the profession and among professionals. This book is my attempt, therefore, to capture the
breadthoftheprofessionandtoidentifytechniquesandprocessesformanagingthatbreadth.I
wouldhopethatreadersbothineducationalsettingsandinpracticewillbeabletorecognize
themselves or their workplaces in this content and/or use the techniques and processes to
identifytheirownsolutions.
Recommending the best professional management literature (books, journals, website
content)oftodaytoaccompanythisbookcontent,however,isabookinandofitself.Insorting
throughrecommendedresources,Istruggledtodefinegeneralvs.specifictypesofmanagement
aswellasmanagementbysizeandtypeoforganization,profitvs.nonprofit,andnonlibraryvs.
library content,anduse-in-practicevs.educationandtraining.Insteadofaddinghundredsof
titles, I identified what I considered to be indispensable for a manager’s “bookshelf.” This
general annotated list is located in the appendices; however, recommended sources for each
chapterarelocatedattheendofthechapter.
Thetitleofanonfictionbookshouldcommunicatetoreadersanideaofnotonlycontextbut
also general content and, if possible, application of content. Library Management for the


DigitalAge:ANewParadigmoffersreadersanopportunitytofindthemselveswithinthetext
ormaketheirownapplicationofcontentratherthantellingreaders“thisistheonlyway.”As
such:
• contentincludesinformationonalltypesandsizesoflibraries
• contentincludesawidevarietyofmanagementsituations
• readers will find themselves on either or both sides of paradigms and can also decide to
createnewparadigms
• readersfromthelowesttothehighesttechlibraryenvironmentnotonlywillbeabletofind,
identify, or locate “themselves” and their libraries, but also will be able to find multiple
ways(bothclassicandnew)toarticulateissuesaswellasmultipleways(bothclassicand
new)toidentifysolutions
BOOKORGANIZATION:PARTI
LibraryManagementfortheDigitalAge:ANewParadigmintroduceslibrarymanagersand
librarianswhowishtobemanagerstothe“newmanagement”withinthetwenty-first-century
libraryenvironment;thecontentisintendedtobeanalyzedinavarietyofwaysincludingthe
useofcasemethod.Inaddition,inpartI,contentisalsoillustratedandanalyzedthroughthe
useofParadigmShifts,whichareusedtocompareandcontrasttheold,“classic”management
stylewithnew,“contemporary”managementpractices.Thesixteenchaptersareasfollows:
Chapter1.ClassicManagementvs.NewManagement
Librarymanagersmustbeabletounderstandnotonlytheirworkplaceenvironmentbutalsothe
practiceofmanagementandtheroleofchangeinmanagement.
Chapter2.PreparingandMaintainingtheNewManager
Learning how to manage has changed and learning opportunities include education, training,
professionaldevelopment,and/orcontinuingeducation.
Chapter3.“Managing”NewEmployees/Staff/HumanResources/Stakeholders
A major part of learning a workplace environment is getting to know the organization’s
employees including how they have changed, how they have stayed the same, and how to
chooseappropriatemethodsofmanaging,directing,andcoordinating.
Chapter4.NewManagementofChange
Today’smanagersmustbeabletodefinechangeandassistothersinissuessurroundingchange
aswellastechniquesfordealingwithresistancetochangeandembracingchange.
Chapter5.NewManagersDesigningNewOrganizations
Managersmustassessorganizationstodetermineifstructuresandpracticesneedtobechanged
tomeettheneedscreatedbychangingworkenvironments.


Chapter6.ManagementInfrastructureDocumentsinNewOrganizations
Anorganization’smanagement documentsmust be continuouslyassessedtodetermineifthey
keepupwiththedramaticrateofchangefoundinworkenvironmentstoday.
Chapter7.ManagingNewServicesandResources
Library managers manage and market a hybrid of classic as well as newer resources and
services such as one-stop, distance, or remote access, and constituent-driven programs,
resources,andservices.
Chapter8.ManagingThoseOutsidethe“Sphere”
Muchattentionshouldbepaidtorelationshipsthatprovidesupportforthelibrarysuchaspeer
organizations,partners,andthelibrary’sumbrellainstitution.
Chapter9.NewManagement“inAction”Communication
Managers should audit their communication practices, identify skills set, and employ best
practicestoimplementexemplarycommunicationtechniques.
Chapter10.NewManagerswithinClassicandNewOrganizations
Librarymanagersneedsuccessfulcoordinatinganddirectingrelationshipswithgoverningand
advisorygroupsaswellasstakeholdersandsupporters.
Chapter11.NewManagersinClassicandNewFacilitiesandEnvironments
Today’s managers must be prepared for maintaining, renovating, designing, and building
libraryfacilitiesthatrangefromhistorictothenewestenvironments.
Chapter12.New“Landscapes”forLibraryandInformationSettings
Librarymanagersmustbeawareofandintunewithnotonlylocal,regional,orstateissuesand
changesbutalsonationalandglobalsocietalchangesandissues.
Chapter13.ManagingtheBalancetoMeetNewConstituent/CustomerExpectations
Library managers must keep up with changing constituents (users and potential users) for
libraryresourcesandservicestoremainrelevantandessentialtoconstituentcommunities.
Chapter14.Accountability,Measurement,andAssessmentinNewManagement
Organizations
Librarymanagersmustbewellversedinassessmentandmeasurement,aswellasaccountable
totheirumbrellaorganizationsandcommunitiesforexpenditures,resources,andtheimpactof
thoseexpendituresonconstituents.
Chapter15.NewBudgetingwith(Mostly)ClassicBudgetingIssues


Library managers are responsible for organizing, tracking, and spending dollars and must be
abletojustifyandaccountforallpublicandprivatedollars,libraryservicesandresources,
andthelibrary’sphysicalanddigitalinfrastructure.
Chapter16.EmergencyManagementRolesandResponsibilitiesofNewManagers
Librarieshavelongbeeninvolvedindisasterplanningtoprotectservicesandresourcesand
today’s work environments demand that employees are prepared at the highest levels for
handlingcriticalissuesandriskandemergencymanagement.
BOOKORGANIZATION:PARTII
The management content described in part I is complemented by the sixteen cases in part II.
Eachcasematchesupwiththechapterofthesamenumber(e.g.,case#1matcheswithchapter
1).Thecasesareintendedtobeanalyzedusingtheten-pointcasemethodthatisdescribedin
theintroductiontopartII.CasescanbeanalyzedinconjunctionwithpartIcontent,orcanbe
utilized independent of part I. For each case, the focus and uses within various types of
librariesisgiven.
THEDIGITALAGEANDPARADIGMSHIFT
Finally, a reasonable question might be, however, can or how can low- or lower-tech
environmentsmakesignificantuseofamanagementbook presenting“digital age”paradigms
and paradigm shifts? The answer to this question lies not in library funding levels or the
identificationofthetypeorsizeofthelibraryormanagementstyleofthelibrarian—ratherin
thedefinitionofdigitalage.
Many terms change or morph as they “age” or progress through their context or continuum.
And, of course, things are relative. That is, three to four decades ago, a “high-tech” library
mighthavebeenonewithacardcatalogconvertedtoahigh-speedmicrofilmreaderandbyno
stretchoftheimaginationwouldthat“high-tech”environmentwiththesamereader(andsome
mightsaywithanymicrofilm!)beconsidered“hightech”today.
Suchisthetermdigitalage.Withalmostdozensofdefinitionsandinterpretationsofdigital
age,onecanfindaliteraldefinitionofthedifferencebetweenanaloganddigitalaswellas
phrasesmanyconsidertobesynonymouswithdigitalagesuchascomputerage,information
age,orthenewmediaage.Digitalageisaperfectcategorizationofourcurrent“state”inall
library and information settings because not only does the phrase mean the changes in
technologythathaveandcontinuetooccur,butitalsoincludesnewwaysofdoingbusiness,
different ways of looking at things, changing processes and procedures, and the speed with
whichthingschangeandbecomedifferent.Therealityisthatlibrariestodayaredifferent,and
LibraryManagementfortheDigitalAge:ANewParadigmoffersideasnotonlyonwhatis
different and new that includes technology, but also different ways of looking at the usual,
classic,orfamiliarfornotonly“whatisnow”butalso“whatisnext.”


Acknowledgments
Acknowledgmentsaretheauthor’schancetoidentifythosewhoinspiredcontentbut—because
ofmybreadthofexperienceand,therefore,becausethecontentinthisbookcomesfromboth
good and bad managers I have worked for, worked with, and observed—it’s hard to
acknowledgespecificindividualswhomayrepresentone,theother,or—actually—aspectsof
both. Instead I choose to thank my infrastructure of support for life, which includes family,
friends,professionalacquaintances,anddogs—awiderangeofpurebred,mixes,andrescues!
Inaddition,IhavetothankCharlesHarmonforthisopportunityandhissupport.


Introduction
Mostintroductionsaredesignedtodescribewhat’sinthebook.Forthiswork,however,it’s
equally important to identify what doesn’t seem to be included in the content, why some
terminologyisusedornotused,aswellashowandwhenthebookmightbeused.Tothisend,
thisintroductionincludeswhatisinthebookbutalsoanswersquestionsaboutwhatisn’tinthe
bookandwhysomethingsareidentifiedastheyare.
WhatIsIncludedintheBook?
Thisbookincludesdescriptionsoflibraries,employees,services,andresourcesbutdoesso
specificallyinthecontextofhowtheyhavechanged.Ratherthanprovidinghistoricalcontexts,
paradigmsdescribewhatishappeningorhasjusthappenedinmanycontemporarysettings,and
thenParadigmShiftsandmanagementcasesprovidethebiggerpictureofhowtheprofession,
libraries, employees, andservicesand resourcesarechanginganddefinewhatis“new.” To
keep content from stagnating, however, I’ve provided information in terms of what is
contemporary,whatisnew,aswellashowtousetechniquesintheworkplacetocontinueto
definewhatischangingandwhatisnotonlynewbutalsonext.
“New” management education and training curriculum and content, within the context of a
contemporaryworkplace,should:
• identifycontemporarymanagementdefinitions
• focusonmanagementissues
• illustrate how management definitions, issues, etc., apply to today’s and tomorrow’s
environmentsandspecificallynonprofitenvironmentssuchaslibraries
• illustratehowmanagementdefinitions,issues,etc.,applytoalltypesandsizesoflibraries
• identifybestpractices,benchmarks,andexamples
• providetechniquesandtoolsformanagerstolearnandapplythedisciplineofmanagement
Just as this content can be used in teaching, learning, and training settings, the practitioner
shouldembracethiscontentandthetechniquesusedtointroducecontent.Thatis,managersin
the field should explore these techniques for the transition from management theory to the
application of management content for employees, ancillary groups, umbrella organization
employees, institutional partners, and vendors. New management managers must bring this
content and these techniques into the workplace to illustrate management excellence and
provide a rationale for data-driven decision-making and problem-solving. To this end, each
chapter provides an overview of content, one or more Paradigm Shifts, and questions for
discussion;casesthatcomplementeachchapterareincludedinpartII,tobeanalyzedwiththe
casemethod.Althoughanumberofareasinthelibraryandinformationprofessiondoroutinely
use the case method technique for teaching and learning certain issues in academic settings


(e.g.,intellectualfreedom,humanresources,ethics),techniquessuchasthedesignofParadigm
Shiftsandthecasemethodshouldbeintegratedintoworkplaceoperationsatalllevelsandfor
alltypesandsizesoflibraries.
WhatConstitutesContemporaryManagementEducationandTraining?
Decades of “old management” education and training curricula have outlined the study of
management in similar if not identical ways beginning with a historical look at theory, and
typesandstylesofmanagement.Whilethe“historyofmanagement”approachistheolderor
more classic way of providing context for contemporary management, the reality is that
studyingmanagementtheory,andolderorclassictypesandstyles,isnotacriticalorrequired
initial step in learning how to manage or—more importantly—how to excel at management.
Instead,identifyingaspectsofmanagementandmanagementdefinitions,focusingonsuccessful,
contemporarymanagementissues,illustratinghowhistoricalormoreclassictypesandstyles
apply to today’s and tomorrow’s nonprofit environments, illustrating how types and styles
applytocurrentlibrarysettings,andprovidingtechniquesandtoolsformanagerstolearnand
apply the discipline of management is the more successful curriculum for educating and
trainingthenewmanagementmanager.Inaddition,moretypicalmanagementlearningtoolsand
techniquesformanagershavebeenusedineducationalsettingsorclassroomsratherthaninthe
workplace,andalthoughthesetechniquesarecriticalforlearninghowtotransitionfromtheory
to the application of management content, new management managers must bring these
techniques into work environments for efficiency, effectiveness, and more successful
communication,aswellasdata-andinformation-drivendecision-makingandproblem-solving.
Forexample,thereareavarietyofwaystouseaParadigmShiftasatechniqueinstudying
management.Thesewaysinclude:
• studyrelevantcurriculum,readorreviewtheParadigmShift,andanswerquestionsingroup
orclassroomsettingswithguideddiscussions
• readorreviewtheParadigmShift,answerquestionsingrouporclassroomsettings,study
relevant curriculum, and answer questions again through a guided discussion, and in the
second discussion, compare answers to see if application of the management techniques
alteredanswersorthesuggestedresolutionstothesituation
UsingParadigmShiftsasmanagementtechniquesinanewmanagementworkplace,however,is
highlyrecommended.Thistechnique—ingrouporclassroomsettings—ishelpfulinaddressing
issuesandassistsindecision-makingandproblem-solving,aswellasteachingothermanagers
andpotentialmanagershowtomanage.UsingParadigmShiftsintheworkplacecaninclude:
• interviewthoseinvolved;identifyfactsandissues;designaparadigm;provideaforum(ad
hocorongoinggroup)fordiscussion;reviewtheParadigmShiftwiththegroupandaddress,
discuss, and answer questions; and then complete a Paradigm Shift and/or choose from
amongalternatives
• interviewthoseinvolved;identifyfactsandissues;provideaforum(adhocorstandard)for
discussion;designaparadigmwiththoseinvolvedandotheremployeesappropriatetothe


situation; review the Paradigm Shift and address, discuss, and answer questions; and/or
choosefromamongalternatives
Although a number of areas in the profession do use Paradigm Shifts routinely, such as
intellectual freedom and emergency management, this management technique should be
integratedintooperationsatalllevelsifpossible.
HowDoesThisBook’sStyleorContentDeliveryWorkforTeachingandLearning
SettingsasWellasintheWorkplaceorPractice?
Although almost all content about using paradigms, Paradigm Shifts, and case method
techniquesplacetheiruseineducationandintrainingclassrooms,theuseofthesetechniques
inthepracticeofmanagementcanbeamanager’sbesttoolformodelingbehavior,discussing
issues, solving problems, and orienting, training, and retraining. Education and training uses
include:
• readthecontent,readthecaseorreviewtheParadigmShift,andanswerquestionsingroup
orclassroomsettingswithguided,groupdiscussions
• readthecase,followingpracticesforreviewingcasesindividually,havegroupdiscussion,
andcompareapproachesandopinionsoncasehandlingandsolutions
• reviewtheParadigmShiftinagroupsettingandanswerquestions,readcontentandanswer
—inthegroup—questionsagain,haveguideddiscussion,andcompareandcontrastanswers
toseeifcontentaltereddiscussion,answers,ortheresolutions
• read content, break group into small groups, have discussion, and compare and contrast
approachesofsmallergroupsinlargergroup
Usesinpracticeinclude,forexample,usingtoolsforproblem-solving:
• selectaproblem,interviewthoseinvolved,identifyfactsandissues,prioritize,speculateon
outcomes, share/discuss with those involved, propose solutions in team meetings, choose
solutionsbasedondatagathered,andcreateaParadigmShiftforhowthesituation,activity,
andproblemwerebeforeandarenowafterthesolution
• selectaParadigmShiftrelatedtoanorganizationalissue(newspace,newservice,changing
resources),createathirdcolumn,gatheragroup,andcompletethethirdcolumnasateam
• selectaParadigmShiftrelatedtoanorganizationalissue(newspace,newservice,changing
resources),createathirdcolumn,askindividualsinvolvedtocompletethethirdcolumnby
themselves, gather a group, compare third column as a team to identify difference and
similarities,andcreateathirdcolumnafterdiscussions
• select a problem, interview those involved, identify facts and issues, provide a forum (ad
hocorstandard)fordiscussion,designaparadigmwiththoseinvolvedandotheremployees
appropriate to the situation, ask others such as departments or small groups to take the
paradigm and create a Paradigm Shift, gather a group of those smaller groups, compare
shifts,havegroupsdefendshiftelementschosen,andcreatetheParadigmShiftcreatedbyall
involved


WhoAretheManager’s“Employees”inLibrariesTodayandHowShouldTheyBe
Identified?
All types and sizes of libraries have varieties of people working in them at any given time.
There are too many variations and categories of individuals to accurately characterize each
situationin,forexample,paradigms,cases,andgeneralcontentspecifically;therefore,forthis
book,thetermemployees—typicallyusedtorefertoonlypaidorsalariedindividuals—will
be used to encompass full- and part-time workers, student workers, volunteers, interns, etc.
While library managers need to have overarching policies for everyone for whom they are
responsible,theyneedtoensurethateverycategoryofemployeebecovered(whetherincluded
orexcluded)whenconsideringhumanresourceissues(insurance,benefits,performance,etc.)
aswellasmanagementissues(communication,rolesandresponsibilities,etc.).Althoughitis
notpossible—giventherangeoftypesandsizesoflibrariesandtheirumbrellaorganizations,
toprovidespecificsforthemanydifferentlevelsandtypesofemployeesforeachsituation,it
isimportanttoidentifyhowthesecategoriesandlevelsofemployeesmightbeaddressedby
managers.Abasiclistismosteasilydonebyidentifyingcategoriesofemployeesbytypeof
library.
Questionsthatmanagersneedtohaveaskedandansweredfortheiremployeesinclude:
• Whichemployeesarecoveredbywhichpoliciesandproceduresoftheorganizationand/or
umbrellaorganization?
• Whospeaksforthelibraryandlibrarymanagement,includingingeneralcommunicationand
indecision-making,forpublicpresentations,informalandinformalgroupmeetings,andin
writtencommunication?Andinarelatedissue,whoisallowedtouselibraryletterheadin
communications?
• Who enters into agreements or is allowed to sign contracts? And what levels or types of
contracts?
• How do organizational benefits apply to categories and levels of employees and, if
applicable,whatotherbenefitsmightapplysuchasumbrellaorganization,relatedentities,
partnership benefits, or local, state, or federal infrastructure such as worker’s
compensation?
PublicLibraries
Public libraries can have permanent full- and part-time employees who are paid (hourly,
salaried, on contract or subcontract, etc.); temporary (seasonal or grant) full- and part-time
employeeswhoarepaid(hourly,salaried,oncontractorsubcontract,etc.);supporterswhoare
directlyinvolvedwiththelibrarysuchasgoverningoradvisoryboardmembers;workersfrom
umbrella organizations; individuals from library partnerships; individuals present due to
sharedspaces;aswellasvolunteers(Friends,fromthecourts,lawenforcement,thosegiving
backtothecommunitysuchasRotarians,churchgroups,youthorganizations,andinternships).
AcademicLibraries


Academiclibrariescanhavepermanentfull-andpart-timeemployeeswhoarepaid(hourly,
salaried, on contract or subcontract, etc.); temporary (seasonal or grant) full- and part-time
employeeswhoarepaid(hourly,salaried,oncontractorsubcontract,etc.);supporterswhoare
directly involved with the library such as advisory group members; internships; volunteers
fromtheuniversity,college,orlibraryFriendsgroup;studentservicesorstudentgovernment;
from museum or archival enthusiasts; or content specialists from disciplines or departments.
Others can include college or university employees such as the institutional or instructional
technology support department whose employees support library technology, the college or
university public relations and marketing department, and/or academic fundraising or
development.
SchoolLibraries
School libraries can have permanent full- and part-time employees who are paid (hourly,
salaried, on contract or subcontract, etc.); temporary (seasonal or grant) full- and part-time
employeeswhoarepaid(hourly,salaried,oncontractorsubcontract,etc.);supporterssuchas
PTA, adult, and youth advisory group members; internships; volunteers from the friends,
students, parents, and/or student government. Other employees can include those involved in
development and fundraising and/or annual book sale or book fair and school district- or
building-levelemployeesincludinginstitutionalorinstructionaltechnology.
SpecialLibraries
Special libraries can have permanent full- and part-time employees who are paid (hourly,
salaried, on contract or subcontract, etc.); temporary (seasonal or grant) full- and part-time
employees who are paid (hourly, salaried, on contract or subcontract, etc.); internships;
supporterssuchasthebusiness’sgoverningoradvisorygroup;andemployeesfromwithinthe
organization such as content specialists or employees from institutional technology or the
marketingdepartment.Otherindividualscouldincludeexpertsforcollectionmanagementand
thedesignanddeliveryofprintandwebservicesandresources.
WhereShouldManagersIdentifyTypesandLevelsofEmployees?
Ratherthanidentifyingornamingemployeesineachpolicyandprocedure,managerscan:
• add a legend with all employee categories possible in the organization to each general
policyandprocedureandmanagementdocument,andindicatecoverageonthelegend
• definecategoriesandtypesandlevelsingeneralandrefertocategories(withsubheadings,
footnotes,etc.)inpoliciesandproceduresandmanagementdocuments
• create categories of policies and procedures and management documents for each type of
employee
Managersmustrememberthatanyonewho“operates”withinorforalibrarystructureshould
beidentifiedandcategorizedastohowtheyfitintoorworkfortheorganization.Forpurposes


ofthisbook,however,allcategoriesof“employeesandworkers”arereferredtogenerallyas
“employees.”
WhyDidn’tIIncludeaChapterintheBookonTechnologyoraChapteronPlanning?
Theshortanswerisbecausetechnologyandplanningareinfusedandintegratedthroughoutthe
content,justastheyareinfusedandintegratedthroughouttoday’slibraries.Thelongansweris
. . . twenty-first-century managers lead exciting lives. The world around them and their
librariesischangingatanexponentialrate(arateofchangeIidentifyas“dog-yearchange”),
and they have opportunities for providing resources, services, facilities, and access that
previous managers were only able to dream of. Great opportunities, however, bring great
challenges,andtoapproachthesechallenges,managersdesigndirectionsthatarearticulatedin
thelibrary’svisionandmissionstatementsandingoals,objectives,andoutcomes.
Reviewingvision,mission,andgoalsandobjectivesstatementsandhowtheyhavechanged
throughout the years illustrates the issue of viewing technology by itself. That is, for many
years libraries created technology goals for automating services, planning, and facilities.
Today’s approach is to design an access goal with objectives that focus on automation,
hardware,software,andinfrastructureasameanstoanendofachievingaccess. Soreaders
willfindtechnologythroughoutparadigms,cases,content,andinquestionsandrecommended
resources.
AreTechniquesandProcessAllINeedtoBeaGoodManager?
The appendixes provide resources for content and additional techniques and processes and
theseresourcesincludedynamiccontent-richenvironmentsforprofessionalstouseforkeeping
up with their profession. These recommended resources include association websites as
unique sources of continuing education and professional development as well as online
professionalsupportprovidedbyeducation,training,andcontent-deliveryproviders(suchas
WebJunction) and support structures for major library and information science vendor
providers(suchasOnlineComputerLibraryCenterInc.).
Finally,thedebateformanagementcontentisalways,“Whatarethemajorfunctionalareasof
management?”ormorespecifically,“Howshouldonestudymanagement?”Whilethereisno
perfectway,thisbookdividescontentintosixteenareasthatincludebasicssuchas“whatis
management?”andthemanagementoflibraryfunctionssuchashumanresourcesandfacilities.
A few areas that are more prevalent in the literature now as well as more unique to the
competency set critical to contemporary library managers, such as the management of
emergencyandcriticalincidentissues,arecoveredintheirownchapter.


PartOne

TWENTY-FIRST-CENTURYMANAGEMENTIN
LIBRARIES


ChapterOne

ClassicManagementvs.NewManagement
• Definitions:Whatmakes“classicmanagement”“classic”and“newmanagement”“new”
• Newmanagers:Definitions,profiles,competencies,roles,andresponsibilities

Acasemethodisintendedtobeusedinconjunctionwiththischapter.Thecasedesignedtobeusedwiththis
chapteriscase1,“ADifficultPathofMovingUpandOut,”locatedinpartII,p.239.Thecasecanbereadand
discussedbeforeand/orafterreadingthechaptercontent.

MANAGINGINTHECHANGINGWORKPLACE
In my (very!) long career, I have had the very best managers and—frankly—the very worst
managers.Fromexperience,Ihavelearned“howtomanage”and“hownottomanage”through
observation, by studying examples and reviewing models, and through research and
application.Butveryoftenobservation,study,research,andapplicationarenotclearcut—that
is, I have observed excellent project managers who were not good employee or “people”
managers. I have observed more traditional, non-techie managers successfully manage techsavvy, millennial employees and high-tech managers who could not manage their
digital/virtualemployeeseitherinpersonorremotely.Ihaveobservedsuccessfulemployeeor
“people”managerswhocouldnotmanagetheirbudgetsortheirprojects.AndIhaveobserved
good employeeandgoodbudget andgoodprojectmanagerswhocouldnotmanageexternal
partners.
I can also easily say I have learned from both good and bad management education in
undergraduate classes, graduate-level classes, continuing education, and professional
development.Ihavetakenbothgoodandbadmanagementworkshopsand—withhindsight—I
nowrealizeIhavesatthroughwebinarsandinclassroomswhileinstructorspresentedbasic
and advanced management content yet didn’t understand how to apply their content,
knowledge,orexperiencestopracticeincontemporaryworkenvironments.Inaddition,Ihave
had my share of management instructors who did not distinguish between leadership and
management,werenotawarethatdifferenttypesandsizesoforganizationsoftenneeddifferent
typesandstylesofmanagement,anddidnotincludediscussionsontheneedtochangestylesof
managementgivenadiverseemployeepopulationand—mostimportantly—theneedtochange
elementsofstylegivenindividualin-personanddigitalworkactivitiesandsituations.


So can every library manager have the perfect mix of technology knowledge, skills, and
abilities? Can every manager be aware of how to manage diverse employees who include
traditionalists, boomers, millennials, generation X (or Y), or today’s techie, social media–
driven workers? Can every manager have knowledge of all of their constituents’ needs and
wants?Caneverymanagerbeawareof,anticipate,andthengetoutinfrontofsocietaltrends
thatshapetheselectionandaccesstoresourcesaswellasthedesignofin-personanddigital
environmentsandservicedelivery?
Morethanlikely,no.Whatisclear,however,isthatlibrarymanagersmustfocusonanumber
of things that they do need to be aware of, understand, and be committed to, and that those
elements, coupled with observations, research, study, and use of examples and models, will
preparethemforsuccess.Theseelementsincludethefollowing.
• Whetherornotchangeisgoodorbad,it’sthewayoflifeintheworkplace.Pervasiveand
rapid change is so much a part of the workplace today; managers have no choice but to
understand“change”inandofitself,theissuesoffast-moving,changingenvironments,and,
specifically,toolsandtechniquesfordealingwithchangeintheworkplace.
• Technology and technologicalconcepts areintegratedinto theinfrastructureofsociety.
Technologyissoinfusedintotheprofessionoflibraryandinformationsciencethatmanagers
today must have knowledge of the basics of technology for their profession as well as
technological applications for their library resources and services and those technological
applications specific to their workplace. Most importantly, however, is the need for
managerstorecognizehowtechnologyhaschangedtheworkplace.
Technologymovesquicklyandthetimelinefor“doingbusiness”intechnologicallydriven
environments is profoundly different. What used to change once or twice a year may
changemonthlyor—giventhedynamicnatureoftechnologydrivenbytheweb—weekly
ordaily.
Constituentsusedtotechnologyexpectthenewestandthelatest.
Forconstituentsnotasusedtotechnology,librariansmustrecognizewhattheyneedtobe
successfulandprovideitaswellasteachit.
New technologies drive new terminology and new literacy, and thus dictate new
terminologyandnewliteracyforlibrariansandlibraryservicesandresources.
Newtechnology-drivenresourcesandservicesneednewtechnology-readyinfrastructure
andspaces.
New technology-driven libraries need employees who are ready to design, support, and
delivernewresourcesandservices.
Newlibrariesneedmanagementstructuresandstyleswithmaximumflexibilitytorespond
tothenewtimelinefor“doingbusiness.”
• Onesizedoesnotfitallemployees,partners,stakeholders,andsoon.Today’smanagers
mustbeawareofandembracethefactthattheiremployees,colleagues,partners,vendors,
andupper-leveladministratorsareahighlydiverseblendofindividualswithvastrangesof
knowledge,skillsandabilities,andattitudesaswellasdivergentopinionsandcommitments


totheprofession.Thisknowledge—alongwiththeknowledgethattheseindividualsmustbe
tech-readytoworkincontemporarylibraries—mustbeaccompaniedwiththeapproachthat
managers must take diversity into account in designing and maintaining successful
workplaces.
• Again, one size does not fit all constituents. Today’s managers must be aware of and
embrace the fact that their constituents are a highly diverse blend of individuals with vast
rangesofknowledge,skill,andabilitiesandattitudesaswellasdiversewantsandneeds.
Managersmusttakethisdiversityofknowledgelevels,skillsandabilities,andattitudesas
well as wants and needs into account in designing and maintaining successful library
facilities,programsofservice,andchoiceanddeliveryofresources.
Itisappropriatetoexploredifferentwaystomanage—toexplorethewidevarietyofsolutions
tomanagementproblemsaswellastoidentifycompletelydifferentapproachestodealingwith
the same or similar issues with employees and constituents. At the core of a successfully
managedenvironmentintoday’slibrariesistherealizationthat,whiletherearedifferentways
as well as both right ways and wrong ways and different conclusions, there are preferred
solutionstothesemanagementissues.Onceamanagerrealizesthattheprocessofchangemust
bemanaged,technologicalchangeswilldrivemany,andoftenmost,decisions,andavarietyof
directionswillneedtobeprovidedtoaccommodatediversityofemployeesandconstituents.
Managersshouldconsider:
• the use of a variety of data and techniques for illustrating and visualizing data for deeper
levelsofunderstandingtomeetadministrator,umbrellaorganization,stakeholder,supporter,
andlegislativeneedsandrequirements
• the use of case methods and models for illustrating and explaining issues to match the
breadth and diversity of learners and employees for planning, decision-making, and
problem-solving
• theuseofavarietyofdata,techniques,casemethodsandmodelsforexplaining,illustrating,
visualizing,andsoon,issuesforplanning,decision-making,andproblem-solvingtomatch
thebreadthanddiversityofuserandnonuser(constituent)situations
• carefullychosenandwell-designedmanagementstylesandapproachesbothingeneraland
specifically those that fit or match diverse employees in both in-person and digital work
environmentsandbytypeandsizeoflibrary
“CLASSICMANAGEMENT”AND“NEWMANAGEMENT”
Anyonewhohasbeenalibrarymanagerforyearswillacknowledgethatthefieldhaschanged
more rapidly and dramatically in the last two decades than it has in previous decades and
continuestochange—oftenweeklyandsometimesdaily.Tryingtosuccessfullymanagetoday’s
“in-person”anddigitallibrarieswithoutidentifyingnewwaystomanageisdifficult.Although
some traditional techniques may still work because of the blend of old and new in the
workplace,newtechniquesmustbeintegratedintoamanager’srepertoireandadaptedtoboth
traditionalandnewenvironments,andtochangingemployeesandconstituents.


Formanagers,learners,andemployees,thediscussionof“why”and“howto”canbeginby
illustratingchangewithinthecontextofthe“wayitusedtobe”withaParadigmShiftfromold
workplaces to new workplaces as well as old management vs. new management. Changes,
visualizedthroughParadigmShifts,canincludedifferencessuchas:





theintegrationoftechnologyandcomputerizationintoallbusinesspractices
thedesignofnew,remodeled,andreorganizedphysicalfacilities
thedeliveryofresourcesandservices
thechangingnatureofcommunicationthroughuseandimpactoftechnologyandsocialmedia
inbusinesspractices
the presence of varying generations in the workplace with the newest members of the
workforcesuchasmillennialsorgenerationXnotonlyworking inbutalsomanaging the
workforceaswellasthedeliveryresourcesandservices
theintegration/coordinationofremoteworklocationsandnonworklocations(e.g.,virtualor
telecommutingemployees,colleagues,partners,vendors,etc.)
globalconcernsandperspectivesintheworkplace
thetypeandrateofchangeforresourcesandformatsofresearchandinformation
theindividualandcollaborativeuseanddesignofcontentandmaterials(inallformats)in
in-personandonlinelibraryandlearningenvironments








Althoughthesemanyanddiversegeneralchangesdictatechangesthroughouttheorganization,
thefirstsetofchangescriticaltomanagementsuccessisanoutlineofchangesinmanagement
rolesandresponsibilities—lookingattheclassicvs.thenewworkplace(seeParadigmShift
1.1).
PARADIGMSHIFT1.1.ManagementinClassicvs.NewWorkplaces
Althoughnotalllibrariestodaylookdifferenttoconstituentsorevenindividualsinumbrellaorganizations,ingeneral,
the majority of workspaces and structures that house, support, maintain, and deliver resources and services are
different. Hardware and software, facilities, formats of resources, services, and communication within these
environmentsaredifferentincontemporarylibrariesandarecontinuouslychanging.Generalissuesforalltypesand
sizesoflibrariesinclude:
ClassicManagementinClassicWorkplaces
• Libraryandinformationresources,infrastructure,and
facilitiesarelocatedinprimarilytraditionalumbrella
environmentssuchasmunicipal,county,for-profit/special,
andacademic(K–12andhighereducation).
• Technologyisnotnewinlibrarysettingsandisoneof
themostcritical,complex,andrapidlychangingelements
inmanagementrolesandresponsibilities,but
managementoftechnologyandoftechnological
environmentsandemployeesistypicallynotincludedin
formalandinformalmanagementandtraining.


Workplaceshaveuniqueorstand-alonecomputerization
ortechnologysupportedor-providedbusinesspracticesandoperations,
resources,andservices.Officeproductivity,infrastructure,
publicservicesfindingtools,anddigitalresourcesexistin
individualsoftwarepackagesandondifferentplatformsand
hardware.

NewManagementinNewWorkplaces
• Libraryandinformationresources,infrastructure,and
facilitiesarenowintraditionalandnontraditionalumbrella
environments,501c3libraries,othernot-for-profit,andforprofitorcorporate.
• Technologyisintegratedintoalllibrarysettingsand
remainsoneofthemostcritical,complex,andrapidly
changingelementsformanagers.Managementof
technologyfunctionsandthetechnologyisanarealess
frequentlyincludedinformalandinformallibrary
managementandtraining.Managersseekexternal
educationandtraining.
• Technologyandcomputerizationofinternalbusiness
operationsandlibrary
resourcesandservicesforconstituentsisnetworked,
integrated,online,dynamic,andavailableonsite,online,
24/7.




Federal,regional,state,andlocalpoliciesimpacting
librariesarecomplexandfar-reachingandmonitoring,
understanding,andapplyingthesepoliciesisaprimary
responsibility.





Economicissuesgreatlyeffectongoingandnewfunding
and“cutback,downsize,and/orchangemanagement”
nonprofitcontentisoftennotapartofmanagement
educationand/ortraining.





Librariesformpartnershipswithotherorganizationsand
institutionsaswellaswithfor-profitentities.





Facilitiesareretrofittedtoconnectandprovideaccessto
avarietyofresourcesandservicesinpublicspaces.



Communicationistop-down,across,andbottom-upin
theorganizationbutalongstandardizedchannelsincluding
memos;in-persondiscussion;phonecallsandconference
calls;and—inthelastthreedecades—institutional
electronicmailpackagesand—inthelasttwodecades—
standalone“e”ordigitalmailfortheglobalaudience.
Communicationopportunitieshaveelementsof
standardizationforuse,terminology,andretention.
• Resourcesandservicesaredeliveredonsitethrough
technologyanduserinterfaceswithdiverseprotocols.
Usersrequireassistance.









Librariesselectlibrarymaterialsbasedonconstituent
population–identifiedneeds,andexpressedpreferences
articulatedincollection-developmentpolicies,and
communityandfederalandstatepublicpolicy.Formats
arevariedandincludehardback,paperback,CD,and
DVD.Formatsarealteredincyclesthatincludeannualor
semi-annualtimelines.



Rapidlychangingfederal,regional,state,andlocalpolicies
impactinglibrariesareaprimaryroleandresponsibilityof
contemporarylibrarymanagersandarecomplex,farreaching,andgreatlyexpandinginnumbersandtypesof
requiredandpreferredoversight.
Economicissues(oftenpoororwithafocusontechnology
spendingprimarily)greatlyaffectongoing,newfundingand
“cutback,downsizeand/orchangemanagement”contentis
inprofitandnonprofitmanagementeducationandtraining
illustratedthroughthecasemethod.
Expandingpartnershipsforlibrariesandinformation
settingschallengesmanagerswhohavebothknowledgeof
generalmanagementaswellasknowledgeofmanaging
entitiesnotliketheirown.Theymusthaveknowledgeof
thesenewenvironmentstobesuccessful.
Facilitiesaredesignedneworredesignedorrenovatedfor
integrationoftechnologyintobothsupportandpublic
spaces.
Communicationisthroughouttheorganizationwithdiverse
channelsincludingprintmemos;in-persondiscussion;
phone(individualandconferencecalls);e-mail;online
discussionboards;real-time,onlinecommunication
packagesandsimulationenvironments;socialmedia;and
texting.Communicationhas
standardsforuse,terminology,timing,retention,and
labeling.
Resourcesandservicesaredeliveredonsiteand
online/digitallythroughonlineinterfaceswithareduced
numberofaccesspointsoroneaccesspointwith
standardizedprotocols.
Librariesprovideaccesstomorethanwhatthey“select”
fortargetpopulationsandthis“globalratherthanlocalissue”
mustbeaddressedcontinuously,isoftencontroversial,and
issubjecttocommunity,state,andfederalaswellas
partnershipstandards.Formatsareprintandmediaand
includehardback,paperback,DVD,streamingmedia,and
onlinecontent.

NewManagers—Definitions,Competencies,Roles,andResponsibilities
If today’s library managers are questioned about their workplace and whether or not it has
changedinthelasttwodecades,thevastmajoritywouldacknowledgethatalmosteveryaspect
of their work world has changed and thus every aspect of the concept and practice of
management has changed. In the professional literature, management is defined in many
differentways;however,newermanagementdefinitionsfocusonprocessandproduct—both
in person and remotely or virtually, and accomplishing goals through employees both
individuallyandinteams.Newmanagementmanagersintoday’sorganizations—whetherthey
arebeingretrained,bringupdated,ornewtothemanagementingeneral—mustbeawareofthe
expectations placed on yesterday’s more “classic” management managers and must be
preparedtocommittoandimplementatransitiontonewrolesandresponsibilitiestohandle
changingworkplaces,programsandservices,andemployees.
Changing or new roles and responsibilities dictate new competencies or changing or new
knowledge(s), skills and abilities, and attitudes. Elements of today’s definitions, roles and
responsibilitieslists,andlistsofcompetenciesmayoften,andappropriately,changebasedon
organizational goals, administrative expectations, constituent needs, the type and size of


libraries,organizationalstructure,andaconstantlychangingworkplace.Competencylistsfor
newmanagementmanagersarediverseandlong.

COMPETENCIESFOR“NEWMANAGEMENT”MANAGERS
Knowledgeof:
• twenty-first-centurytechnologyandtechnologicalapplications
• diversedigitalandvirtualmodesandmethodsusedtopromoteexcellentcommunicationskills—oral,written,
nonverbal
• theglobalworkplace
• managementofnonprofitandnot-for-profits
• bothclassicandnewformatsofresourcesandsupportingtechnology
• theorganization’sresourcesincludingtoday’sownedaswellasaccessedresources
• changing work patterns such as employees working individually as well as collaborating through in-person,
remote,digital,andvirtualworkteams
• socialmediaandtheapplicationofsocialmediatocommunicationamongemployeesandanorganization’s
externalcommunicationplanforconstituents
• anorganization’sconstituentsandinternalandexternalaudiences
• howtheorganization’sconstituentsuseresourcesandperformresearchindividuallyandcollaborativelywith
otherconstituents,includingin-personanddigitalorremoteteams
• howtheorganization’sconstituentsworkindividuallyandcollaborativelytocreatecontentandproducts
• howthelibraryorganizationfitsintotheumbrellaorganizationasawhole
• howemployeeslearn,theirlearningpreferences,andtheprocessofunlearninginbothtraditional/classicand
nontraditional/contemporaryways
• howtomaintainapositivepoliticalclimate
• howtomaintainapositiveandproductiveorganizationalculture
• conceptsofleadershipvs.management
• practicesforremotemanagement
• practicesforremoteleadership
• practicesandtheimportanceofconflictresolutionwithafocusonwin/winstrategies
Skills/abilitiesfor:
• theapplicationoftechnologicaltheorytopracticeingeneralandtospecificsizesandtypesoflibraries
• the organization and coordination of other people and activities including digital or virtual and in-person
employees
• motivatingemployeesforcommitmenttoorganizationgoalsandtoberesponsiblecitizensoftheorganization
• thedesignandimplementationofanorganization-widedigitalorremoteandin-personcommunicationplanfor
internalandexternaltargetaudiences
• the design, implementation, and maintenance of operational, short-term, and long-term plans within the
processofstrategicplanning
• flexibility
• budgetingandfinancialmanagement
• thecreationofmeasurementsandaccountabilityprocessesincludingperformanceprocessesforinperson,
digital,andremote
• recognizing,confronting,andresolvingissuesanddifficultsituations
• anticipatingandsolvingproblems
• managingcomplexity
• managingthechangeprocess
• managingones’owntime,timingforemployees,andtimingcriticaltoorganizationalsuccess
• theuseofcontemporarymodesandmethodsofcommunication,management,andleadershipsuchassocial
mediaandsmarttechnologies
• thedesign,implementation,andmanagementofsmallandlargeprojects


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