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2009 yearbook of intensive care and emergency medicine annual volumes 2009 www dof3tna net


Yearbook of Intensive Care
and Emergency Medicine
Edited by J.-L. Vincent

2009


Yearbook
of Intensive Care
and Emergency
Medicine 2009
Edited by J.-L. Vincent

With 172 Figures and 96 Tables


Prof. Jean-Louis Vincent
Head, Department of Intensive Care
Erasme Hospital, Universit´e libre de Bruxelles
Route de Lennik 808, B-1070 Brussels, Belgium


ISBN 978-3-540-92275-9 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg New York
ISSN 0942-5381
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V

Table of Contents

I Genomics and Proteomics
Rethinking Sepsis: New Insights from Gene Expression Profiling Studies
B.M. Tang, S.J. Huang, and A.S. McLean . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3

Mitochondrial Genetics and Sepsis
A. Pyle, P. Chinnery, and S. Baudouin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Lung Proteomics in Intensive Care
E. Kipnis and K. Hansen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

II Inflammatory Response
The Host Response to Sepsis
T.J. Hommes, W.J. Wiersinga, and T. van der Poll . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Endotoxin Tolerance: Mechanisms and Clinical Applicability
A. Draisma, J.G. van der Hoeven, and P. Pickkers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Oxidative Stress and Endothelial Dysfunction during Sepsis
O. Huet, A. Harrois, and J. Duranteau . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Measurement of Carbon Monoxide: From Bench to Bedside
F. Corrˆea, F.E. Nacul, and Y. Sakr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Monitoring Immune Dysfunction in Septic Patients: Toward Tailored Immunotherapy
F. Venet, A. Lepape, and G. Monneret . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81

III Current and Future Management of Sepsis
Source Control in the ICU
J.J. De Waele, M.M.L.G. Malbrain, and I.E. De laet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
IgM-enriched Immunoglobulins in Sepsis
F. Esen and S. Tugrul . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
Clarithromycin: A Promising Immunomodulator in Sepsis
E.J. Giamarellos-Bourboulis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
High-flow Hemofiltration as an Adjunctive Therapy in Sepsis
P.M. Honor´e, O. Joannes-Boyau, and W. Boer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
Economic and Social Burden of Severe Sepsis
E. Silva and D.V. Araujo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129


VI

Table of Contents

IV Proposed Targets for New Therapies
Lymphocyte Apoptosis in Sepsis and Potential Anti-apoptotic Strategies
S. Weber, B. Baessler, and S. Schroeder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
The Pivotal Role of Beta-adrenoreceptors in Critical Illness Pathophysiology
G.L. Ackland and A.J. Patterson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
Non-septic Acute Lung Injury and Inflammation: Role of TLR4
E. Lorne, H. Dupont, and E. Abraham . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
Hydrogen Sulfide: A Metabolic Modulator and a Protective Agent in Animal
Models of Reperfusion Injury
C. Szab´o, P. Asfar, and P. Radermacher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171

V Septic Shock
‘Myocardial Depression’ or ‘Septic Cardiomyopathy’
K. Werdan, A. Oelke, and U. Müller-Werdan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
Determinants of Tissue PCO2 in Shock and Sepsis: Relationship to the
Microcirculation
A. Dubin, V.S.K. Edul, and C. Ince . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
Refining the Tools for Early Goal-directed Therapy in Septic Shock
E. Kipnis, E. Robin and B. Vallet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205

VI Intravenous Fluids
Hyperchloremic Metabolic Acidosis: More than Just a Simple Dilutional Effect
S.S. Abdel-Razeq and L.J. Kaplan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
Old versus New Starches: What do We Know about their Differences?
C. Hartog, F.M. Brunkhorst, and K. Reinhart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
Impact of Hydroxethyl Starch on Renal Function
G. Marx, L. Hüter, and T. Schuerholz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
Rational Approach to Fluid Therapy in Acute Diabetic Ketoacidosis
J. Ochola and B. Venkatesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254

VII Hemodynamic Support
Cardiac Filling Volumes and Pressures in Assessing Preload Responsiveness
during Fluid Challenges
R.-M.B.G.E. Breukers, R.J. Trof, and A.B.J. Groeneveld . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
Update on Preload Indexes: More Volume than Pressure
G. Della Rocca, M.G. Costa, and L. Spagnesi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
Monitoring Arterial Blood Pressure and Cardiac Output using Central or
Peripheral Arterial Pressure Waveforms
J. Smith, L. Camporota, and R. Beale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
Intrathoracic Pressure Regulation for the Treatment of Hypotension
I. Cinel, A. Metzger, and R.P. Dellinger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297
Functional Hemodynamic Monitoring: A Personal Perspective
M.R. Pinsky . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306


Table of Contents

VIII Airway Management
Endotracheal Intubation in the ICU
S. Jaber, B. Jung, and G. Chanques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313
Pediatric Advanced Airway Management Training for Non-anesthesia Residents
A. Nishisaki, V.M. Nadkarni, and R.A. Berg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322
Automatic Tube Compensation in the Weaning Process
J. Cohen, M. Shapiro, and P. Singer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332

IX Mechanical Ventilation
Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for Cardiac and Pulmonary Indications:
Improving Patient Safety
R. Kopp, S. Leonhardt, and S. Kowalewski . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341
Patient-ventilator Interaction during Non-invasive Ventilation
P. Jolliet, D. Tassaux, and L. Vignaux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350
Variable Mechanical Ventilation: Breaking the Monotony
M. Gama de Abreu, P.M. Spieth, and P. Pelosi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359
Life-threatening Asthma: Focus on Lung Protection
H. Quiroz Mart´ınez and N.D. Ferguson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372

X Respiratory Monitoring
Bedside Monitoring of Diaphragm Electrical Activity during Mechanical Ventilation
C. Sinderby, L. Brander, and J. Beck . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385
Electrical Impedance Tomography
E.L.V. Costa, R. Gonzalez Lima, and M.B.P. Amato . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394
Regional Ventilation Delay Index: Detection of Tidal Recruitment using
Electrical Impedance Tomography
T. Muders, H. Leupschen, and C. Putensen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405
Different Approaches to the Analysis of Volumetric Capnography
F. Suarez Sipmann, S.H. Böhm, and G. Tusman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413
Variation in Extravascular Lung Water in ALI/ARDS Patients using Open
Lung Strategy
F.J. Belda, G. Aguilar, and C. Ferrando . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424
Clinical Utility of Extravascular Lung Water Measurements
X. Monnet and J.-L. Teboul . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433

XI Perioperative Management
Rationalizing the Use of Surgical Critical Care: The Role of Cardiopulmonary
Exercise Testing
S.J. Davies and R.J.T. Wilson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445
Advanced Minimally Invasive Hemodynamic Monitoring of the High-risk
Major Surgery Patient
D.W. Green . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 461

VII


VIII

Table of Contents

Post-pneumonectomy Pulmonary Edema
D. Cook, E. Powell, and F. Gao-Smith . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 473
The Role of Phenylephrine in Perioperative Medicine
C. Ertmer, A. Morelli, and M. Westphal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 483
Role of the Calcium Sensitizer, Levosimendan, in Perioperative Intensive
Care Medicine
S. Rehberg, P. Enkhbaatar, and D.L. Traber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 498
Inhaled Nitric Oxide Therapy in Adult Cardiac Surgery
B.C. Creagh-Brown and T.W. Evans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 511

XII Cardiac Function
Use of Natriuretic Peptides in the Emergency Department and the ICU
T. Reichlin, M. Noveanu, and C. Mueller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 523
Abnormalities of the ST Segment
D. Gallo, J.M. Pines, and W. Brady . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 531
Functional Mitral Regurgitation in the Critically Ill
J. Poelaert . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 543

XIII Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
Feedback to Improve the Quality of CPR
J. Yeung, J. Soar, and G.D. Perkins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 555
The Post-cardiac Arrest Syndrome
J.P. Nolan and R.W. Neumar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 565
Use of a Standardized Treatment Protocol for Post-cardiac Resuscitation Care
M.A. Kuiper, P.E. Spronk, and M.J. Schultz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 575
Therapeutic Hypothermia after Cardiac Arrest
G. Ristagno and W. Tang . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 589

XIV Renal Function
Biomarkers of Acute Kidney Injury in Critical Illness
F. Adams and B. Venkatesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 603
The Role of Biomarkers in Cardiac Surgery-associated Acute Kidney Injury
A. Shaw, M. Stafford-Smith, and M. Swaminathan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 612
Neutrophil Gelatinase-associated Lipocalin: An Emerging Biomarker for
Angina Renalis
P. Devarajan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 620

XV Hepatosplanchnic Function
How does Intra-abdominal Pressure Affect the Daily Management of My Patients?
I.E. De laet, J.J. De Waele, and M.L.N.G. Malbrain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 629
ICG Clearance Monitoring in ICU Patients
E. Levesque and F. Saliba . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 646


Table of Contents

Acute-on-chronic Liver Failure in Cirrhosis: Defining and Managing Organ
Dysfunction
D. Shawcross and J. Wendon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 658

XVI Nutrition
The Curse of Overfeeding and the Blight of Underfeeding
N.-H.W. Loh and R.D. Griffiths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 675
Enteral Feeding during Circulatory Failure: Myths and Reality
M.M. Berger and R.L. Chiolero . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 683
Enteral Nutrition with Anti-inflammatory Lipids in ALI/ARDS
A. Pontes-Arruda and S.J. DeMichele . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 695
Glutamine Supplementation in ICU Patients
A. Berg, O. Rooyackers, and J. Wernerman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 705

XVII Glucose Control
Burn Causes Prolonged Insulin Resistance and Hyperglycemia
G.G. Gauglitz and M.G. Jeschke . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 719
Glucose Variability in Critically Ill Patients
N.A. Ali, J.S. Krinsley, and J.-C. Preiser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 728

XVIII Adrenal Function
Corticosteroid Biology in Critical Illness: Modulatory Mechanisms and Clinical
Implications
M. Williams and D.K. Menon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 741
Corticosteroid Treatment of Patients in Septic Shock
C.L. Sprung, S. Goodman, and Y.G. Weiss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 753

XIX Coagulation
New Anticoagulants: Anti-IIa or Anti-Xa Agents?
C.M. Samama . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 763
Emergency Reversal of Anticoagulants
M. Levi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 769

XX Neurological Aspects
The Role of Imaging in Acute Brain Injury
R.D. Stevens, A. Pustavoitau, and P. van Zijl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 783
Monitoring and Managing Raised Intracranial Pressure after Traumatic
Brain Injury
M. Smith . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 801
Sepsis-associated Encephalopathy
S. Siami, A. Polito, and T. Sharshar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 809

IX


X

Table of Contents

XXI Malignancies
Acute Tumor Lysis Syndrome: Diagnosis and Management
M. Darmon, M. Roumier, and E. Azoulay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 819
Life-threatening Neurological Complications in Patients with Malignancies
S. Legriel and E. Azoulay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 828
Should We Admit Critically Ill Cancer Patients to the ICU?
D.D. Benoit, P.O. Depuydt, and J.M. Decruyenaere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 845

XXII Drug Dosing
Optimizing Drug Dosing in the ICU
X. Liu, P. Kruger, and M.S. Roberts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 859
Relevant CYP450-mediated Drug Interactions in the ICU
I. Spriet and W. Meersseman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 870

XXIII Sedation and Analgesia
Sedation and Pain Management in the ICU
M.A. Mirski and J.J. Lewin III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 881
The Role of Dexmedetomidine in Intensive Care
R. Rahman West, A. Rhodes, and R.M. Grounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 906
Monitoring Delirium in the ICU
M. Seeling, A. Heymann, and C. Spies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 915

XXIV ICU Management
Intensive Care for the Elderly: Current and Future Concerns
H. Wunsch, A.T. Jones, and D.C. Scales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 935
ICU Performance: Managing with Balanced Scorecards
K. Shukri and F.S.M. Ali . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 944

XXV End-of-Life Issues
Towards a Neuro-scientific Explanation of Near-death Experiences?
A. Vanhaudenhuyse, M. Thonnard, and S. Laureys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 961
Managing Conflict at the End-of-Life
K. Hillman and J. Chen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 969
Strengths and Weaknesses of Substitute Decision Making in the ICU
A. Lautrette, E. Azoulay, and B. Souweine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 979
Subject Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 989


XI

List of Contributors

Abdel-Razeq SS
Section of Trauma, Surgical Critical
Care, and Surgical Emergencies
Yale University School of Medicine
330 Cedar Street, BB-310
New Haven, CT 06520
USA
Abraham E
Department of Medicine
University of Alabama at Birmingham
BDB 420, 1530 3rd Avenue S
Birmingham, AL 35294–0012
USA
Ackland GL
Department of Anesthesia
Stanford University Medical Center
300 Pasteur Drive
Stanford, CA 94305
USA
Adams F
Department of Intensive Care
Princess Alexandra Hospital
Ipswich Road
Brisbane, QLD 4102
Australia
Aguilar G
Department of Anesthesiology
and Critical Care
Hospital Clinico Universitario de
Valencia
Avenida Blasco Ibanez 17
46010 Valencia
Spain

Ali FSM
Department of Emergency Medicine
King Fahad Specialist Hospital
PO Box 15215
Dammam 31444
Saudi Arabia
Ali NA
Division of Pulmonary, Allergy,
Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine
Department of Internal Medicine
201G DHLRI
Columbus, OH 43210
USA
Amato MBP
Respiratory Intensive Care Unit
University of Sao Paulo School of
Medicine
Av Dr Arnaldo 455
01246–903 Sao Paulo, SP
Brazil
Araujo DV
Department of Internal Medicine
Medical Sciences School
Universidade do Estado do Rio de
Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro
Brazil
Asfar P
Department of Intensive Care
and Hyperbaric Medicine
Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire
Rue Dominique Larrrey
49933 Angers
France


XII

List of Contributors

Azoulay E
Department of Intensive Care
Hˆopital Saint-Louis
1 Avenue Claude Vellefaux
75010 Paris
France
Baessler B
Department of Anesthesiology
and Intensive Care
University of Bonn
Sigmund-Freud-Str. 25
53105 Bonn
Germany
Baudouin S
Department of Anesthesia
Royal Victoria Infirmary
Queen Victoria Road
Newcastle upon Tyne, NE2 4HH
United Kingdom
Beale R
Department of Adult Critical Care
Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation
Trust
St Thomas’ Hospital, 1st Floor East Wing
Westminster Bridge Road
London, SE1 7EH
United Kingdom

Berg A
Department of Anesthesia and
Intensive Care
Karolinska Institute
Huddinge University
14186 Stockholm
Sweden
Berg RA
Department of Anesthesiology
and Critical Care
The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia
34th Street and Civic Center Boulevard
Philadelphia, PA 19104
USA
Berger MM
Department of Adult Intensive Care
and Burns
Centre Hospitalier Universitaire
Vaudois
Rue du Bugnon 47
1011 Lausanne
Switzerland
Boer W
Department of Nephrology
Atrium Medical Center
6410 CX Heerlen
Netherlands

Beck J
Department of Pediatrics
St Michael’s Hospital
30 Bond Street
Toronto, ON M5B 1W8
Canada

Böhm SH
CSEM Nanomedicine Division
Research Centre for Nanomedicine
Schulstrasse 1
7302 Landquart
Switzerland

Belda FJ
Department of Anesthesiology
and Critical Care
Hospital Clinico Universitario de
Valencia
Avenida Blasco Ibanez 17
46010 Valencia
Spain

Brady W
Department of Emergency Medicine
University of Virginia Health System
1215 Lee Street
Charlottesville, VA 22908–0699
USA

Benoit DD
Department of Intensive Care
Ghent University Hospital
De Pintelaan 185
9000 Ghent
Belgium

Brander L
Department of Intensive Care
University Hospital Inselspital
30110 Bern
Switzerland


List of Contributors

Breukers RMBGE
Department of Intensive Care
VU University Medical Center
De Boelelaan 1117
1081 HV Amsterdam
Netherlands
Brunkhorst FM
Department of Anesthesiology
and Intensive Care
Friedrich-Schiller University
Erlanger Allee 101
07743 Jena
Germany
Camporota L
Department of Adult Critical Care
Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation
Trust
St Thomas’ Hospital, 1st Floor East Wing
Westminster Bridge Road
London, SE1 7EH
United Kingdom

Chiolero RL
Department of Adult Intensive Care
and Burns
Centre Hospitalier Universitaire
Vaudois
Rue du Bugnon 47
1011 Lausanne
Switzerland
Cinel I
Department of Critical Care
Cooper University Hospital
One Cooper Plaza
Dorrance Building, Suite 393
Camden, NJ 08103
USA
Cohen J
General Intensive Care Unit
Rabin Medical Center
Campus Beilinson
Petah Tikva 49100
Israel

Chanques G
Intensive Care Unit, Department of
Anesthesiology (DAR B)
CHU, Hˆopital Saint Eloi
80 avenue Augustin Fiche
34295 Montpellier Cedex 5
France

Cook D
Department of Anesthesia, Critical
Care and Pain
Birmingham Heartlands Hospital
Bordesley Green East
Birmingham, B9 5SS
United Kingdom

Chen J
The Simpson Center for Health Systems
Research
Liverpool Hospital
Locked Bag 7103
Liverpool BC, NSW 1871
Australia

Corrˆea F
Department of Anesthesiology
and Intensive Care
Friedrich-Schiller University
Erlanger Allee 103
07743 Jena
Germany

Chinnery P
Mitochondrial Research Group
Institute of Ageing and Health
Newcastle University
Newcastle upon Tyne, NE2 4HH
United Kingdom

Costa ELV
Respiratory Intensive Care Unit
University of Sao Paulo School
of Medicine
Av Dr Arnaldo 455
01246–903 Sao Paulo, SP
Brazil

XIII


XIV

List of Contributors

Costa MG
Department of Anesthesia and
Intensive Care
Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria S.M.
della Misericordia
P.le S. M. Misericordia 15
33100 Udine
Italy
Creagh-Brown BC
Department of Critical Care
Royal Brompton Hospital
Sydney Street
London, SW3 6NP
United Kingdom
Darmon M
Department of Intensive Care
Hˆopital Saint-Louis
1 Avenue Claude Vellefaux
75010 Paris
France
Davies SJ
Department of Anesthetics
York Hospital
Wigginton Road
York, YO31 8HE
United Kingdom
Decruyenaere JM
Department of Intensive Care
Ghent University Hospital
De Pintelaan 185
9000 Ghent
Belgium
De laet IE
Department of Intensive Care
ZNA Stuivenberg
Lange Beeldekensstraat 267
2060 Antwerp
Belgium
Della Rocca G
Department of Anesthesia and
Intensive Care
Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria S.M.
della Misericordia
P.le S. M. Misericordia 15
33100 Udine
Italy

Dellinger RP
Department of Critical Care Medicine
Cooper University Hospital
One Cooper Plaza
Dorrance Building, Suite 393
Camden, NJ 08103
USA
DeMichele SJ
Strategic and International R & D
Abbott Nutrition
3300 Stelzer Road
Columbus, OH 43219
USA
Depuydt PO
Department of Intensive Care
Ghent University Hospital
De Pintelaan 185
9000 Ghent
Belgium
Devarajan P
Department of Nephrology and
Hypertension
Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical
Center
University of Cincinnati
3333 Burnet Avenue
Cincinnati, OH 45229–3039
USA
De Waele JJ
Surgical Intensive Care Unit
Ghent University Hospital
De Pintelaan 185
9000 Ghent
Belgium
Draisma A
Department of Intensive Care
Radboud University Nijmegen Medical
Center
PO Box 9101
6500 HB Nijmegen
Netherlands
Dubin A
Unit of Applied Pharmacology
Faculty of Medical Science
La Plata National University
1900 La Plata, Buenos Aires
Argentina


List of Contributors

Dupont H
Department of Anesthesiology
and Intensive Care
Centre Hospitalier Universitaire
d’Amiens
Place Victor Pauchet
80054 Amiens Cedex
France
Duranteau J
Department of Anesthesiology
and Surgical Intensive Care
CHU de Bicˆetre
78 rue du G´en´eral Leclerc
94275 Le Kremlin Bicˆetre Cedex
France
Edul VSK
Unit of Applied Pharmacology
Faculty of Medical Science
La Plata National University
1900 La Plata, Buenos Aires
Argentina
Enkhbaatar P
Investigational Intensive Care Unit
Department of Anesthesiology
The University of Texas Medical Branch
301 University Blvd
Galveston, TX 77555–0833
USA
Ertmer C
Department of Anesthesiology
and Intensive Care
University Hosptial of Münster
Albert-Schweitzer-Str. 33
48149 Münster
Germany
Esen F
Department of Anesthesiology
and Intensive Care
Medical Faculty of Istanbul
University of Istanbul
Capa Klinikleri
34093 Istanbul
Turkey

Evans TW
Department of Critical Care
Royal Brompton Hospital
Sydney Street
London, SW3 6NP
United Kingdom
Ferguson ND
Toronto Western Hospital
399 Bathurst Street, 2MCL-411M
Toronto, ON M5T 2S8
Canada
Ferrando C
Department of Anesthesiology
and Critical Care
Hospital Clinico Universitario de
Valencia
Avenida Blasco Ibanez 17
46010 Valencia
Spain
Gabriella C
Department of Anesthesia and
Intensive Care
Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria S.M.
della Misericordia
P.le S. M. Misericordia 15
33100 Udine
Italy
Gallo D
Department of Emergency Medicine
University of Virginia Health System
1215 Lee Street
Charlottesville, VA 22908–0699
USA
Gama de Abreu M
Department of Anesthesiology
and Intensive Care
University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus
Fetscherstr. 74
01307 Dresden
Germany
Gao-Smith F
Department of Anesthesia, Critical
Care and Pain
Birmingham Heartlands Hospital
Bordesley Green East
Birmingham, B9 5SS
United Kingdom

XV


XVI

List of Contributors

Gauglitz GG
Department of Dermatology
and Allergology
Ludwig Maximilians University
Frauenlobstrasse 9–11
80337 Munich
Germany

Grounds RM
Department of Anesthesiology
and Intensive Care
Friedrich-Schiller-University
Erlanger Allee 101
07743 Jena
Germany

Giamarellos-Bourboulis EJ
4th Department of Internal Medicine
Attikon University Hospital
1 Rimini Street
Athens, 124 62
Greece

Hansen K
Cancer Center Proteomics Core
University of Colorado Denver
UCD Anschutz Medical Campus, RC-1
South, L18–1303
PO Box 6511, Campus Box 8119
Aurora, CO 80045
USA

Gonzalez Lima R
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Escola Politecnica
University of Sao Paulo
Av Prof Melo Moraes 2231
05508–030 Sao Paulo, SP
Brazil
Goodman S
General Intensive Care Unit
Department of Anesthesiology
and Critical Care
Hadassah Hebrew University Medical
Center
PO Box 12000
Jerusalem, 91120
Israel
Green DW
Department of Anesthesiology
King’s College Hospital
Denmark Hill
London, SE5 9RS
United Kingdom
Griffiths RD
Pathophysiology Unit
School of Clinical Sciences
University of Liverpool
Liverpool, L69 3GA
United Kingdom
Groeneveld ABJ
Department of Intensive Care
VU University Medical Center
De Boelelaan 1117
1081 HV Amsterdam
Netherlands

Harrois A
Department of Anesthesia and Surgical
Intensive Care
CHU de Bicˆetre
78 rue du G´en´eral Leclerc
94275 Le Kremlin Bicˆetre Cedex
France
Hartog C
Department of Anesthesiology
and Intensive Care
Friedrich-Schiller University
Erlanger Allee 101
07743 Jena
Germany
Heymann A
Department of Anesthesiology and
Intensive Care
Campus Charit´e Mitte und Campus
Virchow-Klinikum
Charit´e-Universitätsmedizin Berlin
Augustenburger Platz 1
13353 Berlin
Germany
Hillman K
The Simpson Center for Health Systems
Research
Liverpool Hospital
Locked Bag 7103
Liverpool BC, NSW 1871
Australia


List of Contributors

Hommes TJ
Academic Medical Center
University of Amsterdam
Meibergdreef 9, G2–129
1105 AZ Amsterdam
Netherlands

Jeschke MG
Galveston Burns Unit
Shriners Hospitals for Children
815 Market Street
Galveston, TX 77550
USA

Honor´e PM
Department of Intensive Care
St-Pierre Para-Universitary Hospital
Avenue Reine Fabiola 9
1340 Louvain-la-Neuve
Belgium

Joannes-Boyau O
Department of Anesthesia and
Intensive Care II
University of Bordeaux II
33600 Pessac
France

Huang SJ
Department of Intensive Care
Nepean Clinical School
University of Sydney
Sydney, NSW 2750
Australia

Jolliet P
Department of Intensive Care
University Hospital
1211 Geneva 14
Switzerland

Huet O
Department of Anesthesia and Surgical
Intensive Care
CHU de Bicˆetre
78 rue du G´en´eral Leclerc
94275 Le Kremlin Bicˆetre Cedex
France
Hüter L
Department of Anesthesiology and
Intensive Care
Friedrich Schiller University
Erlanger Allee 101
07740 Jena
Germany
Ince C
Department of Translational Physiology
Academic Medical Center
University of Amsterdam
Meibergdreef 9
1105 AZ Amsterdam
Netherlands
Jaber S
Intensive Care Unit, Department of
Anesthesiology
CHU, Hˆopital Saint Eloi
80 avenue Augustin Fiche
34295 Montpellier Cedex 5
France

Jones AT
Department of Intensive Care Medicine
St Thomas Hospital
Westminster Bridge Road
London, SE17 EH
United Kingdom
Jung B
Intensive Care Unit, Department
of Anesthesiology
CHU, Hˆopital Saint Eloi
80 avenue Augustin Fiche
34295 Montpellier Cedex 5
France
Kaplan LJ
Section of Trauma, Surgical Critical
Care, and Surgical Emergencies
Yale University School of Medicine
330 Cedar Street, BB-310
New Haven, CT 06520
USA
Kipnis E
Department of Surgical Intensive Care
Hˆopital Huriez
Centre Hospitalier R´egional
Universitaire de Lille
1 rue Michel Polonovski
59037 Lille
France

XVII


XVIII List of Contributors
Kopp R
Department of Surgical Intensive Care
RWTH Aachen University
52074 Aachen
Germany
Kowalewski S
Chair of Computer Science 11
RWTH Aachen University
52074 Aachen
Germany
Krinsley JS
Department of Critical Care
Stamford Hospital
Columbia University College
of Physicians and Surgeons
190 W Broad St.
Stamford, CT 06902
USA

Legriel S
Department of Intensive Care
Hˆopital Andr´e Mignot
177 rue de Versaille
78150 Le Chesnay
France
Leonhardt S
Philips Chair of Medical Information
Technology
RWTH Aachen University
52074 Aachen
Germany
Lepape A
Intensive Care Unit
Centre Hospitalier Lyon-Sud
Chemin du Grand Revoyet
69495 Pierre-Benite
France

Kruger P
Intensive Care Unit
Princess Alexandra Hospital
Ipswich Road
Woolloongabba, Brisbane
Australia

Levesque E
Department of Intensive Care
Hˆopital Paul Brousse
12, Av Paul Vaillant Couturier
94800 Villejuif
France

Kuiper MA
Department of Intensive Care
Medical Center Leeuwarden
PO Box 888
8901 BR Leeuwarden
Netherlands

Levi M
Department of Medicine (F-4)
Academic Medical Center
University of Amsterdam
Meibergdreef 9
1105 AZ Amsterdam
Netherlands

Laureys S
Coma Science Group
Cyclotron Research Centre
University of Li`ege
Sart-Tilman-B30
4000 Li`ege
Belgium
Lautrette A
Department of Nephrology
and Intensive Care
CHU Gabriel Montpied
58 rue Montalembert
63000 Clermont-Ferrand
France

Lewin III JJ
The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions
600 N. Wolfe Street
Carnegie 180
Baltimore, MD 21287–6180
USA
Liu X
Therapeutics Research Unit
Princess Alexandra Hospital
Ipswich Road
Woolloongabba, Brisbane, QLD 4102
Australia


List of Contributors

Loh NHW
Pathophysiology Unit
School of Clinical Sciences
University of Liverpool
Liverpool, L69 3GA
United Kingdom

Menon DK
Division of Anesthesia
University of Cambridge
Addenbrooke’s Hospital
Cambridge, CB2 2QQ
United Kingdom

Lorne E
INSERM ERI-12
Universit´e Jules Verne de Picardie
Centre Hospitalier Universitaire
d4amiens
Place Victor Pauchet
80054 Amiens Cedex
France

Metzger A
Department of Critical Care
Cooper University Hospital
One Cooper Plaza
Dorrance Building, Suite 393
Camden, NJ 08103
USA

Luepschen H
Department of Anesthesiology
and Intensive Care
University of Bonn
Sigmund Freud Strasse 25
53105 Bonn
Germany
Malbrain MMLG
Department of Intensive Care
ZNA Stuivenberg
Lange Beeldekensstraat 267
2060 Antwerp
Belgium
Marx G
Department of Intensive Care
University Hospital
RWTH Aachen
Pauwelsstr. 30
52074 Aachen
Germany
McLean AS
Department of Intensive Care
Nepean Clinical School
University of Sydney
Sydney NSW 2750
Australia
Meersseman W
Medical Intensive Care Unit
University Hospital
Herestraat 49
3000 Leuven
Belgium

Mirski MA
Department of Anesthesiology
and Critical Care
Division of Neuroanesthesia/
Neurosciences Critical Care
The Johns Hopkins Hospital
600 N. Wolfe Street, Meyer 8–140
Baltimore, MD 21287
USA
Monneret G
Flow Cytometry Unit
Immunology Laboratory
Hˆopital E. Herriot 5
Place d’Arsonval
69437 Lyon cedex 03
France
Monnet X
Department of Medical Intensive Care
Hˆopital de Bicˆetre
78 rue du G´en´eral Leclerc
94270 Le Kremlin-Bicˆetre
France
Morelli A
Department of Anesthesiology and
Intensive Care
University of Rome „La Sapienza”
Viale del Policlinico 155
00161 Rome
Italy

XIX


XX

List of Contributors

Muders T
Department of Anesthesiology and
Intensive Care
University of Bonn
Sigmund Freud Strasse 25
53105 Bonn
Germany

Nishisaki A
Department of Anesthesiology and
Critical Care
The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia
34th Street and Civic Center boulevard
Philadelphia, PA 19104
USA

Mueller C
Department of Medicine
University Hospital
Petersgraben 4
4031 Basel
Switzerland

Nolan JP
Department of Anesthesiology and
Intensive Care
Royal United Hospital
Combe Park
Bath, BA1 3NG
United Kingdom

Müller-Werdan U
Department of Medicine III
Universitätsklinikum Halle
Martin-Luther-University
Halle-Wittenberg
Ernst-Grube-Str. 40
06097 Halle/Saale
Germany
Nacul FE
Department of Anesthesiology and
Intensive Care
Friedrich-Schiller University
Erlanger Allee 103
07743 Jena
Germany
Nadkarni VM
Department of Anesthesiology and
Critical Care
The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia
34th Street and Civic Center Boulevard
Philadelphia, PA 19104
USA
Neumar RW
Department of Emergency Medicine
University of Pennsylvania School
of Medicine
Hospital of the University of
Pennsylvania
3400 Spruce Street
Philadelphia, PA 19104–4283
USA

Noveanu M
Department of Medicine
University Hospital
Petersgraben 4
4031 Basel
Switzerland
Ochola J
Department of Intensive Care
Princess Alexandra Hospital
199 Ipswich Road
Brisbane, QLD 4102
Australia
Oelke A
Department of Medicine III
Universitätsklinikum Halle
Martin-Luther-University
Halle-Wittenberg
Ernst-Grube-Str. 40
06097 Halle/Saale
Germany
Patterson AJ
Department of Anesthesia
Stanford University Medical Center
300 Pasteur Drive
Stanford, CA 94305
USA


List of Contributors

Pelosi P
Department of Ambient Health
and Safety
Service of Anesthesia B
Ospedale di Circolo
University of Insubria
Viale Borri 57
21100 Varese
Italy
Perkins GD
Warwick Medical School Clinical Trials
Unit
University of Warwick
Warwick, CV4 7AL
United Kingdom
Pickkers P
Department of Intensive Care
Radboud University Nijmegen Medical
Center
PO Box 9101
6500 HB Nijmegen
Netherlands
Pines JM
Department of Emergency Medicine
University of Philadelphia
Pennsylvania School of Medicine
Philadelphia, PA 19104–4283
USA
Pinsky MR
Department of Critical Care Medicine
606 Scaife Hall
3550 Terrace Street
Pittsburgh, PA 15261
USA
Poelaert J
Department of Anesthesiology and
Perioperative Medicine
UZ Brussel
Laarbeeklaan 101
1090 Brussels
Belgium
Polito A
General Intensive Care Unit
Raymond Poincar´e Teaching Hospital
(AP-HP)
104 boulevard Raymond Poincar´e
92380 Garches
France

Pontes-Arruda A
Intensive Care Nutrition Department
Fernandes Tavora Hospital
Rua Ildefonso Albano 777/403
Fortaleza, Ceara 60115–000
Brazil
Powell E
Department of Anesthesia, Critical
Care and Pain
Birmingham Heartlands Hospital
Bordesley Green East
Birmingham, B9 5SS
United Kingdom
Preiser JC
Department of Intensive Care
Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de
Li`ege
Domaine Universitaire Sart Tilman B35
4000 Li`ege 1
Belgium
Pustavoitau A
Departments of Anesthesiology
and Critical Care
Johns Hopkins Hospital
Meyer 8–140, 600 N. Wolfe St
Baltimore, MD 21287
USA
Putensen C
Department of Anesthesiology
and Intensive Care
University of Bonn
Sigmund Freud Strasse 25
53105 Bonn
Germany
Pyle A
Mitochondrial Research Group
Institute of Ageing and Health
Newcastle University
Newcastle upon Tyne, NE2 4HH
United Kingdom
Quiroz Martinez H
Interdepartmental Division
of Critical Care
Toronto Western Hospital
399 Bathurst Street, 2MCL-411M
Toronto, ON M5T 2S8
Canada

XXI


XXII

List of Contributors

Radermacher P
Sektion Anästhesiologische
Pathophysiologie und
Verfahrensentwicklung
Universitätsklinikum
Parkstrasse 11
89073 Ulm
Germany

Roberts MS
Intensive Care Unit
Princess Alexandra Hospital
Ipswich Road
Woolloongabba, Brisbane, QLD 4102
Australia

Rahman West R
Department of Intensive Care
St George’s Hospital
Blackshaw Road
London, SW17 0QT
United Kingdom

Robin E
Department of Surgical intensive Care
Hˆopital Huriez
Centre Hospitalier R´egional
Universitaire de Lille
1 rue Michel Polonovski
59037 Lille
France

Rehberg S
Investigational Intensive Care Unit
Department of Anesthesiology
The University of Texas Medical Branch
301 University Blvd
Galveston, TX 77555–0833
USA

Rooyackers O
Department of Anesthesia and
Intensive Care
Karolinska Institute
Huddinge University
14186 Stockholm
Sweden

Reichlin T
Department of Medicine
University Hospital
Petersgraben 4
4031 Basel
Switzerland

Roumier M
Department of Medical Intensive Care
Hˆopital Saint-Louis
1 Avenue Claude Vellefaux
75010 Paris
France

Reinhart K
Department of Anesthesiology
and Intensive Care
Friedrich-Schiller University
Erlanger Allee 101
07743 Jena
Germany

Sakr Y
Department of Anesthesiology
and Intensive Care
Friedrich-Schiller University
Erlanger Allee 103
07743 Jena
Germany

Rhodes A
Department of Intensive Care
St George’s Hospital
Blackshaw Road
London, SW17 0QT
UK

Saliba F
Hepatobiliary Center
Hˆopital Paul Brousse
12, Av Paul Vaillant Couturier
94800 Villejuif
France

Ristagno G
Weil Institute of Critical Care Medicine
35100 Bob Hope Drive
Rancho Mirage, CA 92270
USA

Samama CM
Department of Anesthesiology
and Intensive Care
Hotel-Dieu University Hospital
1 Place du Parvis de Notre-Dame
75181 Paris Cedex 04
France


List of Contributors

Scales DC
Department of Critical Care
Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre
2075 Bayview Avenue, Room D108
Toronto, ON M4N 3M5
Canada
Schroeder S
Department of Anesthesiology
and Intensive Care
Westküstenklinikum Heide
Esmarchstrasse 50
25746 Heide
Germany
Schuerholz T
Department of Intensive Care
University Hospital
RWTH Aachen
Pauwelsstr. 30
52074 Aachen
Germany
Schultz MJ
Department of Intensive Care and
Laboratory of Experimental Intensive
Care and Anesthesiology
Academic Medical Center at the
University of Amsterdam
Meibergdreef 9
1105 AZ Amsterdam
Netherlands
Seeling M
Department of Anesthesiology
and Intensive Care
Campus Charit´e Mitte und Campus
Virchow-Klinikum
Charit´e-Universitätsmedizin Berlin
Augustenburger Platz 1
13353 Berlin
Germany
Shapiro M
General Intensive Care Unit
Rabin Medical Center
Campus Beilinson
Petah Tikva 49100
Israel

Sharshar T
General Intensive Care Unit
Raymond Poincar´e Teaching Hospital
(AP-HP)
104 boulevard Raymond Poincar´e
92380 Garches
France
Shaw A
Department of Anesthesiology
Duke University Medical Center
Durham, NC 27710
USA
Shawcross D
Department of Hepatology
King’s College Hospital
Denmark Hill
London, SE5 9RS
United Kingdom
Shukri K
Department of Critical Care
King Fahad Specialist Hospital
PO Box 15215
Dammam 31444
Saudi Arabia
Siami S
General Intensive Care Unit
Raymond Poincar´e Teaching Hospital
(AP-HP)
104 Boulevard Raymond Poincar´e
92380 Garches
France
Silva E
Intensive Care Unit
Hospital Albert Einstein
Sao Paulo, SP 05651–901
Brazil
Sinderby C
Department of Critical Care
St Michael’s Hospital
30 Bond Street
Room 4–072, Queen Wing
Toronto, ON M5B 1W8
Canada

XXIII


XXIV

List of Contributors

Singer P
General Intensive Care Unit
Rabin Medical Center
Campus Beilinson
Petah Tikva 49100
Israel
Smith J
Department of Adult Critical Care
Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation
Trust
St Thomas’ Hospital, 1st Floor East
Wing
Westminster Bridge Road
London, SE1 7EH
United Kingdom
Smith M
Department of Neuroanesthesia and
Neuroscience Critical Care
The National Hospital for Neurology
and Neurosurgery
University College London Hospitals
Queen Square
London, WC1N 3BG
United Kingdom
Soar J
Department of Anesthetics
and Intensive Care
Southmead Hospital
North Bristol NHS Trust
Bristol, BS10 5NB
United Kingdom
Souweine B
Department of Nephrology
and Medical Intensive Care
CHU Gabriel Montpied
58 rue Montalembert
63000 Clermont-Ferrand
France
Spagnesi L
Department of Anesthesia
and Intensive Care
Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria S.M.
della Misericordia
P.le S. M. Misericordia 15
33100 Udine
Italy

Spies C
Department of Anesthesiology and
Intensive Care
Campus Charit´e Mitte und Campus
Virchow-Klinikum
Charit´e-Universitätsmedizin Berlin
Augustenburger Platz 1
13353 Berlin
Germany
Spieth PM
Department of Anesthesiology and
Intensive Care
University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus
Fetscherstrasse 74
01307 Dresden
Germany
Spriet I
Pharmacy Department
University Hospital
Herestraat 49
3000 Leuven
Belgium
Spronk PE
Department of Intensive Care
Gelre Hospitals (Lukas site),
PO Box 9014
7300 DS Apeldoorn
Netherlands
Sprung CL
General Intensive Care Unit
Department of Anesthesiology and
Critical Care
Hadassah Hebrew University Medical
Center
PO Box 12000
Jerusalem, 91120
Israel
Stafford-Smith M
Department of Anesthesiology
Duke University Medical Center
Erwin Road
Durham, NC 27710
USA


List of Contributors

Stevens RD
Division of Neurosciences Critical Care
Departments of Anesthesiology,
Critical Care Medicine, Neurology
and Neurosurgery
Johns Hopkins Hospital
Meyer 8–140, 600 N. Wolfe St
Baltimore, MD 21287
USA
Suarez Sipmann F
Department of Critical Care
Fundacion Jimenez Diaz-UTE
Avda de los Reyes Catolicos 2
28010 Madrid
Spain
Swaminathan M
Department of Anesthesiology
Duke University Medical Center
Erwin Road
Durham, NC 27710
USA
Szab´o C
Department of Anesthesiology
The University of Texas Medical Branch
610 Texas Avenue
Galveston, TX 775553
USA
Tang BM
Department of Intensive Care
Nepean Clinical School
University of Sydney
Sydney NSW 2750
Australia
Tang W
Weil Institute of Critical Care
35100 Bob Hope Drive
Rancho Mirage, CA 92270
USA
Tassaux D
Department of Intensive Care
University Hospital
1211 Geneva 14
Switzerland

Teboul JL
Department of Intensive Care
Hˆopital de Bicˆetre
78 rue du G´en´eral Leclerc
94270 Le Kremlin-Bicˆetre
France
Thonnard M
Coma Science Group
Cyclotron Research Centre
University of Li`ege
Sart-Tilman-B30
4000 Li`ege
Belgium
Traber DL
Investigational Intensive Care Unit
Department of Anesthesiology
The University of Texas Medical Branch
301 University Blvd
Galveston, TX 77555–0833
USA
Trof RJ
Department of Intensive Care
VU University Medical Center
De Boelelaan 1117
1081 HV Amsterdam
Netherlands
Tugrul S
Department of Anesthesiology and
Intensive Care
Medical Faculty of Istanbul
University of Istanbul
Capa Klinikleri
34093 Istanbul
Turkey
Tusman G
Department of Anesthesiology
Hospital Privado de Comunidad
Cordoba 4545
7600 Mar del Plata
Argentina
Vallet B
Department of Surgical Intensive Care
Hˆopital Huriez
Centre Hospitalier R´egional
Universitaire de Lille
1 rue Michel Polonovski
59037 Lille
France

XXV


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