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CHAPTER 1
THESIS RESEARCH OVERVIEW
1.1 THE NECESSITY OF THE RESEARCH THEME
Coffee is Vietnam's strategic agricultural product sector, the world's
second largest export volume, contributing 10% of agricultural GDP, 5% of total
export value, providing more than 1 million jobs and creating 50% livelihoods
for people in the Central Highlands. Vietnamese coffee brand has affirmed its
position in the world market and Vietnamese coffee products are loved by
international consumers. With more than 570 thousand hectares of coffee
growing area being harvested, the average output is from 1.4 to 1.6 million
tons / year. According to statistics, there are over 550 thousand farmers directly
involved in coffee production with more than 1.6 million workers. In addition to
working directly in the chain of production, purchasing, import and export
business, the coffee industry also attracts idle workers in the neighboring
provinces to focus on the Central Highlands during the collection time to work
as hired laborers. For the Central Highlands, promoting coffee exports is one of
the important and urgent solutions for the following basic reasons:
Firstly, Vietnam is the world's largest exporter of Robusta coffee (Robusta
coffee), in which the Central Highlands is the capital of coffee trees with an

output of about 92% of the country's coffee production. Coffee has really
become a key crop, a poverty reduction and a prosperous tree for the people of
the Central Highlands. With over 1.6 million tons of coffee beans per year.
Coffee contributes about 10% of agricultural GDP, 5% of total export value,
providing more than 1 million jobs and creates 50% of livelihoods for the
Central Highlands people. As one of Vietnam's strategic industries, coffee has
an important significance especially for the economic lives of the people,
especially the poor and ethnic minorities in the Central Highlands, the area
where the largest coffee area in the country.
Second, sustainable development is a common trend that all humanity is
striving towards, which is the strategic goal that the Party, State and people of
Vietnam are determined to implement. In the past years, especially after the
Resolution No. 26-NQ / TW of the 7th Central Conference (10th session) on
agriculture, farmers and rural areas, our country's agriculture has achieved quite
good achievements. The Party and the State have many guidelines and measures
to quickly develop economic sectors, including sustainable agricultural
development. Agricultural development has been associated with the effective
exploitation of natural resources, minimizing environmental pollution,


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associated with solving social problems such as employment, economic
restructuring, ensuring solidity, national food security, some export products
including coffee occupy a high position in the world market.
Third, today, with the development of the science and technology
revolution of 4.0, the trend of globalization is becoming an objective trend. The
implementation of these FTAs has positively contributed to the economic
development, export market expansion, helping Vietnam to participate more
deeply in the value chain, global production network. In particular, with the
development of crude export volume, Vietnam's coffee industry is growing,
participating strongly in the value-added chain of the industry. Coffee products
of Vietnamese enterprises such as G7, Trung Nguyen, Vinacafe, etc. were
present and affirmed their position in many markets around the world. However,
before the trend of open integration, squeezing in the fierce competition today is
not easy for Vietnamese brands to survive and develop.
All of the above analysis shows how to have a policy system to promote
coffee exports in the Central Highlands to the world market in an open economy
effectively. Contributing to solving these problems in both theoretical and
practical aspects is essential in the immediate period. Therefore, the study of the
thesis topic: "Completing state policies to promote coffee exports in the Central
Highlands" is my doctoral thesis.

1.2. OVERVIEW AND RESEARCH DISEASE
In the process of researching the topic, the author has collected a number
of related works both in the country and in the world, specifically as follows:
- Group of coffee export related projects: Although there have been some
projects assessing the status of coffee export in Vietnam, there are still few
studies which offer assessment to the situation of coffee export in the Central
Highlands and especially in the context of Vietnam's deep integration into the
global economy. There is also little research on proposed solutions (macro and
micro) to improve policies to promote coffee exports in the Central Highlands
effectively.
- Group of projects related to coffee export policy in the Central
Highlands, Vietnam: Research on export policies in general and coffee in
particular has many works with many purposes, scope and internal different
content. But which policy in the current environment directly leads to faster
growth than coffee exports, no one has gone deep to find ways to supplement
and modify.


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Thus, it can be affirmed that until now, there has not been any research
going into the study of state policies to promote coffee exports in the Central
Highlands especially in the context of climate change impacts on the region and
the key coffee production and export of Vietnam.
1.3 OBJECTIVES, TASKS AND RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The general objective of the thesis is to study theoretical issues on State
policies to promote coffee exports in the Central Highlands and propose
solutions and recommendations to promote coffee exports in the Central
Highlands. In order to achieve research objectives, the thesis must perform three
tasks through answering research questions. The tasks include: (1) Establishing
a rationale system for export promotion policies, indicators to assess export
promotion, factors affecting coffee promotion policy; (2) Surveying, measuring
and assessing the situation of coffee exports, the state of policies of the State to
promote coffee exports in the Central Highlands; (3) Proposing highly feasible
solutions to improve state policies to promote coffee exports in the Central
Highlands.
1.4. SUBJECTS AND SCOPE OF RESEARCH OF THE THESIS
- Research subjects: Policies of the State to promote coffee export in the
Central Highlands and Vietnam in the period of 2011-2020, orientation to 2030.
- Scope of research: Scope of content: The thesis approaches state
policies to promote coffee exports in the Central Highlands to market on the
basis of implementing the policies of the Central and People's Committees of
the Western provinces Originally building policies to promote coffee products
(through 7 policies) these are policies that directly affect coffee exports in the
Central Highlands, Vietnam. Scope of space: Investigation in 5 provinces in the
Central Highlands (Dak Lak, Lam Dong, Gia Lai, Kon Tum, Dak Nong) and
departments directly related to the construction and implementation of the main
State books to promote coffee exports in the Central Highlands. Scope of time:
The thesis conducts research to assess the status of coffee exports in Vietnam
and the Central Highlands, the process of implementing policies for the period
2011-2020, oriented towards 2030, and at the same time. assess the impact of
state policies on the growth of coffee exports in the Central Highlands.
1.5 METHOD OF RESEARCH OF THE THESIS
In the study of the thesis, both groups of secondary and primary data
collection methods were used. Secondary data is collected from online and
printed data sources of the Ministry of Industry and Trade, Ministry of
Agriculture and Rural Development, General Statistics Office, Coffee


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Association, Vifaco and People's Committees of the Central Highlands
provinces. Primary data is collected by two methods: (1) In-depth interviews
with experts, leaders of ministries and leaders of coffee production and trading
enterprises; (2) Survey by survey with a sample of 300 survey forms to
businesses and agencies issuing and implementing policies. Combining
qualitative research and quantitative research in order to have comparative
conditions, combine their results with each other so that they can better
understand the issues to be studied.
1.6 NEW CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE THESIS
(1) In theory, the thesis systematized the theoretical basis of state policies
to promote exports, identify and clarify characteristics and objectives of state
policies to promote exports and bases. To improve policies in general and coffee
products in particular, (2) In terms of practice, the dissertation has analyzed and
evaluated the process of innovating each tool of agricultural policy to promote
export of agricultural products in general and commodities. coffee in particular
through surveying the State's policy documents, the status of coffee export from
2011 to present; (3) In terms of applicability, the thesis has proposed solutions
to improve policies, at the same time take initiative in coffee export business
and to regulate the efficiency of production scale and export; solutions to
combine business support policies to increase the competitive benefits of
enterprises when exporting.
1.7 STRUCTURE OF THE THESIS
In addition to sections such as Pledge, Table of Contents, List of
acronyms, List of Tables and drawings (10 pages); General conclusions (1
page); List of references (13 pages) and Appendix (30 pages), thesis 139 pages
long and structured into 4 chapters as follows: Chapter 1: Overview of the thesis
research; Chapter 2: Some theoretical issues and international experience on
State policies to promote coffee exports; Chapter 3: Analysis of export situation
and policies to promote coffee exports in the Central Highlands; Chapter 4:
Solutions to improve State policies to promote coffee exports in the Central
Highlands.


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CHAPTER 2.
SOME THEORETICAL ISSUES AND INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE ON
STATE POLICY TO PROMOTE COFFEE EXPORT
2.1. OVERVIEW ON PROMOTION OF AGRICULTURAL EXPORT
2.1.1. Concepts, views and contents promoting agricultural exports
2.1.1.1. Concept and benefits of goods export
Export is a basic external economic activity through which links the
single market of countries together, strengthen trade and trade and is considered
a means to promote economic growth and development. The development of
export is one of the main motivations for promoting the economic development
of countries in the integration period, especially developing countries like
Vietnam, so it has a very important role.
2.1.1.2. Delimit export promotion with export development, export
expansion and import substitution
Promoting exports is a way to promote product consumption. Export
development is the process of exporting goods in all aspects from quantity to
quality. Expanding export is the fact that the country can bring its products to
expand market. Import substitution is accelerating the replacement of some
imports to encourage local production for domestic consumption, rather than for
export markets.
2.1.1.3. Views and content promoting exports
Promoting export increases export scale; Promoting export to change the
level and export capacity; Promoting export to improve export efficiency;
Promoting export towards sustainable development.
2.1.2. The role and requirements of promoting agricultural exports in
Vietnam
2.1.2.1. The role of promoting XK of goods in Vietnam
Promoting export is contributing a great role in the strategy of promoting
export of agricultural products of Vietnam, developing agricultural economy,
sustainable economic growth in the future. Specific roles is promoting export to
contribute to import capital for industrialization of the country; Promoting
exportation contributes to accelerating the process of economic restructuring,
supporting production development according to market orientation and


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sustainable growth; Promoting exports creates a positive impact on solving jobs
and improving people's lives.
2.1.2.3. Request for export promotion in the integration period
Promoting exports in the integration period must ensure the requirements
associated with sustainable growth in the context of complicated world
developments, coupled with unpredictable impacts from climate change, need
focus on some of the following key issues: Promoting exports must keep pace
with global trade liberalization; Promoting export must ensure increasing
knowledge content in export products; Promoting exports must be in line with
the objectives of economic development and associated with the development
plan of sustainable agriculture; Promoting exports must combine measures to
promote trade promotion at both macro and micro levels
2.1.3. Criteria to assess the level of promoting agricultural exports
State policies in general and state policies to promote coffee exports in
particular are the tools of the state that influence the export coffee industry and
help export growth. Therefore, the indicators to assess the level of export impact
will reflect part or all of these policies: Scale of export products; Structure and
quality of XKNS goods; Indicators for measuring competitiveness of export
goods in the market; Export market growth
2.2. STATE POLICY PROMOTING EXPORT OF AGRICULTURAL
PRODUCTS
2.2.1. Concepts, objectives and characteristics of agricultural policies to
promote agricultural exports
2.2.1.1. Concept of state policy promoting agricultural exports
The policy is set by a subject or management entity, which is based on the
political policy and the actual situation, always aimed at a certain purpose; to
accomplish a specific goal; policies are issued with clear calculations and
intentions.
2.2.1.3. Policy characteristics to promote agricultural exports of Vietnam
today
Currently, the majority of Vietnam's NS products are mainly exported
raw, the rate of processing less so the characteristics of agricultural production
in Vietnam export are associated with the characteristics of agricultural
production, agricultural economy and of the Vietnamese economy. State policy
on civil servants has some key characteristics as follows: The state policy on


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promoting the export of Vietnam is associated with the process of product
diversification; Agricultural policies in order to promote XKNS in Vietnam
associated with the trend of sustainable agricultural development; CSNN of
state-owned export economy is characterized by a converted market economy;
Agricultural policies to promote social responsibility are inseparable from other
sector development strategies and policies.
2.2.1.4. Objectives of state-owned civil servants to promote exports
Agricultural policies to promote export always orientate export activities
in accordance with the desire of the State to show: Encouraging export and
development activities; Contributing to promoting the good side of the market
economy while limiting its negative aspects; Attaching the domestic production
background to the activities of the world economy; Achieving a reasonable and
sustained export growth rate for a long time, the export market is expanding,
product quality is constantly improving; Export activities contribute to
improving growth quality; promote economic restructuring towards
industrialization and modernization; improve the balance of payments and
reduce trade deficit; Improving the quality of the goods and improving the
competitive competence of the goods industry and the prestige of export
enterprises, Creating a firm foundation for enterprises in legal matters, policies
to support and facilitate enterprises to export new opportunities receive modern
science and technology, strengthen production organization, and enhance the
status of enterprises in the international arena.
2.2.2. State policies to promote agricultural exports: (1) Export market
policy; (2) Development policy and restructuring of export products; (3) Export
promotion policy; (4) Policy to encourage and support Policies to encourage
and support enterprises producing and distributing exports; (5) Policy to link
production with export; (6) science and technology policies to support
production and post-harvest, (7) Policy on innovation of export management
tools and institutions.
2.3. FACTORS AFFECTING THE POLICY FOR PROMOTING
AGRICULTURAL AND COFFEE EXPORT
2.3.1. Basic factors affecting agricultural promotion policy: (1) Social
factors; (2) Political and legal factors; (3) Natural and technological factors; (4)
Infrastructure factors for export activities; (5) Effect of world socio-economic
situation and international economic relations; (6) Demand of foreign markets.
2.3.2. Several factors affecting policies to promote Vietnamese coffee
exports:


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External factors: (1) Characteristics of the world coffee market; (2)
Policies of major coffee importers in the world; (3) The world's largest coffee
importers; (4) Requirements and regulations for imports of coffee products of
regional and international economic organizations in which Vietnam has been
and will be participating; (5) Requirements outside the Law.
Internal factors: (1) Vietnam's socio-economic development strategy to
2020; (2) National export strategy; (3) International economic integration
strategy for agriculture and coffee export; (4) Planning for coffee industry by
2020.
2.4. EXPERIENCE ON POLICY TO PROMOTE EXPORT OF COFFEE
AND LESSONS LEARNED FOR VIETNAM
2.4.1. Studies of policies to promote coffee export of some countries
Brazil, Colombia, Indonexia are the three countries with coffee export
turnover in the world which are capable of controlling prices, supply and
demand of the world coffee market. Trading moves of their coffee products are
intertwined with Vietnam's export moves. Therefore, enlisting and learning from
other countries' successful and unsuccessful lessons are essential for Vietnam.
2.4.2. Lessons learned for Vietnam
Successful lessons can be applied to Vietnamese coffee in general, coffee
in the Central Highlands in particular and failed lessons should be avoided: (1)
environmental pollution caused by coffee production. (2) The excessive use of
chemical fertilizers, herbicides and pesticides in cultivation also negatively
impacts the natural environment. (3) facing many unsustainable issues
CHAPTER 3. ANALYSIS OF THE SITUATION OF STATE POLICIES
TO PROMOTE THE EXPORT OF COFFEE IN TAY NGUYEN
3.1. CURRENT SITUATION OF COFFEE EXPORT IN THE PERIOD
OF 2011-2018
3.1.1. The position and role of Vietnam's export coffee industry
Coffee is the second most important export item after rice, creating
livelihoods and jobs for millions of people involved in various stages in the
coffee industry. From the perspective of international trade, coffee exports
generate a large amount of foreign currency revenue for the economy,
increasing capital to serve the import demand of necessary goods: technology of
machinery and electronic components; reduce the burden on national loans. At
the same time, with the world's second largest advantage in coffee export, the


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first in the world of Robusta coffee export, coffee export activities create
conditions for Vietnam to expand the market of consumption and strengthen
international economic relations. So far, our country has exported Vietnamese
coffee to more than 100 countries around the world, showing great prospects for
foreign trade in Vietnam.
3.1.2. Results of Vietnamese and Central Highlands coffee exports
Table 3.2. Summary of area and volume of coffee in the period of 20102017

Area
Output
TT Year (Thousand (Thousan
hectares) d tons)

Area
growth
index
(100%)

Output
Output
Highland
Output
growth
coffee in
Highlands
index (100 the whole
coffee
%)
country
(100-%)

1

2010 574

1,180

105

107.3

1,016.89

86

2

2011 597

1,600

104

135.6

1,439.00

90

3

2012 620

1,620

104

101.3

1,458

90

4

2013 641

1,780

103.4

109.9

1,621

91

5

2014 653

1,800

102

101.1

1,616

90

6

2015 641

1,735

98

97

1,510

87

7

2016 665

1,782

104

102

1,428

80

8

2017 640

1,700

95

95

1,412

83

9

2018 660

1,803

103

120

1,753

90

Source: Researchers synthesize themselves
In terms of area and output: from 2010 up to now, coffee in the Central
Highlands has always played a decisive role in production, area and export of
Vietnamese coffee.
Quality: Although Vietnam is the leading coffee exporting country in the
world in terms of production, the quality of coffee in the Central Highlands is
not yet recognized. High productivity but low quality, uneven price should be
lower than the world price.
Export turnover: The export turnover of Vietnamese coffee and the
Central Highlands mainly exports green coffee, instant coffee, roasted coffee,


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and some other coffee products to the world. Total export value of Vietnamese
coffee products has increased continuously at nearly 15% annually, from 393
million USD in 2001 to 3.9 billion USD in 2017.
Chart 3.2. Coffee export of Vietnam in the period of 2011 – 2017

Source: Vietdata
About coffee export market: Currently, Vietnam's coffee has been
exported to more than 90 countries. Leading the way is Germany and the United
States, the German market accounts for 15.5% in volume and 14.8% of the total
coffee export turnover of the country; The US market accounted for 13.3% in
volume and 13.5% in turnover.
Regarding export prices: Vietnam's coffee export price is only equal to
51.5% of the world average price. The reason is that fierce competition in many
major coffee exporting countries such as Brazil, Colombia, Indonesia has made
Vietnam's export situation passive.
3.1.2.4. Evaluation of coffee export results of the Central Highlands
2011-2018
a. Achievement
In terms of output and export turnover, coffee in the Central Highlands in
the past 5 years has always been stable at over 1 million tons. In the period of
2010-2017, the average growth rate of coffee productivity reached 2% / year. In
particular, rejuvenated Robusta coffee can reach 4.5-6 tons / ha, with gardens up
to 8 tons / ha. Along with this growth, Vietnam exported coffee to nearly 100
countries in the world with total export turnover in 2017 reaching 3.24 billion
USD.
b. Limitations: (1) Coffee production techniques; (2) Purchasing fruits,
multiplying coffee buckets; (3) Processing coffee (freshly milled, dried,
categorized export coffee) and deep processing (roasted-ground coffee, instant


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coffee); (4) Consumption of products (green coffee XK, roasted - ground coffee,
instant coffee).
Summary of shortcomings - limitations in purchasing and processing consuming coffee
Stitching the
Existences - limited in coffee production
work

Subjects
responsible

1. Traders and Agents buy coffee with little Traders
capital; storage facilities are not in accordance agents
with technical standards Traders and agents

and

2. Traders and agents of coffee purchasing agents Traders
operate without professionalism and are not yet agents
transparent

and

3. The price for buying coffee does not follow the Commercial
I.
quality standards, in fact, buying fruits and traders, agent
Procurement multiplying coffee buckets
owners
and
of fruits and
coffee farmers
coffee
4. Traders and investors only know how to buy
buckets
coffee from farm households and farms but have
not advised them on how to produce sustainable Trading traders,
coffee on demand because traders and agents have agents
little knowledge of the market. Domestic coffee
and export
5. Buon Me Thuot Coffee Trading Center has not Buon
Me
been effective because the majority of customers Thuot Coffee
are far away, the procedure is less convenient
Trading Center
II. Processing
coffee
(freshly
milled, dried,
categorized
export coffee)
and
deep
processing
(roastedground

1. 1. Processing fresh, less developed and freshly
ground coffee Freshly processed coffee is mainly Households,
tea and is a small part of Robusta coffee of coffee Farms,
companies (5% of coffee production) Households, Enterprises
Farms, Enterprises
2. Most coffee processing factories have small
capacity, most of them are manufactured in the Processing and
country, so technology is inferior to imported coffee facilities
equipment
3. Export processing coffee beans do not meet the Processing and


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requirements of the international coffee market
4. Processing roasted, and grinded coffee is mainly
household economy (10,000 households), only
some enterprises have modern processing
equipment 300-500kg / hour. The quality of coffee
coffee, instant after processing has not been tested - monitoring
and selling price of roasted coffee is quite high
coffee)
compared to processing price Coffee

coffee facilities
processing
facility
and
State
Management
Agency

5. Instant coffee products also have low yields and consumers and
lack of diversity, so they do not meet the tastes of coffee.
1. Exported green coffee has no brand name and
does not follow Vietnamese and international
quality standards, accounting for large volumes
should sell low prices
III.
Consumption
of products
(XK
green
coffee,
roasted
grinded
coffee, instant
coffee)

2. Viet Nam's export coffee exporters do not sell
directly to roasters - but most of them buy Enterprises and
intermediaries so they are passive and easily coffee
pressed.
3. Vietnam's coffee products lack diversity, poor
quality and do not meet the consumers' tastes well
4. Branding, trade promotion, market expansion,
but not strong enough and not high efficiency
5. Selling prices of coffee products are processed Farmers
at a high level while processing coffee is bought at businesses
low prices
coffee
associations

Source: Reports from Departments, Institutes, Associations, DARDs, coffee
experts and directly survey and survey
3.1.3. Evaluate the growth rate of coffee exports in the Central Highlands
through a number of criteria
3.1.3.1. Scale of export products
Table 3.8: Vietnam's coffee export turnover in the period of 2010 - 2017
Unit: billion USD
Year

2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017

-


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Value of export
1.851 2.752 3.672 2.717 3.556 2.674 3.33 3.33
Growth over the previous year6,9 48,6 33,43 -26 30,87 -24,8 24,7 -2,7
5
Source: General Department of Customs
(%)
Market: The 5 largest markets for Vietnam's coffee exports are Germany,
the United States, Spain, Italy and Japan.
Figure 3.7. Growth in export of Vietnamese coffee products 2010-2017
Average period 2010-2017

2017

Note: The ball size represents the export value of the commodity group
Source: synthesized from UNComtrade, ITC, General Department of Customs
3.1.3.2. Structure and quality of exported products: From 2011 to now,
coffee has taken steps to shift the structure to instant coffee and export roasted
coffee has increased because Vietnam has focused more on exporting coffee.
processing.
Figure 3.5. Coffee export by product type 2011-2016 (thousand bags)

Source: General Department of Customs


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3.1.3.3. Indicators to measure competitiveness of export coffee products
on the market
Evaluation of Vietnam's export economics and coffee export development
in the world market shows that Vietnam's potential for coffee export
development is very high and has a high NDE although the RCA index tends to
decrease, in 2015 only 10.56% (see Table 3.9), however, coffee products still
have a very high comparative advantage.
Table 3.9: Some indicators of coffee products 2011-2016
Target

2011

2012

Export / GDP 2,07

2,65
18,3

2013

2014

2015

2016

1,71

1,92

1,36

1,4

13,28

11,47

10,56

12,4

(%)
RCA

13,3

Source: Summary of NCS from World Trade Center data, April 2016
3.1.3.4. Export market growth
Figure 3.6: Vietnam's coffee export market from 2005-2015

Source: General Department of Customs
According to the statistics of the General Department of Customs, from
2009 to 2017, coffee exports of the Central Highlands and Vietnam grew at an
average rate of about 17.7% / year. This shows that the main markets importing
this product increasingly favor Vietnamese coffee and the number of export
markets of coffee is increasingly expanding.
Regarding the processing content of coffee products, the product has the
largest export turnover in the EU market. In the period of 2011-2015, the export
proportion of raw coffee (unroasted coffee) is at a very high level. In the period


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before 2013, this ratio remained above 99%; From 2013 onwards, although the
rate has decreased to about 98% in 2013 and 97% in 2015, 95% in 2017, this
improvement is not significant. In short, almost all Vietnamese coffee exported
to the EU market is green coffee.
3.2. ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACTS OF THE STATE POLICY TO THE
RESULT OF TAYYLAND COFFEE EXPORT GROWTH IN THE PERIOD
OF 2011-2018
3.2.1. Analysis of state policies to promote coffee exports in the Central
Highlands
3.2.1.1. Export market policy
3.2.1.2. Development policy and restructuring of export products
3.2.1.3. Export promotion policy
3.2.1.4. Policies to encourage and support enterprises producing and
distributing exports
3.2.1.5. Policy to link production with export
3.2.1.6. Policy of science and technology to support production and postharvest
3.2.1.7. Policy on innovation of export management tools and institutions
3.2.2. Investigate the impact of policies to promote coffee exports in the
Central Highlands
3.2.2.1. Sample size of the survey
Investigate the level of influence of agricultural policies to support coffee
exports in the Central Highlands. Subjects of the survey are managers and
directors of enterprises having coffee export activities and managers related to
export, people look for coffee in the Central Highlands.
3.2.2.2. Descriptive statistics results
Conduct descriptive analysis to determine the occurrence of comparative
factors with the average of each component, to generalize the impact of policies
promoting coffee exports.
Table 3.22. Results of descriptive statistical analysis
N

Minim Maximu Mean

Std.

um

Deviati ce

m

Varian Kurtos
is


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Statis Statisti Statistic Statistic Std.
Export market policy

204
tic

Development policy and
204
item restructuring
Export trade promotion 204
policy to encourage and
Policies
204
support ME and distribute
Policy to mount production 204
Science
with exportand technology
policy to support post 204
harvest
Policy to innovate export
204
management
tools
and
Valid N (listwise)

Statistic Statisti Statisti

1c

5

3.39

.081
Error 1.156

1.337
-.766
c
c

1

5

3.61

.077 1.099

1.209 -.802

1
1
1
1

5
5
5
5

3.39
3.44
3.47
3.41

.081
.080
.079
.078

1.336
1.326
1.280
1.234

1

5

3.39

.081 1.156

1.156
1.152
1.131
1.111

-.939
-.691
-.821
-.852

1.336 -.939

0
Source: SPSS analysis results

Policies to encourage and support ME and distribution of export goods
are assessed by enterprises in the export industry as the main impact level 4;
export market policy, level 4 is the most frequently appearing answer; policies
to develop and restructure goods, trade promotion, levels 3 and 4 are equally
distributed; policy to mount production with export level 4 is more appreciated;
The policy of attaching production with export is level 3 and the policy of
science and technology supporting the post-harvest production level is mainly
level 3 and 4.
Thus, export enterprises surveyed have appreciated the support level of
these policies to export their goods. However, according to the assessment, the
level of support is not really high and consistent, policies need to have better
support levels, especially the policy on export coffee products should be paid
more attention by the state and find appropriate solutions to promote the current
coffee export activity.
3.3. GENERAL EVALUATION OF THE STATE OF STATE POLICY
TO PROMOTE THE EXPORT OF COFFEE IN TAY NGUYEN
3.3.1. Main advantages and results
3.3.1.1. Advantages
In recent years, the Government, People's Committees of the Central
Highlands and Vietnam's coffee industry have issued a number of policies
related to planning, investment, processing capacity improvement, market to
remove difficulties for businesses and coffee producers, processors and
sustainable development resources. Along with policies, there are many big and
breakthrough solutions in the new development stage. The above policies in a


17

comprehensive and comprehensive manner from production to processing, trade
and organizational innovation have contributed to the orientation of the industry
with the development objectives to 2020; promoting coffee replanting,
especially the big credit program of the State Bank; solve difficulties for coffee
enterprises on VAT and promote innovation of commodity organization. These
policies have positively impacted the development of sustainable coffee
production in the Central Highlands, contributing to increasing productivity,
quality, output and export turnover.
3.3.1.2. The drawbacks
In addition to the achievements, there are still some shortcomings to the
policy of the coffee sector in the Central Highlands in the context of the
integration as follows: (1) policies issued lack of flexible yet right target. (2)
Inconsistencies, even conflicting policy decisions have also occurred. (3) The
development strategy of the coffee industry in the overall agricultural sector
develops in a discrete way, lacking consistency and consistency. (4) the problem
of rural infrastructure investment is not commensurate with the potential. (5) a
system of quality standards, post-harvest inspection is still weak and backward.
(6) our coffee production and trading enterprises are mainly small and medium
enterprises, lack of experience and skills to participate in world trade. (7)
limited participation in international organizations and forums. (8) policies on
encouraging and adequately supporting capital, processing technology,
technology, and fostering staff are still limited.
3.3.2. Some shortcomings and shortcomings of the policy: The chain of
production of the whole chain is still incomplete, and the phenomenon of class
cut between the organization of production, processing and commercial
organization; Processing, including two steps of preliminary processing and
deep processing, we have not done well; Stitch the distribution organization;
Although the Government has a policy of preferential loans for farmers to
replenish coffee.
3.3.3. Causes of success and limitations
3.3.2.1. Domestic causes
- On the part of the people: In the Central Highlands, people's awareness
of scientific and technical issues, long-term economic efficiency, and
sustainable coffee production is still low. Due to lack of cooperation, linkage
and protection among coffee growing households in the community, pestilent
insects and product theft can occur.


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On the State side: The policy system is not guaranteed to create
conditions for the development of production and sustainable export of coffee.
Propaganda, education and dissemination of laws, policies, state management
regulations on coffee production development for people have not been
effective due to inadequate methods of implementation. become by the ability to
mobilize all resources. Budget capital is not enough to implement development
policy objectives of coffee production.
3.3.2.2. Causes from abroad
The competition of our rivals in the international coffee market is very
strong and drastic: our quality and coffee brand problems have not been stable
in the past time; The fluctuation of world coffee prices; The culture of
Vietnamese coffee importing countries also affects the implementation and
implementation of policies to promote our coffee export.
CHAPTER 4. SOLUTIONS TO COMPLETE THE STATE POLICY TO
PROMOTE THE EXPORT OF COFFEE IN TAY NGUYEN
4.1. TRENDS, FORECASTS AND BACKGROUND OF COFFEE
INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT IN VIETNAM
4.1.1. The trend of coffee production and consumption in the world
a. Production trend:
The growth of global green coffee exports reached 8.12% annually during
the period of 2004-2017, mainly driven by exports of instant coffee. In the next
period (2018-2030) the trend of exporting roasted coffee will increase faster
(10-15% forecast) compared to instant coffee (8-10%).
b. Consumer trends
On a global scale, coffee consumption is projected to grow 2.2% per year
between now and 2020. Market segmentation has also increased strongly in
recent years as certified coffee standards such as UTZ, Rainforest Alliance,
organic and Fairtrade. Both production and trading of sustainable coffee
production increased more strongly than the common coffee segment.
4.1.2. Forecast of Vietnam's coffee industry
Vietnam's coffee industry is expected to continue to grow strongly in the
coming years as the population continues to grow at a rate of 1 million per year
and the consumer tastes of people are increasing.


19

Table 4.3. Forecast of export value of Vietnamese coffee products 2020, 2030
(according to 2017 prices)
Unit: 1000 USD
Coffee beans
Instant coffee
Coffee Roasters
Total

2017

2020

2025

2030

15.3%

3748122

4783659

6105295

6.03%

424525

623767

916519

2.66%

404604

651619

1049439

4577251

6059045

8071253

Source: Analysis of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development.
4.1.3. The international and domestic context affects the policy of
promoting coffee exports in the Central Highlands
- International context: In 2017, the world witnessed the rise of multipolar - political, populist, protectionist and nationalism trends through various
events, such as: the withdrew from the EU (Brexit), the United States withdrew
from the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) and also changes in foreign policy of
the two extremes of the US and China. China is increasingly strengthening its
influence through the "One Belt, One Road" initiative and the policy of
promoting globalization. The Industrial Revolution 4.0 will completely change
the face of production facilities, with robots and automated chains. In these
factories machines will replace a large number of workers. The change will be
similar to the first industrial revolution in the 18th century, when workers
replaced workers' labor. The great political upheaval as well as the rapid
development of technology, the sense of environmental protection and climate
change issues, have had no small impact on the world economy in the past year.
- Domestic context: Besides, climate change is increasingly affecting the
coffee industry. In 2016 alone, drought caused damage to 116,000 hectares of
coffee in the Central Highlands. Since 2017, there has been a situation of
unseasonal rain causing tens of thousands of coffee hectares to flower early, so
the risk of reducing fructification and reducing productivity has existed. In
addition, the mild El Nino phenomenon may return to the second half of 2018.
If this situation occurs, the quality of the beans may be affected. In recent years,
Vietnam has undergone a transition period to become the world's leading black
pepper producer and exporter. Because pepper is more profitable, many farmers
have converted part of their coffee area to black pepper.


20

4.2. VIEWPOINTS AND PRINCIPLES TO COMPLETE THE STATE
POLICY TO PROMOTE VIETNAMESE COFFEE EXPORT
4.2.1. Opinion
The viewpoint of completing state policies to promote coffee export in
the Central Highlands includes the following contents: (1) The State's decisive
role in the success of coffee export promotion must be clearly defined.
Highland; (2) Focus on innovating and improving export policies and
mechanisms; (3) Based on promoting comparative advantages, competitive
advantages, market demand; (4) Focus on improving VAT in export products
through improving export processing content; (5) Positive and focused
participation in global production and value chain, quickly and positively
capture and take advantage of every opportunity.
4.2.2. Principle: Building a market development strategy; Stabilizing
coffee growing areas according to planning; practice sustainable farming
processes; Forming a coffee industry alliance; Need to predict new trade issues
4.3. SOLUTIONS TO COMPLETE THE STATE POLICY TO
PROMOTE THE EXPORT OF COFFEE IN TAY NGUYEN
4.3.1. Solutions on policies
4.3.1.1. Export market policy
The state should support and create conditions for enterprises to access
export markets through the commercial counselor system, through international
trade fairs and exhibitions, and enhance the support of providing information on
fluctuations in the international coffee market and new technological advances
in processing technology as well as trends in changing consumer tastes in export
markets. Linking to expand markets by organizing promotional activities, trade
promotion, international fairs on international coffee and seminars; building a
business website, etc. to enhance the position and competitiveness of
Vietnamese coffee in the international market; actively seek to sell directly to
roasters to increase the value of exported coffee beans and at the same time
reduce business costs. Implementing the general model contract to help
businesses be more active in negotiating with importers, avoiding the
domination of importers.
4.3.1.2. Development policy and restructuring of coffee export products
The state should consider the restructuring of crops, reduce the area of
Robusta coffee and increase the area of Arabica coffee as a right direction and
need to be implemented quickly. Gradually modernizing recycling facilities;


21

classification of green bean coffee; Strengthening deep processing capacity,
encouraging domestic and foreign enterprises to invest in processing instant
coffee, roasted coffee, etc. by 2020, the output will be between 15,000 and
20,000 tons / year, of which 60% will be exported.
4.3.1.3. Promotion policy of coffee export: Consistent policy of the State
in supporting brand development; Develop an overall program of coffee brand
development in the Central Highlands; Develop trade promotion system,
promote branded products, strengthen training activities to improve capacity for
staff, cooperatives, small and medium enterprises directly involved in
construction work. trademark; Enhance the role of state management agencies
in forecasting, market information and export market development orientation.
4.3.1.4. Policy to encourage and support export coffee production and
distribution enterprises Expand business rights for enterprises participating in
coffee export, increase the ability to adapt quickly, and create a dynamic
competitive environment. Reviewing legal documents, mechanisms and policies
related to the coffee industry, amending, supplementing or abolishing
inappropriate documents, issuing new documents in accordance with the trend
of development sustainable coffee development. Research and establish
organizations to direct and manage sustainable coffee development such as:
Association, scientific and technical consultancy, market information services,
brand promotion ...
4.3.1.5. Policy to link production with export: Develop and implement the
plan to change the structure of market-oriented agricultural production on areas
taken out of sustainable coffee development areas; Further invest in research
activities on new varieties, good varieties for high yield and quality, Implement
replanting in accordance with the Plan approved by the provincial People's
Committees in the Central Highlands; Encouraging the implementation of
various forms of cooperation, association and expansion of production scale
among households; Implementing the "4 houses" link; Encouraging links and
mergers between agricultural product purchasing, processing and exporting
establishments
4.3.1.6. Policy on science and technology to support production and postharvest coffee export: Build in coffee production areas according to
geographical indications, coffee production areas of ethnic minorities;
Disseminate and support the application of sustainable coffee production
processes (according to Viet Gap standards, or certified), application of
biological products in the production and processing of clean coffee; Transfer
and application of sloping land cultivation techniques, anti-erosion, leaching


22

and soil protection for coffee producers, application of science and technology
to treat environmental pollution in coffee production and processing activities
and preparations
4.3.2. Complete the conditions for implementing agricultural policies to
promote coffee exports in the Central Highlands
For the central level: Reviewing the process of implementing
commitments and strengthening international economic integration. Promote
and enforce trade facilitation measures; investment in key areas, focusing on
investment in infrastructure projects with high socio-economic efficiency,
allocating resources for coffee research institutes to continue to produce coffee
varieties. new ability to produce high yield, withstand drought, concentrated,
with fragrance more suitable to the taste of foreign consumers; At the same
time, there is a policy to support capital with a long enough time for coffee
growing households to replenish the old, low-yielding coffee gardens to
cultivate a high yielding clonal coffee.
For the local authorities: Establishing the Steering Committee for the
project on sustainable coffee development based on the Steering Committee for
coffee replanting in the provinces. Closely coordinate activities of developing
coffee industry among state management agencies such as Department of
Planning and Investment, Department of Finance, Department of Agriculture
and Rural Development, Department of Industry and Trade, Department of
Natural Resources - Environment, Department of Science and Technology;
Organize well and fully perform state management tasks; Develop and
implement the plan to change the structure of market-oriented agricultural
production on areas taken out of sustainable coffee development areas;
Implement replanting of the plan as approved by the provincial People's
Committee.
For companies trading and processing coffee import and export:
Enterprises need to actively participate and become members of the world's
coffee supply chains established by leading agricultural corporations.
Enterprises need to constantly improve and invest in new production
technologies to match the demands and demands of increasingly demanding
consumers today, proactively linking businesses to build brands. national coffee.
Actively expanding new markets, especially the niche market in the world
because Vietnamese coffee has not created a foothold because it has not created
a reputable coffee brand in the market.


23

For coffee farmers: Encourage adjacent households to produce, jointly
invest in expensive mechanical equipment; Sign long-term contracts, Participate
in sustainable coffee production programs to improve coffee quality as well as
coffee selling prices, improve the skills of workers.
4.3.3. Solution to support businesses to improve their policy beneficiary
capacity
In the current open trend conditions, it is necessary for enterprises to take
initiative in making recommendations to competent state agencies when
consuming difficult products, to protect their reputation. time to recommend to
the authorities to have timely preventive measures to ensure enterprises have a
stable business environment, fair competition, healthy ... So every business
must have an overall view of all these factors and understand the dynamics of
each factor so that there are correct and accurate plans, decisions in promoting
product consumption and increasing sales. collection.
4.3.4. Other solutions:
Raising awareness about the role of coffee export among officials,
business people and citizens; Enhancing the ability to adapt to the new context
of the world market of exporting enterprises to facilitate the export of coffee
products into markets with high potentials, diversifying products to serve all
customers. Enhancing the capacity of forecasting, recognizing policies as well
as changes in the international market of international trade policy-making and
management agencies; Increasing social investment for production of export
goods.


24

CONCLUDE

In the tendency of regionalization and globalization is taking place
strongly in the world, export plays an even more important role in an economy,
especially for the economies of developing countries. Vietnam is a country on
the way to industrialize and modernize, integrate into the region and the world.
Export is therefore considered one of the most important tools for successful
implementation of the above objectives.
In order to bring into full play the role of export, the Government of
Vietnam has taken proper policy directions and measures to promote coffee
exports such as trade liberalization, commodity and policy structure. market
books, investment incentive policies ... These policies have had a significant
impact on Vietnam's coffee export activities in recent years. The rapid growth of
export, the positive structure of goods items, the number of key export products
is increasing, the foreign currency earned to the country increased significantly.
However, export activities of Vietnam still face many obstacles due to
objective and subjective factors. So to help export operations overcome the
difficulties and challenges that require us to implement the state's incentive
export policies must be accompanied by the efforts of businesses in dominating
the market. export. And it is important to see that the state's policies and
measures to promote exports really need to be taken seriously in practice, not
just at paper.
It is hoped that the potentials of human and material resources of Vietnam
together with the system of policies and measures to promote coffee exports in
the Central Highlands in particular and Vietnam in general will be our factors.
promoting Vietnam's export activity on a growing basis, building a prosperous
home country.



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