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VIETNAM ACADEMY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES
GRADUATE ACADEMY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES

DO HANH DUNG

BANKING TERMINOLOGY IN ENGLISH AND THEIR
EQUIVALENTS IN VIETNAMESE

Major: Comparative Linguistics
Code: 9.22.20.24

PHD THESIS IN LINGUISTICS

Hanoi – 2019


The Works is completed at:
VIETNAM ACADEMY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES
GRADUATE ACADEMY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES

Science Instructor: ASSOC. PROF, PHD. HA QUANG NANG


Reviewer 1: PROF, PHD. NGUYEN HOA
Reviewer 2: ASSOC. PROF, PHD. VU KIM BANG
Reviewer 3: ASSOC. PROF, PHD. NGUYEN HONG CON

The Thesis will be defensed in front of the Academy-level PhD
thesis evaluation council held at Graduate Academy of Social Sciences,
Vietnam Academy of Social Sciences, 477 Nguyen Trai, Thanh Xuan,
Hanoi.
At ….. on …/…/201…

The thesis can be found at:
- The National Library
- Academy’s Faculty Library


INTRODUCTION
1. Reasons to choose the topic
1. The terminology has long been an extremely important and
indispensable topic in the formation and development of vocabulary of each
language. In the current globalization context, along with the development of
language, the terminology obviously plays a key role, meeting with the
continuous growth of science and technology.
2. Located in the context of regionalization and globalization, Vietnam is
also in the period of innovation, developing a socialist-oriented market
economy with the regulation of the state. The banking system in general
contributes an important part in the development of all related industries.
3. Along with the development of the banking industry is the birth and
development of related terms. By selecting the topic "Banking terminology in
English and their equivalents in Vietnamese", the thesis will explore in depth
the origin of formulation, identification characteristics, equivalent types of
banking terms in English and Vietnamese, aiming to create a high-quality
reference source for students and lecturers in the banking faculty and make
certain contributions to the process of standardizing Vietnamese language
banking terms, promoting the development of potential internal resources of the
integrating economy.
2. Purpose and research tasks of the thesis
2.1 Purpose of the research
This study was conducted for the following two purposes:
- Describing, reconciling and systematizing English and Vietnamese
banking terms to clarify the characteristics of formulation and semantic
identifier.
- From the situation when translating Vietnamese banking terms, the
thesis has proposed a number of specific orientations and measures to
support the construction and standardization of banking terms as well
as for teaching, learning, drafting and translating banking documents
more effectively.
2.2 Research tasks
- Systematizing the theoretical situation of research on terminology in the
world and in Vietnam, thereby determining the basis for research.
- Studying the formulation of banking terms in English and Vietnamese,
identifying the types of models that combine language elements to create banking
terms in English and Vietnamese.
- Studying identification characteristics of banking terms in both
English - Vietnamese languages such as: formation path, semantic type and
way of expression.
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- Identifying equivalent types of translation and analysizing equivalent
translation of banking terms as per the number of units.
3. Research object and scope of the thesis
The object of the thesis is the expression terms for the concepts used in
the banking industry, specifically 2710 English banking terms and 2790
Vietnamese banking terms.
4. Methodology and research methods of the thesis
Since the object of the research is English and Vietnamese banking terms, we
advocate using the following research methods and tactics:
4.1 Direct element analysis method
Direct element analysis method is used to identify and analyze terminological
formulation basis. To apply this method, each term is analyzed into two direct
language elements. Next, these elements are further subdivided into smaller
direct elements. Thereby, the hierarchical model of the term is determined the
relationship between the direct elements in each level as well as the relationship
between the major elements directly creating the term.
4.2 Descriptive method
This method is used to describe the formulation characteristics of each term,
helping us know the elements that make up banking terms, the origin and type
characteristics of each element as well as their formulation models. From that,
it helps us identify the characteristics of banking terms in terms of formulation,
identification as well as orientation on how to form new terms.
4.3 Comparison method
In this research, we use a one-way English-Vietnamese reconciliation method.
In order to do that, we chose English as the base language (source language)
and Vietnamese as the means language (target language), to respectively
compare equivalent types so that we could find out similarities and differences
among them.
In addition to using the three above analytical methods, we also use statistical
tactics to list the quantity, frequency and rate of using terms in each category as
well as certain identifier characteristics of banking terms in both languages.
5. The theoretical and practical meanings of the thesis
The thesis has practical contributions in terms of theory and practice as follows:
5.1 Theoretically:
- The thesis clearly identifies the similarities and differences in the formation
path as well as the formualation method of banking terms in both English and
Vietnamese.
- The thesis also points out the formulation characteristics of English banking
terms and their equivalents in Vietnamese. Research results will contribute to
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the construction of general theory of terminology and the theory of standards
and standardization of terms.
- Through research on the equivalent translation of banking terminology in both
languages, we will contribute to clarifying the general arguments of
internationalization of banking terms in the new era.
5.2 Practically
Research results of the thesis will contribute to the compilation and revision of
teaching materials, and study of specialized banking English. Thereby it
improves the quality of teaching and learning banking English at Foreign Trade
University in particular and domestic educational training institutions in
general.
6. Structure of the thesis
In addition to the introduction, conclusion, references and appendices, the
thesis consists of 3 chapters:
Chapter 1: Overview of research situation and theoretical bases.
Chapter 2: Formulation characteristics of banking terms in English and
equivalents in Vietnamese.
Chapter 3: Identifier characteristics of English banking terms, their equivalents
in Vietnamese and standardized proposals.
Chapter 1
OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH SITUATION AND THEORETICAL
BASES
1.1. Overview of research situation
1.1.1 Situation of terminology research in the world and Vietnam
1.1.1.1. Studying terminology and specialized terms in the world
The study of the terminology in the world is associated with three
schools:
Austrian terminology school: Notably, there are Wuster's (1931)
debates about systematizing terminology study methods, giving some principles
when using terminology and pointing out main points of terminology data
processing method. Leo Weisgeber (1975) said that this is an important work
and a turning point of applied linguistics.
The terminology school of the Czech Republic: It can be said that the
school's most concern is standardizing languages and standardizing terms such
as describing structures and functions, in which they think the term plays a very
important role.
Soviet Union terminology research school: Acquiring views from
these two schools, this school also focused on the study of standardization.
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In short, when it comes to the terminology study towards the
adjustment in accordance with the linguistic system, it cannot mention the three
schools and these above-mentioned are also the most typical and largest cradle
of studying terminology all around the world.
1.1.1.2. Situation of terminology research in Vietnam
The study of Vietnamese science terminology in Vietnam was started
in the early 20s of the twentieth century. Although the terminology in general
has been carefully studied by Vietnamese scientists, many great achievements
have been achieved, as evidenced by a series of glossary dictionaries that have
been published in foreign and Vietnamese languages. However, there are not
many separate research works on the terminology system of a particular
science. In order to standardize the terminology in a comprehensive way, more
in-depth studies of specific disciplines are needed, in order to find out the
essential characteristics of each terminology sub-system, contributing to the
creation of objective bases for standardization and unification of terminology of
each specialized sector.
1.1.2. Situation of banking terminology research in the UK and Vietnam
1.1.2.1. Situation of banking terminology in the UK
The 20th century marked a strong development of specialized English.
Due to the influence of the world economy, in the 1950s with the development
of science and technology, specialized English has strongly developed and the
use of English increased rapidly as the international scientific language.
After that development momentum, the International Institute for
Terminology Research (IITF) was established in 1989 with over 100 members
of more than 10 countries, of which, the UK is one of the most active members
to promote research, teaching and training in terminology.
By the 21st century, with the rapid progress of science and technology,
new challenges were posed to the terminology, which was the driving force for
thousands of specialized dictionaries, teaching materials, journals, treatises to
have been published, scientific terms have begun to be considered for research
in each specific subject. Holmstrom, J had great merits in spreading
terminology on the world scale.
1.1.2.2 Situation of banking terminology in Vietnam
Economics plays a key role in survival for any country, in
interdisciplinary relationships, banks play the most important role. There are
many essays, theses and dictionaries related to the economic field. However,
the research works on banking terminology only stop at the general survey and
assessment of the economic sector in general, the intensive and large-scale
research is still open without being paid intention by scientists, bank experts.
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1.2. Theoretical bases
1.2.1. Terminlogy issues
1.2.1.1. Terminology concept
Since its inception, the terminology has always been a controversial
issue, with numerous different definitions in connection with different points of
view such as:
Definition of terminology associated with the concept
From the viewpoint of terminology definition associated with the
concept, first of all, we must mention the Soviet authors, Danilenco (1977),
who said, "The term, despite being a word (compound or single) or phrase, is a
symbol with a corresponding concept”, Similarly, DXX Lotto also shows two
facets of a term: the sound combination or the sound component and the
meaning associated with the sound combination within a concept system.
Accordingly, "The term is a special part of the language." This means that the
term all relates to fixed words and phrases to call the exact names of the
concepts and objects of the language under precise specialized areas.
Definition of terminology associated with functions
Representative of this school of definitions is G.O. Vinkur whose
viewpoints are that "The term is not a special word but a word with special
function." In addition, X.M. Burdin also agreed and emphasized the above
ideology of Vinogradop with the statement "The term is the object of the
definition, while the common word is not".
Definition of terminology in distinguishing with "non-terminological
terms"
Different from the above two viewpoints on terminology, linguists attach
themselves to this viewpoint as saying that: when defining the terminology, the
most important thing is to point out the most characteristic features of its being,
mentioning the difference with words which are not the terms.
Thus, according to the above points of view, although there are many
approaches to the concept of terminology, whatever the approach is, the authors
mentioned two important issues, mainly:
- The term is a word or a phrase
- Expressing concepts, attributes, objects, things and phenomena in
certain specialized fields.
It is also our understanding of the terminology concept and taking it as a
basis for research in this thesis.
1.2.1.2. Standards when building and standardizing terms
Researchers have introduced quite a lot standards for terminology, but it can be
generalized them into the following standards: science, internationality and
nationality.
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Science
Scientific is understood as accuracy, systematicness and conciseness.
Accuracy
Accuracy is up to now recognized by all domestic and foreign scientists as a
leading requirement for the term.
Systematicness
This is also a necessary characteristic and quality for terminology. Any industry
needs a system of concepts associated with the term, any term is an essential and
important element of the terminology system.
Conciseness
The words have shortness; researchers have come up with a specific standard of the
number of elements forming terminology.
Internationality
In
today's
era
of
globalization
and
internationalization,
internationalization is an indispensable and essential requirement, in general,
the terminology is the words that represent the scientific concepts of mind,
wisdom, knowledge of humanity in general.
Nationality
Regarding the nationality, it refers to the form of the term, nationality
includes many aspects: vocabulary, grammar, phonetics and writing: All these
characteristics must be consistent with the writing and reading language
characteristics of that nation.
1.2.1.3. Definition on banking terms
Although there are many different concepts of banking terminology, in this
thesis, we use the definition of banking terms as "Fixed words and phrases to
correctly name concepts and objects of the banking sector, including terms to indicate
the subject of banking operations, banking products, the terms for banking operations
and the term for supporting documents to ensure payment" because the definition not
only covers the whole task and function of the banking industry, but it is also in line
with the analysis direction and advantages when defining the identifier categories of
banking terms in English and Vietnamese.
1.2.2. Theory of identification with terminology establishment
Linguists have mentioned quite a lot about the relationship between
terminology and identification. Naming a thing or a phenomenon is the process
of identification. Identifying behavior is always associated with classification,
and the process of identifying a thing, property or process consists of two steps,
which is classifying the concept and selecting specific characteristic. When
identifying, among many characteristics of a thing, phenomenon, nature or
process, people only choose a certain characteristic of things... to be distinct
from other things.
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1.2.3 Translation theory and translation equivalence
1.2.3.1 Definition of translation
Since its inception, translation has always played an important role,
bringing people with new knowledge. Equivalence is a concept that indicates a
state or property of equal value, which means equality in value, quantity,
meaning and importance. The translation equivalence concept is associated
with translation theory. Perspectives on translation equivalents are extremely
diverse and are an issue with many controversies, assessments and discussions
in many different ways and it is difficult to come up with a completely unified
viewpoint in translation theory. Therefore, to ensure the equivalence in
translation, it is necessary to build clear concepts of equivalent types in
translation.
1.2.3.2 The concept of translation equivalence and the criteria to ensure the
equivalence of translation products
Based on the translation definition and the criteria for ensuring the
translation mentioned above, we use the definition and criteria of Nida, E. as
the theoretical basis for the study: Translation is actually the language
acquisition in an equivalent way between source text and target text, translation
equivalence must ensure certain criteria such as; meaningfulness, easy forms of
expression, with similar principles and reactions.
Sub-conclusion for Chapter 1
By reviewing the researches on banking terminology in English and
their equivalents in Vietnamese, it can be seen that the terminology in general
and the banking terminology in particular has been carefully studied by the
researchers around the world. However, in Vietnam, in-depth researches on
banking terminology remain relatively modest. Moreover, through an overview
of the research situation, it can be affirmed that there are no studies mentioning
the structure, characteristics or categories of identification of banking terms in
English and equivalents in Vietnamese. Therefore, it can be affirmed that the
topic "Banking terms in English and their equivalents in Vietnamese" is a new
topic, which has important implications for teaching, contributing to
standardizing Vietnamese banking terms.
Chapter 2
FORMULATION OF BANKING TERMS IN ENGLISH AND THEIR
EQUIVALENTS IN VIETNAMESE
2.1. Formulation of banking terms in English and their equivalents in
Vietnamese.
2.1.1. Determining banking term systems
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The banking term system in this thesis is determined based on the point of
view: "Banking term is a fixed word and phrase that exactly names the concepts and
objects in the banking sector, including the terms of the active subject of bank
operations, terms indicating supporting documents to ensure payment”.
2.1.2. Components of banking terminology – language elements
According to Nguyen Thi Bich Ha's approach (2000), we also use the term
"language element" (which is a factor formulating terminology) as the last direct
constituent of a term. Each language element expresses a concept of a identifier term
in a certain field. Therefore, every language element has meaning.
2.1.3 Surveying means
In this chapter, we will rely on the main nature of the banking term
constituent elements to answer the questions: How are English banking terms
formulated? In order to do that, we will look at the formulation characteristics
of the English banking terms by terminology groups
2.2. Number of language elements formulating bank terms in English and
Vietnamese
We have conducted language elemental analysis, classifying terms by
formulation elements and obtained specific data as follows:
Table 2.1: Vietnamese and English banking terms by the number of
language elements
Number of
English
Vietnamese
language
elements in
Number
Number of
banking terms
of terms
Rate %
terms
Rate %
1 language
590
21.77
201
7.2
element
2 language
1138
42.14
1108
39.73
elements
3 language
852
31.4
850
30.47
elements
4 language
120
4.4
480
17.2
elements
5 language
10
0.36
151
5.64
elements
Total
2710
100%
2790
100%
2.3. Analyzing the formulation characteristics and types of banking terms
in English and Vietnamese
2.3.1. Terms with one language element
2.3.1.1. English banking terms
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a. Banking terms which are single words
This is a group of terms including a key elemental form, which can be a noun,
verb or adjective.
b. Banking terms which are derivative words
Derivative word is a word that is composed by a combination of several root
elements with affixes. Affixes may be a prefix or suffix.
c. Banking terms which are compound words
This is a common method of constructing words of any language in the world.
Table 2.2: Statistics of parts of speech of English banking terms
Terms
Parts of speech
Number
Rate %
Noun
376
13.8
Verb
23
0.8
Single words
Adjective
16
0.59
Noun & Verb
5
0.18
Prefix
40
1.47
Derivative words
Suffix
84
3.09
Prefix and suffix
9
0.33
Compound words
38
1.4
Total
590/2710
21.67%
2.3.1.2. Vietnamese banking terms
After being analyzed, it is possible to synthesize the above statistics
into the following table 2.3:
Table 2.3: Statistics of formulation and parts of speech of one-element
Vietnamese banking terms
Parts of
speech
Number
Noun
5
Verb
0
Single words
Adjective
0
Noun
15
Verb
10
Equal-made compound words
Adjective
0
Noun
135
Verb
33
Main-secondary compound
words
Adjective
2
Total
201
2.3.2 Banking terms with two language elements
2.3.2.1. English banking terms
Terms

9

Rate %
0.17
0
0
1.45
0.36
0
0.53
1.18
0.07
7.2


It is possible to synthesize English language banking terms with two
elements in the following table:
Table 2.4: Statistics of formulation and parts of speech of two-element
English banking terms
Terms
Parts of speech
Number
Rate %
Noun + Noun
538
19,8
Noun
Adjective + Noun
13
5,1
phrase
Past participle + Noun
230
8.2
Present participle + Noun
148
5.4
Verb + Noun
7
0.25
Noun + Present Participle
36
1.29
Adjective
+
Present 21
0.77
Participle
Verb + Present participle
3
0.1
Present Participle + verb
2
0.07
Noun in possessive case + 10
0.36
Noun
Noun in possessive case + 1
0.03
adjective
Conjuctions
and
past 1
0.03
participle
Adjective Present participle + adjective 2
0.07
phrase
cardinal numbers + noun
1
0.03
Total
1138/2710
41.9%
2.3.2.2. Vietnamese banking terms
Table 2.5: Statistics of parts of speech of Vietnamese two-element banking
terms
Parts of
Terms
speech
Number
Rate %
MainNoun
203
228
7.2
secondary
Verb
20
1.71
compound
5
0.17
Adjective
words
MainNoun
473
880
16.9
secondary
Verb
251
8.9
word
156
5.5
Adjective
phrase
40%
Total
1108/2790
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2.3.3 Terms with three elements
2.3.3.1 English banking terms
Among the three elements that make up the term, the last element always
plays a central role with the main meaning. The two preceding elements bring
additional meaning and classification to terms.
2.3.3.2 Vietnamese banking terms
All the terms are main-secondary word phrases, accounting for 100%,
among which, all terms are made from noun phrases.
2.3.4. Terms with four elements
2.3.4.1 English banking terms
All terms are noun phrases.
2.3.4.2 Vietnamese banking terms
All the terms in the group are made from main-secondary word
phrases. Among which, all terms are noun phrases, accounting for 17.2%.
2.3.5. Terms with five elements
2.3.5.1 English banking terms
There are very few English banking terms with five elements, all of which
are main-secondary word phrases.
2.3.5.2 Vietnamese banking terms
All the terms in the group are made from main-secondary word
phrases. Among which, all terms are noun phrases.
2.4. Formulation model of English and Vietnamese banking terms
We symbolize N as elements to form a term; N1 as the first formulation
elements, N2 is the second formulation elements.
2.4.1. Formulation model of English banking terms
2.4.1.1 Formulation model 1
This is the terminology group with two combined elements. According to
this principle, the sub-component is the complement in the front, the main noun
of the term follows, so the elements in the second position are: capture,
payments, and conduits as the main, basic component, which indicates concept
type.
2.4.1.2 Formulation model 2
Terms in this group include three elements. The order of main-secondary
components is opposite to that of elements in Vietnamese banking term equivalents.
The element in second position combining with the elements in the first position makes
up a main-secondary phrase.
2.4.1.3 Formulation model 3
These terms are all made up by three elements. The third place element
is always a main element, with general meaning indicating concept type, the
first and second elements provide addiational meaning to the third element. The
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combination of the second and first elements is added before the third elements,
showing it is selected to be a basis to identify the concept which is expressed by
the term.
2.4.1.4 Formulation model 4
The model has 4 elements, elements standing before the fourth element aim
at detailing and clarifying the meaning of the fourth element.
2.4.1.5 Formulation model 5
This terminology group has four elements to make up. The combination of the
first and second elements detailed characteristics, properties, attributes for the
concept or the objective that the third and fourth combination of elements
would like to express.
2.4.1.6 Formulation model 6
These terms consist of five combined elements, which can be divided into two
components including directly and indirectly combined together.
2.4.1.7 Formulation model 7
The above terms include six combined elements, which can be divided into two
supporting elements.
2.4.1.8 Formulation model 8
The above terms include eight combined elements, which can be divided into
two elements that directly support each other.
From the above data, it shows that English banking terms has a short,
tight and brief structure.
2.4.2 Formulation model of Vietnamese banking terms
2.4.2.1 Formulation model 1
This is a model formulated by 2 elements. The model has the following
forms:
a. This is a group of terms including two combined elements. The second
element details the meaning of the first element.
b. This is a group of terms including two combined elements. The rate of such
terms is really rare among surveyed terms. The role of the 2 elements is equal,
which can be split to make into different words.
2.4.2.2 Formulation model 2
This is a model formulated by 3 elements. The model has the following
forms:
a. The combination of these second and third elements indicates the essential
nature chosen as a basis for identifying the concepts expressed by the terms.
b. The combination of these second and third elements defines the essential
nature chosen as a basis for identifying the concepts expressed by the terms. In
banking terms constituted by three elements in model 2, the first element is
always the main and essential element with the overview meaning. The second
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and third elements combine together in a primary or isometric relationship to be
a complement for the first element.
2.4.2.3 Formulation model 3
This is a model formulated by 4 elements. The model has the following
forms:
a. The elements make up the main-secondary group to identify and concretize
the meaning for the whole combination of the first element associated with the
second element.
b. The second, third, and fourth elements are combined in the main sub-order as
stated to determine the meaning of the first element of the term.
c. The elements that make up the complement elements, concretizing the
characteristics and properties for the whole combination, include the third
element associated with the first and the second elements.
2.4.2.4 Formulation model 4
This is a model formulated by 5 elements. The model has the following
forms:
a. The above terms include five combined elements, which can be divided into
two components that directly support each other
b The above terms include five combined elements, which can be divided into
two components that directly support each other.
c. The above terms include five combined elements, which can be divided into
two components that directly support each other.
2.4.2.5 Formulation model 5
This is a model formulated by 6 elements. The model has the following
forms:
a. The above terms include six combined elements, which can be divided into
two components that directly support each other.
b. The above terms include six combined elements, which can be divided into
two components that directly support each other.
c. The above terms include six combined elements, which can be divided into
two components that directly support each other.
d. The above terms include six combined elements, which can be divided into
two components that directly support each other.
e. The above terms include six combined elements, which can be divided into
two components that directly support each other.
2.4.2.6 Formulation model 6
This is a model formulated by 7 elements. The model has the following
forms:
a. The above terms include seven combined elements, which can be divided
into two components that directly support each other.
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b. The above terms include seven combined elements, which can be divided
into two components that directly support each other.
2.4.2.7 Formulation model 7
The above terms include 9 combined elements, which can be divided into two
components that directly support each other. We summarize the number of
bank term formulation models into the following table:
Table 2.6: Statistics of formulation models of English and Vietnamese
banking terms
English
Vietnamese
No.
Model
Number
Rate %
Number
Rate %
1 element
420
15.5%
2
Banking term is
132
4.63%
elements
a word
3
38
1.4%
1
elements
2
Banking terms with more than 2 elements
Model 1
1222
45
1145
41,03
Model 2
393
14.5
745
26,7
Model 3
247
9.1
474
16,9
Model 4
200
7.3
398
14,2
Model 5
42
1.54
23
1,07
Model 6
10
0.36
4
0,14
Model 7
6
0.22
1
0,036
Total: (1)+(2)
2710
100%
2790
100%
Sub-conclusion for chapter 2
In chapter 2, the thesis analyzed the formulation of banking terms in
English and their equivalents in Vietnamese in all 4 aspects: composition,
number of elements, characteristics of parts of speech and formulation model.
Based on the analysis results, the thesis has compared the English and
Vietnamese banking terms to find similarities and differences.
Chapter 3
IDENTIFICATION CHARACTERISTICS OF BANKING TERMS IN
ENGLISH AND THEIR EQUIVALENTS IN VIETNAMESE
3.1. The ways that make up the English and Vietnamese banking terms
In general, based on the survey results, based on the method of constructing
terminology as mentioned above by linguistics, we find that like other
languages, banking terms in English and Vietnamese languages are formed by
the following two basic methods:
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3.1.1 The ways that make up the English banking terms
3.1.1.1 Terminologize widely-used words
In general terms and English banking terms in particular, there are many words
and phrases that scientists have deliberately given a clear definition, but there is
a group of words that are often misunderstood by outsiders, that is English
banking term group which have been created by using common words in daily
life.
1.2.3.2 Creating banking terms by existing text corpus
In addition to word-wide terminology, using existing terms to create
new terms is also a very popular way to expand vocabulary. There are three
ways to form a new term on the basis of existing corpus as follows: Method of
adding additives, combining method (combining existing words into new
words) and Method of changing in parts of speech: Which is the method of
change functions of grammar and parts of speech.
1.2.3.3 Borrowing foreign terms
Besides these two ways, in the era of globalization, borrowing foreign terms
is an inevitable trend for the development of any term, banking terms are
also under that rule. The borrowed banking term is based on the following
three ways: English banking terms with Latin origin. English banking terms
with Greek origin and borrowed from French
3.1.2. The ways that make up the Vietnamese banking terms
Like banking terms in English, Vietnamese banking terms are also
formed in the following ways:
3.1.2.1 Terminologize widely-used words
"The way of terminologizing widely-used words (or popular words) is the
way to change and develop the meaning of words to create a new meaning
(terminology meaning). In essence, the term meaning is a derivative meaning based
on the original meaning of the common word or on the basis of one or a few basic
meanings in the conceptual structure of the word."
3.1.2.2 Ways to receive foreign terms in Vietnamese banking terms
Like banking terms in English, Vietnamese banking terms in the context of
globalization also borrowed foreign terms to expand their vocabulary,
specifically in the following ways: Phonetics, semantic transcription and
maintenance of the words’ original forms.
3.2. Identification characteristics of banking terms
When studying the characteristics of TNNH, we go depth into two factors:
which include the type of semantics and the way of expression.
3.2.1. Identification characteristics of the banking terms regarding semantics
of the terms
15


Banking term is divided into two types including the direct names and indirect
names of (the result of the terminologizing common words), or the wide and
narrow names. The number of banking terms whose have a direct name
accounts for a large number in both languages.
3.2. Identification characteristics of the banking terms regarding terms
express
1. The thesis identifies typical banking term system including the following
general categories;
2. The terms indicating entities conducting banking operations.
3. The terms indicating security documents for bank payment
4. The terms indicating bank operations.
3.3. Category to identify bank terminology
3.3.1. Category to identify bank terms indicating entities conducting banking
operations
3.3.1.1 Terms for customers; This category only has the following
characteristics: customer characteristics, customer origin, type of customer
3.3.1.2 Terms for bank staff; This category has only 1 unique identifier: Staff
functions and tasks
3.3.1.3 Terms for individuals managing bank transactions: This category has
only three identifiers in the following characteristics: The work division in
charge and the group of people in charge and the business line.
3.3.1.4 Terms to indicate entities joining bank transactions: This category has
only two identifiers in the following characteristics: Scope of operation and
scope, scale and organization of banking operations.
3.3.1.5 Terms indicating intermediate individuals and organizations: phạm trù
này có ba đặc trưng sau: This category has the following three characteristics:
According to the functions of individuals, organizations, fields of activity,
support.
3.3.1.6 Terms indicating bank types:
This category has the following three characteristics:
Scope - organizational scale, function - mode of operation and position,
location.
3.3.1.7 Terms indicating bank organizations and representative individuals: This
category has the following characteristics: Bank business unit or authorized
representative:
3.3.1.8 Terms indicating bank outlets: This category has one of the most basic
characteristics: the form of banking business.

16


Table 3.1. Category of identifiers to indicate English and Vietnamese
banking terms
No.

1

Model

Customer

2

Bank staff

3

Individuals to
manage banks

4

6

Individuals,
organizations
joining bank
business
Bank

7

Organizations,
representative
individuals in
banks

8

Bank outlet

Identifiers
characteristics

English

Customer
characteristics
Customer origin
Customer type
Total
Chức năng, nhiệm vụ
của nhân viên
Total
Work division in
charge
Group of people in
charge
Business line
Total
Operation field

Total
Organization scope,
scale
Operation location
Operation method
Total
Business
organizations,
authorized individual
representatives
Total
Business activities
Total

Vietnamese

Number Rate % Number Rate %
of terms
of terms
32
1.14
35
1.2
12
07
51
75

0.43
0.25
1.72
2.68

14
09
58
96

0.03
0.03
1.26
3.29

75
32

2.68
1.15

96
25

3.29
0.85

20

0.71

25

0.85

43
95
95

1.54
3.40
3.4

55
105
105

1.89
3.59
3.6

95
32

3.4
1.15

105
33

3.6
1.09

132
29
742
7

4.9
1.03
7.08
0.25

142
42
892
9

4.8
1.44
7.33
0.3

7
15
22

0.25
0.53
0.78

9
17
26

0.3
0.58
0.88

3.3.2 Category indicating security documents for bank payment
3.3.2.1. Terms to indicate insurance This category has the basic characteristics
of the objects are covered by insurance.
3.3.2.2. The terms for these categories of cards: the category has basic
characteristics of use purpose, time and function
17


3.3.2.3. The terms for these categories of charges: It has basic characteristics of
price characteristics.
3.3.2.4. The terms for these types of checks: It has basic characteristics of functions
3.3.2.5. The terms for the types of certificates and papers: this category has the
following basic characteristics such as papers, notices and permits.
3.3.2.6. The terms for the types of accounts: this category has a unique
characteristic that is characteristic.
3.3.2.7. The terms for money types; This category has the following
characteristics: type, material, strength, characteristics.
3.3.2.8. The terms for to the types of terms; This category has a unique
characteristic that is characteristic.
Table 3.2: Category to indicate support documents for bank payment in
English and Vietnamese
No.

1

Model

2

Terms for
insurance
Card

3

Charges

4

Checks

5

Certificates,
documents

6

Account

7

Money

8

Terms

Identificatio
characteristics

Object
Total
Purpose
Time
Function
Total
Price
characteristics
Total
Function
Total
Certificates
Notices
Permits
Total
Characteristics
Total
Type
Materials
Strength
Characteristics
Total
Characteristics
Total

18

English

Vietnamese

Number Rate %
of terms
45
1,66
45
1,66
25
0,92
5
0,18
15
0,55
45
1,65
36
1,32

Number Rate
of terms %
47
1.61
47
1.61
29
0.99
6
0.22
17
0.58
5,1
2.12
47
1.61

36
29
29
31
23
123
177
47
47
67
53
5
35
160
41
41

1,32
0,036
0,036
1,14
0,84
4,5
6.48
1,73
1,73
2,47
1,9
0,18
1,29
5.84
1,51
1,51

47
31
31
35
25
131
191
48
48
68
58
35
37
198
42
42

1.61
1.06
1.06
1.2
0.85
4.5
6.55
1.64
1.64
2.3
1.99
1.29
1.27
6.85
1.44
1.44


3.3.3. Category to identify bank terms indicating each bank operation
3.3.3.1 The terms for bank management activities; This category has one of the
most basic characteristics that is characteristic
3.3.3.2 The terms refers to capital mobilization activities; This category has one
of the most basic characteristics: characteristics
3.3.3.3 The terms for credit activity; This category has one of the most basic
features: functionality:
3.3.3.4 The terms for transferring money abroad; This category has only one
function that is the function of the operation.
Table 3.3: Category to identify terms indicating specific operations in bank
by English and Vietnamese banking terms
No. Model
Identifica English
Vietnamese
tio
character Numb Rate
Numb Rate %
istics
er of
%
er of
terms
terms
1
Management
Characteri 35
1.29
38
1.30
activities
stics
2
Capital
Characteri 17
0.62
25
0.85
mobilization
stics
3
Credit activities
Function 47
1.73
49
1.68
4
Activities on
Function 43
1.58
45
1.54
transferring money
abroad
Total
142
5.2% 157
5.37%
3.4 Equivalence types of English and Vietnamese banking terms
3.4.1 Analyze equivalent translation of banking terms by unit type to make up
terminology
Based on the translation equivalent definition, through the surveyed
text corpus, we find that the English and Vietnamese banking terms have the
following main equivalence types:
3.4.1.1. Equivalance 1//1
Word-word equivalance
Word-word equivalence is understood as an English banking term that is a
word with an equivalent Vietnamese banking term which is also a word.
Word-letter equivalence
Word-letter equivalence is understood as an English banking term that is a
word with an equivalent Vietnamese banking term which is a letter.
Letter-word equivalence
19


Letter-word equivalence is understood as an English banking term that
is a letter with an equivalent Vietnamese banking term which is a word.
Letter-letter equivalence
Letter-letter equivalence is understood as an English banking term that
is a letter with an equivalent Vietnamese banking term which is a letter.
Table 3.4: 1//1 Equivalence type of English and Vietnamese banking terms
Vietnamese
Word
Letter
English
Word

195

123

135
1080
Letter
3.4.1.2. 1 // >1 Equivalance
Word-word equivalance
Word-word equivalence is understood as an English banking term that
is a word with an equivalent Vietnamese banking term which is also a word.
Word-letter equivalence
Word-letter equivalence is understood as an English banking term that
is a word with an equivalent Vietnamese banking term which is a letter.
Letter-word equivalence
Letter-word equivalence is understood as an English banking term that
is a letter with an equivalent Vietnamese banking term which is a word.
Letter-letter equivalence
Letter-letter equivalence is understood as an English banking term that
is a letter with an equivalent Vietnamese banking term which is a letter.
Table 3.5: 1// > 1 Equivalence type of English and Vietnamese banking
terms
Vietnamese
Word
Letter
English
Word
Letter

815
23

213
219

3.4.2. Analyze equivalent translation of banking terms according to the
number of units
Through terminology survey data, we found 7 equivalent levels while
translating banking terms from English to Vietnamese; The following are
specific descriptions:
1:1 equivalence ratio
An English banking term has an equivalent Vietnamese banking term:
1:2 equivalence ratio
20


An English banking term has two equivalent Vietnamese banking terms:
1:3 equivalence ratio
An English banking term has three equivalent Vietnamese banking terms:
1:4 equivalence ratio
An English banking term has four equivalent Vietnamese banking terms:
1:5 equivalence ratio
An English banking term has five equivalent Vietnamese banking terms:
1:6 equivalence ratio
An English banking term has six equivalent Vietnamese banking terms:
1:7 equivalence ratio
An English banking term has seven equivalent Vietnamese banking terms:
Table 3.6: Equivalence ratio following the unit number of English and
Vietnamese banking terms
No.
1
2.
3
4
5
6
7

Equivalence ratio
English1:1 Vietnamese
English 1:2 Vietnamese
English 1:3 Vietnamese
English 1:4 Vietnamese
English 1:5 Vietnamese
English 1:6 Vietnamese
English 1:7 Vietnamese
TOTAL

Number of English banking terms with
equivalence
421
833
757
474
98
77
50
2710

3.5. Criteria to standardize and correct terminology
3.5.1 Definition on standards and standardization
According to our understanding: standardization is the process of creating
clear rules when using exactly one language unit in a given communication context.
These standard regulations will help us solve the problem of standardizing
Vietnamese banking terms.
3.5.2 Criteria on correcting terminology system
When correcting the terminology system, we follow the viewpoint of
Reformatxki and Sager: it is need to pay attention to the concept of things, and
phenomenon whose name is called, to attract the participation of the
community and relevant professionals and it must be coordinated by both
concerned authorities and the government.
3.6 Status of Vietnamese banking terms in translation and proposed
standardization
3.6.1 Status of Vietnamese banking terms in translation
In the process of translating banking terms, through the survey, we found the
following common problems:
21


- A term often has many meanings or many synonymous terms.
- Use verbal speech, local languages in the translation process.
- Use redundant words.
- Lengthy translation, more like description.
3.6.2. Comments proposed to build and standardize Vietnamese banking
terms based on semantics and identification method.
Based on data on equivalence types and certain principles when building
and correcting the terminology system, we have the following
recommendations for the construction of Vietnamese banking terms:
- Synonym terms.
These terms have the same concept in the original term but there are
too many different translations, with a term of up to 7 or 8 synonyms for an
original concept. Here are some suggestions for synonymous terms.
- Terms using local languages
When translating English banking terms, we find that there are cases of
using local words, or that is the way of using the transliteration, this method
takes away the science of terms, so adjustment is needed. Common local terms
are: gởi, dở, trễ (send, unfinished, late) etc. It should be adjusted and replaced
with the corresponding popular words to ensure the science of the terms.
- Terms fail to exactly name the concepts,
For English banking terms that are not translated incorrectly into
Vietnamese. In order to get the correct name for the concept of the original term,
there should be a consultation with the banking experts, to find the real and the best
meaning.
- Lengthy, bulky terms with descriptive characteristics due to use of
prepositions
When translating the banking terms in English into Vietnamese, many
terms are translated by descriptive way, so the form is lengthy, losing the
systematic meaning of the term. In order to ensure the shortness, identification
of the term, it is recommended to remove unnecessary words and words such
as: yes, the, and, are, the, of, for, in etc.
Sub-Conclusion
In this chapter, we have presented the forming ways, identification
characteristics as well as the equivalence types of English banking terms
systems and their equivalents in Vietnamese. From the status of unqualified
banking terms, we have proposed solutions for translating this term group.
CONCLUSION
In this thesis, we have chosen the English banking term system as an
object to survey, study and evaluate how to translate their terms into
22


Vietnamese; thereby providing useful solutions for evaluating this translation
process with the aim of building and standardizing Vietnamese banking terms.
Based on the researched contents, we can raise the following conclusions:
Based on the most general theoretical issues about the terminology of
linguists in the world as well as in the country, the thesis has defined the
definition of banking terms and focused on researching the issues:
+ Formulation characteristics (formulation elements + formulation
model) and identification characteristics of banking terms
+ Evaluation of the equivalence capabilities of banking terms from
English to Vietnamese.
Through researching 2710 English banking terms and 2790 Vietnamese
banking terms, it shows that:
+ In terms of formulation: The English and Vietnamese banking terms
have the same rate of each word, mainly nouns and noun phrases. The number
of banking terms that are verbs and verb phrases accounts for a small
percentage. The minimum number of terms is adjectives or adjective phrases
This perfectly matches the actual ratio of the actual parts of speech in each
language. Nouns always account for the largest, then followed by verbs and
lastly adjectives. In addition, the majority of English and Vietnamese banking
terms are composed of 1 to 5 elements. The most common in both languages is
the terms composed of 2 to 3 elements. Meanwhile, the number of terms with 4
or more elements relatively decreases in English banking terms. In both
languages, the two-element terms account for the highest rate; followed by
four-element terms; three-element terms; one-element terms; and the fiveelement terms sit the fifth place. It is worth noting that the number of six and
seven element terms does not exist in both languages.
+ In terms of formulation models: Through analyzing corpus, the
thesis has analyzed and described 9 forumulation models of English and
Vietnamese banking terms. The reason why the number of models in these two
terminology systems is large is due to the differences in grammatical
characteristics and the method of word formation in the two languages. The
models of forming banking terms in each language suggest us the orientations
in the survey and assessment of the term translation equivalence in these two
languages which remain in a unified situation.
+ In terms of identification characteristics: The thesis has classified
English and Vietnamese banking terms into 3 categories of semantic content and 12
different characteristics with descriptions and necessary statistics and comparision
in each category and model. The results of classification of banking terms in
English and Vietnamese have shown the richness as well as the high
systematicality of these two term systems. At the same time, through the above
23


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