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Emerging library technologies


EMERGING
LIBRARY
TECHNOLOGIES


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EMERGING
LIBRARY
TECHNOLOGIES
It’s Not Just for Geeks

IDA ARLENE JOINER
Librarian Universal Academy Irving, TX, United States


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CONTENTS
Acknowledgments
Emerging Library Technologies: It Is Not Just for Geeks

1. Artificial Intelligence: AI is Nearby
Introduction
What is Intelligence?
What is Artificial Intelligence (AI)?
A Brief History of Artificial Intelligence (AI)
Market for Artificial Intelligence (AI)
Areas Within Artificial Intelligence (AI)
Deep Learning
Machine Learning
Machine Translation Technology (MTT)
Artificial Emotional Intelligence or Emotion AI
Speech Recognition Technology
Industries Impacted by Artificial Intelligence (AI)
Challenges and Opportunities for Artificial Intelligence (AI)
Challenges for Artificial Intelligence (AI)
Opportunities for Artificial Intelligence (AI)
Applications of Artificial Intelligence (AI)
AI in Medicine
AI in Music
AI in Libraries
The Role of Libraries
Internships/Mentorships
Job Retraining
Conclusion
Questions for Further Discussion
Considerations for Implementation
Proposal
Glossary
Suggestions for Further Reading
Bibliography

2. Robotics: Robots to the Rescue
Introduction
What is a Robot?
What is Robotics?

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A Brief History of Robotics
Market for Robotics
Challenges and Opportunities for Robotics
Challenges for Robotics
Opportunities for Robotics
Applications of Robots in Various Industries
Robots in Healthcare
Robots in Education
Robots in Libraries
Chicago Public Library
Westport Connecticut Library
Peters Township Public Library
Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh
Seattle Public Library
Wilson (CT) Public Library
University of Texas at Arlington Library
University of Texas at Arlington (UTA) FabLab
The University of Technology, Sydney (UTS) Library
Conclusion
Questions for Further Discussion
Considerations for Implementation
Proposal
Glossary
Suggestions for Further Reading
Bibliography

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Is It a Bird, Is It a Plane: It’s a Drone Flying Your Way

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Introduction
What is a Drone?
A Brief History of Drones
Types of Drones
Single Rotor Drones
Multirotor Drones
Tricopters (Three Rotors or Propellers)
Quadcopters (Four Rotors or Propellers)
Hexacopter (Six Rotors or Propellers)
Octocopters (Eight Rotors or Propellers)
Fixed Wing Drones
Features in Common
Challenges and Opportunities for Drones
Challenges for Drones
Opportunities for Drones
Applications of Drones
Drones in Entertainment
Drones in Agriculture

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Drones in Law Enforcement
Drones in Real Estate
Drones in Photography
Drones in Deliveries
Drones in Engineering
Drones in Monitoring and Protection
Drones in Education
Drones in Libraries
Mandel Public Library in West Palm Beach Florida
Arapahoe Colorado Libraries
Joint Library of Broward College & Florida Atlantic University
Georgia Highlands College Library
University of South Florida Library
Colgate University Library
Ohio Wesleyan University
Idaho Schools and Libraries
Conclusion
Questions for Further Discussion
Considerations for Implementation
Proposal
Glossary
Suggestions for Further Reading
Bibliography

4. Driverless Vehicles: Pick Me Up at the. . .?
Introduction
What is a Driverless Car?
A Brief History of Driverless Vehicles
Self-Driving Car Market
The Self-Driving Car Major Players
Waymo (Self-Driving Unit of Google Parent Alphabet)
Uber
Tesla
Daimler-Mercedes Benz
Porsche/Huawei
Volkswagon
Fiat Chrysler Automobiles (FCA)
Volvo
Audi
BMW
Ford
General Motors (GM)
Apple
Nvidia
Baidu

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Industries Impacted by Driverless Cars
Challenges and Opportunities for Driverless Vehicles
Challenges for Driverless Vehicles
Opportunities for Driverless Vehicles
Role of Libraries
Internships/Mentorships
Job Retraining
Conclusion
Questions for Further Discussion
Considerations for Implementation
Proposal
Glossary
Suggestions for Further Reading
Bibliography

5. Information Seeking With Big Data: Not Just the Facts
Introduction
What is Big Data?
How Big is Big Data?
History of Big Data
Applications of Big Data
Challenges and Opportunities for Big Data
Challenges for Big Data
Opportunities for Big Data
Industries Impacted by Big Data
Big Data Implications for Libraries
Big Data Library Examples
University of California Berkeley Libraries
New York University Elmer Holmes Bobst Library
Harvard University Library Analytics Toolkit
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Libraries
University of Michigan Library
Conclusion
Questions for Further Discussion
Considerations for Implementation
Proposal
Glossary
Suggestions for Further Reading
Bibliography

6. Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality: What Is Your Reality?
Introduction
What are Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality?

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What is Augmented Reality (AR)?
Brief History of Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality
Brief History of Augmented Reality
Market for Virtual Reality (VR)/Augmented Reality (AR)
Major Players for Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality
Challenges and Opportunities for Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality
Challenges for Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality
Opportunities for Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality
Applications of Virtual and Augmented Reality
Applications of Virtual Reality in Libraries
Conclusion
Questions for Further Discussion
Considerations for Implementation
Proposal
Glossary
Suggestions for Further Reading
Bibliography

7. If You Print It, They Will Come: 3D Printing in Your Library
Introduction
What is 3D Printing?
How Does 3D Printing Work?
A Brief History of 3D Printing
3D Printing Market
Types of 3D Printers
The Most Popular Type of 3D Consumer Printer
Challenges and Opportunities for 3D Printing
Challenges for 3D Printing
Opportunities for 3D Printing
Applications of 3D Printing
Medicine/Healthcare
Retail
Aerospace
Architecture
Education
Manufacturing
3D Printing in Libraries
Touro College School of Health Sciences
Cline Library MakerLab, Northern Arizona University
Photos
Stephen F. Austin State University, Ralph W. Steen Library
Conclusion
Questions for Further Discussion
Considerations for Implementation

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Proposal
Glossary
Suggestions for Further Reading
Bibliography

8. Wearable Technologies From A to Z
Introduction
What is Wearable Technology?
Brief History of Wearable Technologies
Market for Wearable Technologies
Types of Wearable Technologies
Challenges and Opportunities for Wearable Technologies
Challenges for Wearable Technologies
Opportunities for Wearable Technologies
Implications for Wearable Technologies in Libraries
Applications of Wearable Technologies
Universal Orlando Resort Water Park
University of Pittsburgh Innovation Challenge Wearable Health Devices—Clinical
and Translational Science Institute
University of California San Diego Healthcare Wearable Technology
Ryerson University Library & Archives Digital Media Experience Lab
Conclusion
Questions for Further Discussion
Considerations for Implementation
Proposal
Glossary
Suggestions for Further Reading
Bibliography

9. How to Get Stakeholder Buy In for Implementing Emerging
Technologies in Your Library

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10. Keeping Abreast of Emerging Technologies

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Blogs and Publications
Podcasts
Books
Trend Reports
Attend Conferences
Consortiums and Groups
Conclusion

Index

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
First and foremost, I would like to thank my omnipotent, omniscient,
and omnipresent Almighty GOD! Thank you for creating me . . . your
humble servant!
I dedicate this book to the memory of my late parents Joseph Jackson
Joiner, Sr. and Nan Virginia Williams Joiner, and to my late brother
Joseph Jackson “Joey” Joiner, Jr.
To my family: Joseph “Beane” Taylor, Joseph Jackson “JJ” Joiner, III
(Donniel and angels), Tionna Joiner, Pierce “Petey” Joiner, Mari “Toy”
Joiner, Linda Williams, Angela Cleveland, Pam Lewis, the Joiners,
Williams, Popes, Mr. Burl J. F. Moone, III (Adopted Dad), Uncle Paul
and Aunt Betty Wysong, my beloved dog Figaro, and the rest of my
entire family. I LOVE YOU ALL!
Dr. Robin Skrine (Ashley, Ashton, and Arden): MY BFF! You always
kept me on track and reminded me “You got this girl!”
To Mr. Dion “Hood-e Hood”: Thank you for always reminding me
that I could “do this!” You have helped me overcome so many obstacles
and challenges! Everyone knows how amazing you are! You bless so many
people all over the world! When God created you, he smiled and said,
“GO FORTH AND BLESS OTHERS AS I AM BLESSING YOU!”
A special thank you to Mrs. Diane Harris and Ms. Janice Blackmon
(Founders of Universal Academy) and the rest of our Universal Academy
family: Dr. Dana Jobe, Mrs. Pamela Ward, Principal Sheraton Duffey, Dr.
Tera Jones, Mrs. Linda Stevens, Mrs. Daphne Hood, Mr. Gerald “Big”
Peoples, Mr. Roderick “Little” Peoples, Ms. Jessica Lee, Mrs. Watts (you
always encouraged me from my first day), Mrs. Angela Johnson, and
everyone else at team UA!
Many thanks to my Elsevier team: Dr. Glyn Jones (Publisher), Lindsay
Lawrence (Project Manager), Debasish Ghosh (Editorial Project
Manager), and Ashwathi Aravindakshan (Copyright Coordinator). I
would not have been able to do this without your assistance!
I wish to acknowledge the following persons for their hard work and
support: Dr. Tom Lauwers, CEO of Bird Brain Technologies, who provided comments on the draft Robotics chapter; author Ann Whitney
Gleason, who provided moral support, lessons learned, and best practices;
Janet Crum, Laurel Scheinfeld, Joan Wagner, Keith Pardini, and Edward
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Iglesias, who provide content for the 3D printing chapter; Dr. Lori
Collins, who provided content for the Drones chapter; Courtney Guhl,
and Dr. Alice Scales!
I would like to thank all of my pastors over the years who have given me
love and encouragement: Rev. Dr. Johnnie Monroe, Rev. Dr. Ronald
Peters, Rev. Dr. Randall “Pastor Randy” Bush, Rev. Heather Schoenewolf,
Rev. Patrice Fowler-Searcy, and Rev. Kate McGee.
To my friends all over the world: I LOVE YOU AND GOD BLESS
YOU ALL!


EMERGING LIBRARY TECHNOLOGIES: IT IS NOT
JUST FOR GEEKS
INTRODUCTION
As technology continues to drive nearly every facet of our lives from 3D
printing to self-driving vehicles to drones, people are coming to our academic, public, school, and other types of libraries and information centers
in record numbers to learn more about these emerging technologies.

WHAT ARE EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES?
According to BusinessDictionary.com, emerging technologies are technologies that are perceived as capable of changing the status quo. They
are new technologies that are currently developing or will be developed
over the next 5À10 years, and which will substantially alter the business
and social environment.

WHY DID I WRITE THIS BOOK?
I have more than 25 years of technology, project management, library,
and training experience in academic, public, and school libraries and
every industry imaginable.
I have managed multimillion dollar projects either on time or ahead
of schedule and under budget including training for more than 65,000
employees throughout North America and several large- and small-scale
technology implementations.
As a technology project manager, I developed proposals and presented
them to get shareholders on board for implementing content management, learning management, websites, and other technology-related
projects.
In my role as a librarian, I have trained and mentored librarians and
other information professionals on technology in academic, public, and
school libraries. I have taught and assisted children, teens, tweens, adults,
and the elderly with technology.
I have published articles in MacWorld and ComputerWorld magazines. In February 2018, I was a panelist on the Top Technology Trends

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panel at the American Library Association (ALA) Mid-Winter conference
where I discussed drones in libraries and how to keep abreast of emerging
technologies.
I published “Drones: Agriculture’s New Best Friend” in Elsevier’s
SciTech Connect online publication in May 2018; “How to Get
Stakeholder Buy-In for Implementing Emerging Technologies in Your
Academic Library” in Elsevier’s Library Connect online publication in May
2018; “Public Libraries: The Great Tech Equalizer” in the March 2018
issue of the Princh online journal; and “Is There a Drone in Your
Library’s Future?” in the December 2017 issue of Public Library Quarterly.
I wrote this book to help information professionals from technology
novices to experts in all types of libraries and resource centers who want
to learn, use, and help others with the latest, greatest, and hottest emerging technologies that we hear about on a daily basis.
This book is a guide to navigate you through learning and implementing emerging technologies in your library or information center without
all of the land mines that I have encountered throughout my career.

WHY SHOULD YOU READ THIS BOOK?
If you are looking for a roadmap to help guide you through the emerging
technology ever changing, ever expanding, ever exciting road ahead of
you, you want to read this book. There are chapters on many of the
emerging technologies that we see everywhere everyday such as robotics,
artificial intelligence, drones, 3D printing, big data, driverless vehicles,
virtual/augmented reality, and wearable technologies.
The “Keeping Abreast of these Emerging Technologies” chapter was
written to keep you from feeling overwhelmed with such a plethora of
emerging technology information that is always changing and neither
stops nor slows down, but is a train picking up speed. This chapter offers
strategies and resources to keep you informed and updated on these
technologies.
The “How to Get Stakeholder Buy-In for Implementing Emerging
Technologies in Your Library” chapter discusses how to get your stakeholders on board to support your technology initiatives that you want to
implement and features a checklist that you should follow before
approaching your stakeholders with your proposal.


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There is a “Glossary” at the end of each chapter that features short
definitions for unfamiliar words that you might encounter.
“Suggestions for Further Reading” are included at the end of each
chapter where popular journals, Ted Talks, and other informative
resources are featured.
Each chapter includes “Questions for Further Discussion” that you
might use to spur discussions on the technology topic. You might even
decide to create resource materials, training materials, webinars, online
courses, workshops, programs, and other resources to assist your patrons.
The “Considerations for Implementation” at the end of each chapter
allows you to “look before you leap” into the emerging technology. You
can consider the audience, costs, staffing, training, marketing, legal issues,
and other areas before implementing the technology into your library.
There is a “Bibliography” at the end of each chapter where you can
locate the material referenced in the chapter and do further reading.
There are several examples of possible emerging technology scenarios
that you might encounter in your library or information resource center
included below with the corresponding chapter in the book.

DRIVERLESS VEHICLES: PICK ME UP AT THE. . .
Several of your patrons work in industries that are going to be affected by
driverless vehicles and are worried that they are going to lose their jobs.
They come to your library to learn more about driverless vehicles and
what they can do to be proactive in their careers. They want to know
what resources you have on driverless cars and what they will need to do
to prepare for and apply for jobs in driverless vehicle technology.
Your patrons in a public library have seen the Google driverless vehicle on their street and want to learn more about the technology and the
challenges and opportunities. You research and develop a library guide
that provides an overview of driverless cars including where users can find
additional information. You host town meetings with driverless vehicle
experts, legislators, workforce development professionals, community and
faith organizations, and social service agencies that can all provide information on the future of driverless cars, how they will affect the public,
and what services they can provide to people who will lose their jobs or
want to change careers.


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IF YOU PRINT IT, THEY WILL COME: 3D PRINTING IN YOUR
LIBRARY
As a librarian or information professional you might have been tasked
with researching and writing a grant to obtain a 3D printer and once the
printer arrives, you become the 3D printing expert who manages and
trains others on using the printer. You might have had others come to
your library to obtain assistance on 3D printing that they can use for
writing their own grants.

IS IT A BIRD, IS IT A PLANE: IT IS A DRONE FLYING YOUR
WAY
Your library decides to buy and circulate drones and your role is to purchase them, set them up, learn the Federal Aviation Association (FAA)
regulations, and train other librarians and staff using the train the trainer
model, and manage the “drone loan” program. Adults might visit your
library to obtain information on drones before purchasing one also.
In your school, the physical education and social studies teachers each
want to purchase a drone for their classes. They request information from
you on drones before purchasing them. In both instances, you are
expected to be the expert who provides all of the information that they
might need such as information on drones, drone legislation, cost and
purchase information, the pros and cons, and the future of drones.

ROBOTICS: ROBOTS TO THE RESCUE
You have robotics day in your public library that is located in a poor
urban area. Many of the children who will be attending are poor and do
not have food to eat outside of school but love technology. You collaborate with the schools in your community, faith and community–based
organizations, restaurants, robotics departments at local colleges and universities, and offer free food, career information on robotics, college and
university information on STEM/STEAM careers, and everything that
students might need in order to be able to pursue robotics. Throughout
the year, you offer workshops where students and parents can come into
your library and learn, play with, and program the robots also. Your role
is to organize, market, and coordinate the workshops.


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In academic libraries, librarians can collaborate with robotics faculty
and students to learn more about robotics and create instructional materials for information professionals and others who are interested in learning
about robots. Librarians can partner with robotics departments to provide
space in their library to showcase student robotics projects. They can also
collaborate with robotics departments to obtain expertise on any questions that might arise from information professionals and other patrons on
robotics and circulating them to patrons.

CONCLUSION
In conclusion, you might have encountered some of these emerging technology requests and challenges that I included previously. Just remember
to use this book as a guide to lead you through this sea of unchartered
emerging technology waters. You are not alone! This book is your
lighthouse!


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CHAPTER 1

Artificial Intelligence:
AI is Nearby
INTRODUCTION
Imagine your car senses that you are tired and takes over control of the
wheel, or your virtual personal assistant recognizing that you are having a
difficult day, plays calming soothing music, or your robot dog brings your
favorite pair of slippers, and finally a computer that can defeat the greatest
chess player in the world, or can predict what you will purchase online or
who is more likely to commit a crime? This is artificial intelligence. It is
in every facet of our lives and is growing so fast that no one can fully predict where it is heading. This chapter is an overview of artificial intelligence with an emphasis on how it is used in libraries (Fig. 1.1).

WHAT IS INTELLIGENCE?
We know that intelligence has something to do with thinking and so if
we put both words artificial and intelligence together, we might define
AI as “not natural or not real thinking.”

Figure 1.1 Artificial intelligence, machine learning, and neural networks.
Emerging Library Technologies
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-102253-5.00002-2

© 2018 Elsevier Ltd.
All rights reserved.

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However, many experts define intelligence as a blend of several abilities such as perception or being able to perceive and understand your
environment or surroundings. Another is being able to learn and remember new information. This could be remembering facts, singing, playing
an instrument, or any new acquired skill that involves a great deal of
mastery.
Being able to reason is another area of intelligence where you are able
to draw conclusions from what you just learned. Another big part of
intelligence is problem solving. Here you use your knowledge, skill, and
experience to solve and find a new solution for a problem. The highest
level of intelligence is being able to understand and use language.

WHAT IS ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI)?
There are probably as many definitions for AI as there are areas within AI
and the numbers keep growing. However, I am including a few below.
AI refers to “robots, computers, and other machines with a humanlike
ability to reason and solve problems” (McPherson, 2018, p. 4).
Artificial intelligence is the theory and development of computer
systems that are able to perform tasks that normally require human intelligence, such as visual perception, speech recognition, decision-making,
and translation between languages.
Artificial intelligence makes it possible for machines to learn from
experience, adjust to new inputs, and perform human-like tasks. Most AI
examples that you hear about today—from chess-playing computers
to self-driving cars—rely heavily on deep learning and natural language
processing (https://www.sas.com/en_us/insights/analytics/what-is-artificialintelligence.html).
AI or machine intelligence (MI) is intelligence displayed by machines,
in contrast with the natural intelligence (NI) displayed by humans and
other animals.
AI is the ability of a digital computer or computer-controlled robot to
perform tasks commonly associated with human beings. It is technology
with the ability to reason and solve problems.
AI mainly focuses on understanding and performing intelligent tasks
such as reasoning, learning new skills, and adopting to new situations and
problems. It is a combination of computer science, psychology, and philosophy (Mogali, Artificial Intelligence and its applications in Libraries).


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3

AI refers to science and engineering that explores how to simulate
various issues and functions in the field of human intelligence. AI technology fields cover perception, recognition, reasoning, the learning process, natural language, machine translation, games, chess, and so on.
From Apple’s SIRI to self-driving cars, AI is progressing rapidly.
While science fiction often portrays AI as robots with human-like characteristics, AI can encompass anything from Google’s search algorithms to
IBM’s Watson to autonomous weapons (Benefits & Risks of Artificial
Intelligence. Future of Life Institute. Max Tegmark). AI is a major part of
many cutting-edge technologies, including robotics, driverless cars, web
searches, and video games. AI technologies use sophisticated algorithms,
or sets of instructions, to solve very difficult tasks (Hulick, 2016, p. 12).
Some AI technologies work behind the scenes to figure out who and
what people like while they are using social media or shopping online
(Hulick, 2016, p. 12).

A BRIEF HISTORY OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI)
AI has a very long history dating back to antiquity with mention of intelligent robots and artificial beings in mythology. However, Peggy Thomas
writes in her book “Artificial Intelligence” that the “First glimmer of a
‘thinking machine’ came in the 1830s, when the British mathematician,
Charles Babbage, envisioned the world’s first intelligent machines”
(Thomas, 2005, p. 14).
Babbage, often referred to as the father of computing, attempted to
design the analytical engine for performing computations such as those
needed to create navigational tables and read symbols other than numbers.
His partner in the venture was Lady Ada Lovelace (daughter of the poet
Lord Byron). Unfortunately, the project lacked financial backing and the
machine was never built.
Many experts feel that the birth of AI began at the Dartmouth
Conference of 1956 where several experts such Marvin Minsky, John
McCarthy, Allen Newell, Herbert Simon, and others asserted that “every
aspect of learning or any other feature of intelligence can be so precisely
described that a machine can be made to simulate it.” They persuaded
conference attendees to accept “Artificial Intelligence” as the name of the
field. This conference is where AI gained its name, its mission, its first
success, and its major players, and is widely considered the birth of AI.


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(The History of Artificial Intelligence. Wikipedia) https://en.wikipedia.
org/wiki/History_of_artificial_intelligence#cite_note-39.

MARKET FOR ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI)
The artificial intelligence market was valued at $16.06 billion in 2017 and
is expected to reach $190.61 billion USD by 2025 (https://www.marketsandmarkets.com/Market-Reports/artificial-intelligence-market-74851580.
html?gclid5EAIaIQobChMIgtiWk9Hx2QIVWp7ACh0VUAnKEAAYAy
AAEgIksfD_BwE).
International Data Corporation (IDC) reports in their Worldwide
Semiannual Cognitive/Artificial Intelligence Systems Spending Guide
that “the market for cognitive/AI solutions will experience a compound
annual growth rate (CAGR) of 55.1% over the 2016À2020 forecast
period” (https://www.idc.com/getdoc.jsp?containerId5prUS41878616).
However, Lauren Bride writes in Information Management magazine
that “AI requires deep mathematical understanding often only found at
academic institutions or enterprise organizations like Microsoft Corp.,
Google and Amazon. It will take several years before mainstream businesses can create their own AI models and algorithms in real time”
(https://www.information-management.com/opinion/marketplace-forartificial-intelligence-services-emerging-in-2020).
There is continued skepticism that AI is only as good or intelligent as
the data behind it (Fig. 1.2).

Figure 1.2 Digital artificial intelligence interface 3D rendering.


Artificial Intelligence: AI is Nearby

5

AREAS WITHIN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI)
DEEP LEARNING
Deep learning is one of the most powerful approaches in AI. It involves
feeding example data to a large and powerful neural network. It allows
machines to be able to recognize objects in images and transcribe speech
almost perfectly. However, it does require lots of training data and
computing power (Knight, 2018; https://www.technologyreview.com/
s/609762/google-and-others-are-building-ai-systems-that-doubt-themselves/).
It is a form of machine learning based on layered representations of
variables referred to as neural networks. Deep learning has made speechunderstanding practical on our phones and in our kitchens, and its algorithms can be applied widely to an array of applications that rely on
pattern recognition (The present of Artificial Intelligence: Top areas
already being disrupted. Everis NEXT. September 21, 2016; https://everisnext.com/2016/09/21/artificial-intelligence-top-areas/).
It is a technology that helps a program recognize general patterns in a
way that is somewhat similar to how a human brain works. Deep learning
is a promising technology that computer scientists are using to help computers learn. It is based on neural networks. “The human brain is a neural
network with approximately 100 billion neurons linked with 100 trillion
connections.”
Jason Brownlee writes about examples of deep learning in “8
Inspirational Applications of Deep Learning.” Some of the deep learning
examples include:
Colorization of black and white images and movies—In the past, this was
intricately done by hand as it was a difficult and painstaking task that
relied on accuracy and attention to detail. However, today deep learning
can be used to use the objects and their context within the photograph to
color the image, much like a human operator might approach the
problem.
Automatic machine translation—Given words, a phrase, or sentence in
one language, the system automatically translates it into another language.
This has been available for some time. However, deep learning is achieving top results in the automatic translation of text and the automatic
translation of images.
Object classification in photographs—This requires the classification of
objects within a photograph.


6

Emerging Library Technologies

It involves identifying one or more objects within the scene of the
photograph and drawing a box around them.
Character text generation—New text is generated, word-by-word or
character-by-character. It is capable of learning how to spell, punctuate,
form sentences, and even capture the style of the text in the corpus.
Image caption generation—Given an image the system must generate a
caption that describes the contents of the image.
Automatic game playing—The system learns how to play a computer
game based only on the pixels on the screen (Brownlee, 2016; https://
machinelearningmastery.com/inspirational-applications-deep-learning/).
Computer games—Google’s DeepMind used a deep learning technique
called deep reinforcement learning to teach a computer to play the Atari
game Breakout.
Robotics—Deep learning is also heavily used in robotics these days.
The robots react to people pushing them around. They get up after falling. They perform elaborate tasks that require gentleness and care such as
loading and unloading a dish washer.
Self-driving cars—Deep learning is used in self-driving cars also. They
are able distinguish between different types of objects including people,
animals, and road signs (Hadad, 2016; http://www.yaronhadad.com/
deep-learning-most-amazing-applications/).

MACHINE LEARNING
Machine learning uses algorithms to build analytical models that help
computers “learn” from data. It is being applied to huge quantities of
data.
Machine learning occurs when a program changes itself so that it can perform better in the future. Uber uses machine learning technology
in a myriad of ways including routing their drivers, surge pricing, and in
their self-driving cars (Knight, 2018; https://www.technologyreview.com/s/
609762/google-and-others-are-building-ai-systems-that-doubt-themselves/).
As of 2017, a quarter of organizations are spending 15 percent or
more of their IT budget on machine learning capabilities, and the number of machine learning examples is expected to rise in the near future
(https://www.redpixie.com/blog/examples-of-machine-learning).
Insurance—The insurance industry is spending heavily on machine
learning and is planning to increase the amounts in the near future.
Machine learning in the insurance industry will help to prevent the more


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