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HUE UNIVERSITY
UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY

BOUNLERTH SIVILAI

THE UTILIZATION OF DIETARY LOCAL FEED
RESOURCES FOR MOO LATH PIG IN LAOS
Major: ANIMAL SCIENCE
Code: 9620105

SUMMARY OF PHD THESIS IN ANIMAL SCIENCE


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HUE, 2019


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The thesis is completed at University of Agriculture and Forestry,
Hue University

Supervised by:
1. A/Prof. Dr. Nguyen Quang Linh (major)
2. A/Prof. Dr. Du Thanh Hang (second)

1st Thesis Reviewer:
2nd Thesis Reviewer:
3rd Thesis Reviewer:

This thesis will be defended at the Board of Examiners of Hue
University, 04 Le Loi St. Hue city, ……..

This thesis can be found at:
- University of Agriculture and Forestry, Hue University
- National Library
- Online webpage: www.hueuni.edu.vn


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1. STRUCTURE OF THE THESIS
This thesis consists of 101 pages comprising of 5 chapters,
38 tables and 34 figures.
An introduction (3 pages), objective, hypothesis and
innovation of thesis (5 pages); Chapter 1 (literature reviews): 25
pages, Chapter 2 (paper 1): 8 pages, Chapter 3 (paper 2): 11
pages, Chapter 4 (paper 3): 11 pages, Chapter 5 (paper 4): 9
pages, and general discussion, conclusion, implication, further
research and reference and list of published scientific paper: 8
pages. In the table of content: chapter 1: 11 tables and 6 figures,
chapter 2: 4 tables and 5 figures, chapter 3: 5 tables and 10
figures, chapter 4: 9 tables and 10 figures, chapter 5: 3 tables and
4 figures and list of abbreviation (1 page).
2. INTRODUCTION
Approximately 75% of production is produced in tradition
by rural pig farmers (Souriyasack, 2011). The typical smallholder
pig farm relies on a scavenging system for forages and left-over
food with little or no supplementation. The results are low
productivity (Stür et al., 2010) with growth rates often less than
100 g/day (Phengsavanh et al., 2010) and low reproductive
performance of sows is marked by depressed litter size, a high
mortality of piglet and outbreaks of disease. For these reasons the
two feed resources chosen for this research were banana pseudo
stem as source of energy and the Taro plant as the source of
protein.
Banana pseudo stems (BPS) from the banana tree are
distributed in Laos, farmers chopped it into small pieces and fed
to pigs, ducks and chickens (Tien et al., 2013). The fibre is
presented in BPS, a high content of water 94%, low level of
protein 3-4% in DM (Floulkes et al.,1978). However, an unusual
finding was reported presence of 3% of soluble sugars in the


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liquid fraction, it confirms that they are readily fermentable (Dao
Thi My Tien et al., 2010).
Taro leaves are rich in protein (about 20% in DM) with a
balance of essential amino acid close to that in an “ideal” protein
(Rodríguez et al., 2006). The petioles are rich in sugars which
facilitate ensiling the combined leaves and petioles to give a feed
with 14-15% CP in the DM (Malavanh et al., 2008; Giang et al.,
2010; Hai et al., 2013). Many experiments have demonstrated that
ensiled taro foliage can be fed as a source of protein for pigs
(Toan and Preston, 2010; Chittavong et al., 2012; Kaensombath
and Lindberg, 2012; Hang et al., 2015). The limitation to the use
of taro foliage in diets for pigs is the presence of oxalates which
form crystalline insoluble salts that cause irritation in the mouth of
pigs when the foliage is consumed fresh. However, this problem
can be resolved by ensiling the taro before feeding (Hang et al.,
2011).
Brewers’ spent grains’ and rice distiller soluble fed at low
levels in the diet (4 to 5% as DM) were shown to protect cattle
(Phanthavong et al., 2016; Sengsouly and Preston 2016; Binh et
al., 2017) and goats (Binh et al., 2018) from HCN toxicity caused
by cyanogenic glucosides present in foliage of “bitter” varieties of
cassava. However, no any applied in pig with use these byproducts. Its’ properties are acting probiotics/prebiotics to replace
antibiotics with either beneficial microorganisms such as
Lactobacilli and yeasts that enhance the normal microbial flora in
the animals’ digestive system. In the latter category are
compounds such as β-glucan that are present in the walls of
cereals such as barley and rice, and of yeasts. These appear to be
released in natural processes such as occur in the alcoholic
fermentation with distillation to give beer and rice wine.


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Biochar, the by-product from the carbonization of fibrous
residues at high temperatures of 500-1000 °C was originally
identified as an ameliorating agent in soils and as a vehicle for
sequestering atmospheric carbon (Lehmann, 2007) with associated
beneficial effects on crop and plant growth (Lehman and Joseph,
2015; Preston, 2015). In pigs and chickens, it has been shown to
be effective as an agent to facilitate the degradation of phytotoxins
and mycotoxins (Gallo et al., 2015; Prasai et al. 2017), as well as
providing habitat that enhances activities of microbial
communities (Leng, 2017).
3. OBJECTIVES OF THE THESIS
1) To determine the effect of replacing ensiled taro foliage
with ensiled banana pseudo stem as foliage based die for Moo
Lath pigs in Laos
2) To investigate the effect of a low concentration of rice
distillers’ byproduct or brewers’ grains as additive feed in the


foliage based diet for Moo Lath pigs
3) To evaluate the effect of rice distillers’ byproduct and
biochar as additives on growing and feed conversion of native
Moo Lath pigs in Laos
4. HYPOTHESES OF THE RESEARCH
1) Ensiled taro foliage combined with ensiled banana pseudo
stem will be contributed suitable inclusive level as foliage baseddiet supporting for digestibility and improving growing for Moo
Lath pigs
2) Small amounts (4% of diet DM) of either brewers' grains
or rice distillers' byproduct (Quilao) supplemented in foliage
based diets would support increased growth rate and reproductive
performance in Moo Lath pigs.


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3) Supplementation of biochar in a forage-based diet would
be affected on growth performance and feed conversion of native
Moo Lath pigs
5. INNOVATION OF THE DISSERTATION
The innovation of this dissertation is the use of low
concentrations (4% of diet DM) of agro-industrial by-products
such as brewers’ grains, rice distillers’ residues and addition of
biochar (1% of diet DM) as additives feed that appear to act as
“prebiotics”, enhancing the growth and feed conversion of
indigenous Moo Lath pigs fed on local feed resource of ensiled
foliage of Taro (Colocasia esculenta) and banana pseudo-stem
(Musa spp).
CHAPTER 1
LITERATURE REVIEW
1.1. The role of pig production
Smallholder farms are practice accounted for 86.5% of
total pig production in 2017 (MAF, 2017). Around 64% of pig
rising is for home consumption especially in cultural events,
accumulation capital and generated cash income (Stür et al.,
2002). Souriyasack (2011) implied that approximately 75 % of
pigs are produced in small-scale systems and 25% is derived from
commercial farms. There are total number of pigs of 3.7 million
heads in whole country, with local pigs are accounted of 3.2
million pigs (DLF, 2017). Meat required to consume for Lao
people is 57 kg/capita, with pork are 14.6 kg in 2017
1.2. Currently typical pig farming in Laos
Pig rearing system in Laos can be clarified into three main
categories such as smallholder pig production (small scale), semiintensive (medium scale) and commercial scale (large scale)
farming. Smallholder pig farms are approximated of 86.5% of pig


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production (MAF, 2017). In this system, pig farmers are poor
addition feeds for pigs, with no protected from disease, with poor
nutrients. Semi-intensive pig farming is defined as small family
business farming system by raise pig including indigenous pig and
cross breed pig. It can definite relatively high level of inputs. The
commercial pig farms in Laos are arisen as enterprise sectors
under domestic investors and the typical commercial pig farms.
Mostly pigs used are exotic breeds such as crossed breed of Large
White, Landrace, Duroc Jersey and some of hybrid (Wilson,
2007).
1.3. Feeds and feeding practical management
Feeds derived from agricultural by-products mainly rice
bran, broken rice, polished rice and also maize and cassava root
are a source of energy diet for pigs. The green plants are taro
foliage, banana pseudo stem, thick head, paper mulberry and
green amaranth, and vegetarians such as pumpkin tops and sweet
potato leaves. Feeds derived from leftover materials rice distillers’
waste and household scraps are traditional knowledge to use as
feed for pigs
1.4. Utilization of forage-based diet for pigs
1.4.1. Taro as protein sources for pigs
Taro (Colocasia esculenta) is traditionally forage that
cultivated by farmers, it also arises naturally in Laos. It is
contained a high potential source of protein in pig diets. Taro is
sources of amino acid closed to ideal protein with similar contents
compare to soybean meal (Rodríguez et al., 2006). Use of taro
was increased in CP digestibility and N retention (Rodríguez et
al., 2009). Ensiled taro leaves could be replaced up to 50 % of the
soybean protein by improving growth performance and carcass
traits of crossbred large white pig and native Moo Lath Lao pigs
(Kaensombath and Erik Lindberg, 2012).


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1.4.2. Banana pseudo stem in pig diets
A mixture of ensiled banana pseudo stem and taro foliage
has been contributed to improve intake for native Moo Lath pig
(Manivanh and Preston, 2016). The researchers subjected to use
banana pseudo stem combining to taro leave and also replacing
with rice bran in traditionally performance by farmers for
crossbreed pig and Mong Cai sows (Hang et al., 2014; Duyet et
al., 2013), duck diets (Dao Thi My Tien et al., 2013) and pig diet
(Chhay Ty et al., 2014). However, high fiber content appeared to
decreased digestibility of DM, OM, NDF and N retention when
ensiled banana pseudo-stem replaced taro foliage silage in
crossbreed pig (Hang et al., 2014).
1.4.3. Brewers’ grain and distillers’ by-product
Rice distillers’ by-product (RDB) are the residue derived
mainly from yeast fermentation process of rice of polished rice to
make rice wine. Rural smallholder farmers have been successfully
used RDB as a protein sources for pigs (Manh et al., 2009;
Taysayavong and Preston, 2010; Manivanh et al., 2012; (Phiny et
al., 2012). Brewers’ grains and rice distiller soluble fed at low
levels in the diet (4 to 5% as DM) were shown to protect cattle
(Phanthavong et al., 2016; Sengsouly and Preston 2016; Binh et
al., 2017) and goats (Binh et al., 2018) from HCN toxicity caused
by cyanogenic glucosides present in foliage of “bitter” varieties of
cassava. However, no any applied in pig with use these byproducts.
1.4.4. Biochar as a feed additive in animals
Primarily study with 1 % of biochar is applied on the
growth and feed conversion including reduction methan emission
in cattle (Leng et al., 2014; Sengsouly and Preston, 2016) and
goats (Silivong et al., 2016; Le Thi Thuy Hang et a., 2018). The
benefit of biochar is possibility bind toxins or degraded some


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organisms in the gut of animal microbiome (Leng, 2017). Prasai et
al. (2016) that supplementation of biochar improved egg yield and
feed conversion. whilst, supplementation of 1 % rice husk biochar
in chicken diet reduced coliform bacteria and E-coli in faces, but
had no impact on live weight gain (Hien et al., 2018).
CHAPTER 2
EFFECT OF REPLACING ENSILED TARO FOLIAGE
WITH ENSILED BANANA PSEUDO STEM ON INTAKE,
DIGESTIBILITY AND NITROGEN RETENTION IN MOO
LATH PIGS
Introduction
Banana pseudo stem is traditionally and commonly used
by farmers as feed for pigs, and cattle in Laos. This research
aimed to test the effect of different proportion of ensiled banana
pseudo-stem combined with ensiled taro foliage on intake,
digestibility and nitrogen retention in growing Moo Lath pigs.
Materials and Methods
Treatment, experimental design and feeding management
Four native Moo Lath pigs (LW at 30 kg  2.63 kg) were
used with arranged in a 4x4 LSD with 4 pigs and 4 levels of
ensiled banana pseudo stem (0, 5, 10 and 15% in DM basis)
replacing ensiled taro foliage. Experimental periods lasted 10
days: 5 days for adaptation and 5 days for collection of urine and
feces.
Sample collection and analysis
Feeds offered and refused were weighed daily. The urine
and feces were collected. All samples were analysed for DM, CP,
CF and ash. The data were analyzed (Minitab, 2016).


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Results and discusion
Feed intake and apparent digestibility
Feed intake, coefficients of digestibility, daily N retention,
and N retention as proportion of N digested, all declined linearly
as the proportion of ensiled banana pseudo-stem in the diet was
increased with the trend being more pronounced in the case of
crude fiber. However, the data on N retention show clearly that the
protein provided by ensiled taro foliage was superior biological
value compared with the combination of banana pseudo-stem
Table 2.3. Intake and apparent digestibility of diets
Diets, % DM basis
BS0
BS5
BS10 BS15
Feed intake, g/d
921.
910.
DM
917.6 914.9
2
1
Apparent digestibility, %
DM
88.5a 84.9ab 83.6b 83.6b
CP
84.9a 80.7ab 80.3ab 77.2b
CF
81.6a 74.9ab 71.6b 68.6b
OM
88.9a 85.6ab 84.1b 83.6b
N balance, g/d
Intake
25.3a 24.7ab 24.1b
23.9b
b
ab
ab
Feces
3.8
4.8
4.8
5.4a
c
bc
ab
Urine
5.5
6.9
7.9
8.8a
N retention
g/d
16.0a 13.0b 11.5bc
9.7c
a
b
bc
% of N intake
63.1 52.7
47.4
40.6c
% of digested N
74.0a 65.4ab 59.2bc 51.7c
(BV)

SEM

p

11.19

0.913

1.06
1.38
2.00
1.04

0.004
0.002
<0.001
0.002

0.31
0.32
0.39

0.013
0.008
<0.001

0.65
2.28

<0.001
<0.001

2.39

<0.001


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Conclusion
 Apparent digestibility of DM and CP, daily N retention
and N retained as percent of N digested, all declined linearly as
ensiled banana pseudo-stem replaced ensiled taro foliage.
 It is apparent that the biological value of the protein in the
ensiled taro foliage is superior to that in the combination of
ensiled banana pseudo-stem and soybean meal
CHAPTER 3
A LOW CONCENTRATION OF RICE DISTILLERS’
BYPRODUCT OR BREWERS’ GRAINS ON
DIGESTIBILITY AND NITROGEN RETENTION IN
NATIVE MOO LATH PIGS
Introduction
Brewers' grains have been widely used as protein
supplements in diets of pigs and cattle. However, recent research
Binh et al. (2017) suggests that they may also provide other
benefits, as a source of "prebiotics". The hypothesis that small
amounts (4% of diet DM) of either brewers' grains or rice
distillers' byproduct would support increased growth rate in local
Moo Lath pigs.
Materials and methods
Treatments, design and Feeding management
Six pigs (native Moo Lath pig breed) with average initial
live weight of 29.3  2.3 kg with 3 diets: CTL; BG 4% and RDB
4%. A double 3*3 LSD with periods of 10 days: 5 days for
adaptation and 5 days for measurement of data
Data collection and analysis
Feed offered and refused, Urine and feces were recorded
daily. The samples were analysed for DM, N, CF and ash (AOAC,
1990). The data were analysed (Minitab, 2014).


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Results
Feed intake
DM intake was increased respectively by inclusion of BG
and RDB in the diets.
Table 3.3. Mean values for DM intake and % CP of the diet
consumed by Moo Lath pigs
Diets, as % DM basis
SEM
p
CTL BG4% RDB4%
Feed intake, g/d
DM intake
703b 777a
805a 13.38 <0.001
CP intake
90.3b 101.2a 104.5a 1.73 <0.001
CF intake
127.2b 138.2a 143.0a 2.87 0.001
OM intake
86.2a 84.3b
82.5c
0.53 <0.001
c
b
DM intake, g/kg LW
21.5 25.5
27.8a
0.53 <0.001
ab

Mean values within rows with different superscript differ at P<0. 05

Apparent digestibility
Apparent digestibility for DM, OM, CF and CP were
increased by both supplements.
Table 3.4. Mean values for apparent digestibility by Moo Lath pigs
CTL BG4% RDB4% SEM
p
Apparent digestibility, %
Dry matter
84.5b 87.5a
89.6a
0.84 <0.001
b
ab
a
Crude protein
75.6 79.4
80.7
1.41 0.032
Crude fiber
79.5b 86.2a
88.7a
1.11 <0.001
b
a
a
Organic matter
84.7 87.8
89.9
0.81 <0.001
ab

Mean values within rows with different superscript differ at P<0. 05

Nitrogen balance
N intake and N retained was greater on the BG and RDB
diets increases in DM intake induced by the supplements. There
was no advantage from supplementation with BG. The biological
value of the protein was increased by both BG and RDB
Table 3.5. Mean values for N balance by Moo Lath pigs
CTL BG 4 % RDB 4 % SEM

p


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N balance, g / d
Intake
14.5b
16.2a
16.7a
0.28
<0.001
Feces
3.2
3.4
2.9
0.19
0.23
Urine
2.2a
2.1a
1.5b
0.17
0.010
N retained
g/day
9.00c
10.7b
12.3a
0.35
<0.001
b
b
g/day#
10.2
10.3
11.3a
0.27
<0.001
% of digested N
73.8b
83.1a
87.2a
1.91
<0.001
ab
Mean values within rows with different superscript differ at P<0. 05

Discussion
Previous research with BG (Amaefule et al., 2006) and
RDB (Luu Huu Manh et al., 2003) have used as source of protein.
As far as we are aware, this is the first report on the use of these
supplements at low levels as source of prebiotics (Fuller, 1989;
Vanbelle et al., 1990). It is suggested that presence in both the
supplements of β-glucan, a carbohydrate component of the cell
wall of cereal grains and fungi including yeasts.
Conclusion
 BG and RDB, each at concentrations of 4% of diet DM,
improved feed DM intake and apparent digestibility of DM, CP
and CF. N retention was increased by RDB but not by BG and the
biological value of the protein was increased by both supplements.
 It is suggested that the positive effects on pig performance,
of both BG and RDB, may have been due to the presence of βglucan, a component of the cell wall of cereal grains and yeasts.
CHAPTER 4
EFFECT OF A LOW CONCENTRATION OF RICE
DISTILLERS’ BYPRODUCT OR BREWERS' GRAINS
ON PREGNANCY AND LACTATION OF NATIVE MOO
LATH GILTS AND THEIR PROGENY
Introduction


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In a previous experiment Silvai and Preston (2017)
showed that BG and RDB, each at concentrations of 4% improved
DM intake and digestibility in native Moo Lath pigs. The
objective was to test if these supplements would bring about
similar benefits during pregnancy and lactation in native Moo
Lath gilts.
Materials and methods
Treatments and experimental design
12 Moo Lath gilts (BLW at 80.8± 3.9 kg) were fed ad
libitum a basal diet of broken rice and ensiled BS with ensiled TF.
The three treatments in a CRD with 4 replications were: No
supplement (CTL); RDB 4% and BG 4% of diet DM
Data collection and analysis
Feed offered and refused was recorded. The gilts weight,
litter size, piglet weights at birth and at weaning days, mortality of
piglets and new estrus was recorded. Samples were analysed for
DM, CP, CF and ash (AOAC, 1990), and all data were analysed
(Minitab, 2016).
Results
Body weight change during pregnancy and lactation
Moo Lath gilts gained more body weight during gestation,
and were heavier at the end of lactation, when their diet was
supplemented with 4% BG or 4% RDB.
Table 4.3. Llive weight (kg) of Moo Lath gilts
CTL

BG 4% RDB 4% SEM

p

Conception

85.3

77.8

79.4

5.34

0.6

Pre-parturition

102.5

106.1

108.6

6.07

0.78

Post-parturition

96.1

98.6

100.1

5.76

0.89


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Weaning

70.6

77.2

78.9

3.39

Table 4.4. Changes in weight of Moo Lath gilts
CTL BG 4% RDB 4%
Changes in live weight, kg
Conception to pre-parturition 17.2b 28.3a
29.2 a
b
a
Post-parturition
10.9 20.9
20.8 a
Parturition to weaning
-25.5 -21.4
-21.2
Weight loss, %
24.6 22.4
21.5
Weaning to oestrus. Days
16.8 13.3
13.5

0.24

SEM

p

2.27
2.13
3.92
4.68
2.37

0.08
0.01
0.69
0.89
0.52

Piglet production
Litters from Moo Lath gilts supplemented with 4% RDB
were heavier at birth and at weaning, and tended to grow faster,
than litters from un-supplemented gilts
Table 4.5. Mean values for weight of litters from Moo Lath gilts
CTL BG 4% RDB 4% SEM
p
Birth, kg
5.14a 6.39ab
7.65b
0.599 0.047
Weaning (at 28d, kg) 23.9a 29.5ab
39.1b
3.01
0.036
a
ab
ADG, g/d
683
855
1072b
130
0.061
ab
Means without common superscript differ at p<0.05

Health and mortality
Supplementing the Moo Lath gilts during pregnancy and
lactation with BG or RDB had no effect on piglet mortality at
birth or during lactation on piglet live weights at birth and 28 days
weaning

Table 4.6. Numbers of piglets born and surviving to weaning
CTL
BG 4%
RDB 4%
Number born
Total
8.25
8.5
9.25
Dead
0.50
0.00
0.00
Alive
7.75
8.50
9.25
Number weaned
Alive
6.50
7.25
8.25


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Died
Mortality, %
Total
Lactation

1.25

1.25

1.00

18.1
18.1

17.1
11.6

10.2
10.2

Table 4.7. Mean weights (g) of piglets at birth and 28 day weaning

Birth
Weaning

CTL

BG 4%

RDB 4%

SEM

p

690

786

784

109

0.77

3,215

3,651

3,740

594

0.88

Feed conversion
Supplementing of BG or RDB during pregnancy and
lactation indicated different value on feed DM intake. DM feed
conversion was improved by 60%, when supplemented 4% RDB
Table 4.8. DM intake from conception to weaning of Moo Lath gilts
CTL

BG 4%

RDB 4%

SEM

p

Pregnancy

1.4a

1.3b

1.3b

0.013

0.05

Lactation

1.7b

1.8a

1.9a

0.025

<0.01

Total

1.4

1.4

1.4

0.014

0.718

Piglets weaned, kg

23.8a

29.5ab

39.1b

3.01

0.030

Feed conversion

8.71a

6.85ab

5.21b

0.61

0.019

DM intake, kg/d

ab

Means without common superscript differ at p<0. 05

Discussion
The beneficial effects on accumulation of body mass of
Moo Lath gilts during pregnancy and on the weight of their litters
at weaning, as a result of supplementing their diet during
pregnancy and lactation, with small quantities of rice distillers’
by-product, confirm our earlier findings of increased diet


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digestibility and N retention in growing Moo Lath pig feeds fed
the same basal diet and RDB supplement (Sivilai and Preston,
2017). The apparent superiority of rice distillers’ by-product over
brewers’ grains was a common finding in both studies. These
positive effects on growth rate and feed conversion are similar to
what has been reported for rice distillers’ by-product in diets of
cattle (Sangkhom et al., 2008; Sengsouly et al., 2016) and for
brewers’ grains in diets of cattle (Phuong et al., 2017) and goats
(Vor Sina et al., 2017).
It is relevant to reflect on the mechanism by which rice
distillers’ byproduct, and to a lesser extent, brewers’ grains,
contribute to the observed improvements in performance of both
ruminant and mono-gastric animals.
We previously suggested (Sivilai and Preston, 2017) that
the benefits of both brewers’ grains and rice distillers’ by-product,
in supporting improved feed intake, digestibility and N retention
in growing pigs, could be explained by the presence in both the
supplements of β-glucan, a carbohydrate component of the cell
wall of cereal grains and yeasts. The beneficial effect of β-glucan
on growth rate and health in weaning pigs was recently reported
by Nguyen Thi Thuy (2017). The immune-modulating effects of
β-glucans, with beneficial health effects in humans and animals
are well known (Novak and Vetvicka, 2008; Waszkiewicz-Robak,
2013).
The question is: what is the mechanism that leads to rice
distillers’ by-product and brewers’ grains being an active source of
β-glucan? It is well understood that the carbohydrate complexes in
the cell wall of cereal grains and yeast need to be modified in
order to make available the beta-glucan and related compounds.
Alkaline followed by acid hydrolysis appear to be the key steps in
this process (Yanelys Garcia, Personal communication). In the


16
production of rice “wine” the procedure is first the steaming of the
rice, followed by facultative anaerobic fermentation with yeast,
and lastly the boiling of the fermented rice to release the alcohol.
Similar procedures are followed in the production of beer and the
resultant by-product of brewers’ grains. The first stage of
“steaming” (rice wine) and “mashing” (beer) and the initial steps
in the fermentation may facilitate the first requirement for alkaline
hydrolysis; the last stage of distillation in which the fermented
substrate is “acid” would appear to simulate the process of “acid
hydrolysis”.
The challenge is to simulate these actions using more
readily available and lower cost carbohydrate substrates such as
cassava root and cassava root pulp.
Conclusions
 Moo Lath gilts gained weight during gestation, and
lactation, when supplemented BG 4% or RDB 4%. The litters size
and mortality of piglets supplemented with RDB were improved
 Weights of piglets at birth and 28 days weaning, and intake
were not affected by supplementation but feed conversion was
improved by 60%, when supplemented with RDB 4%.


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CHAPTER 5
EFFECT OF RICE DISTILLERS’ BYPRODUCT AND
BIOCHAR AS ADDITIVES FOR GROWING AND FEED
CONVERSION OF NATIVE MOO LATH PIGS
Introduction
RDB fed in small quantities (4% of the diet) also acts as a
prebiotic. It increased N retention in pigs (Sivilai and Preston,
2017) and improving growth and feed conversion in pregnantlactating gilts and growth rate of piglets to weaning (Sivilai et al.,
2018). Feeding biochar to animals is a recent development. The
objective was to evaluate the effect of biochar on the growth rates
of Moo Lath pigs fed forage diet and to compare with RDB.
Materials and Methods
Animals, treatment, design and management
Twenty Moo Lath pigs (15.8 ± 1.3 kg) were fed four
dietary treatments arranged in a CRD with 5 replications: CTL,
RDB 4%, BIO 1% and RDB+BIO added in the diets.
Data collection and analysis
The pigs were weighed every 14 days and feeds offered
and refused were recorded daily with samples were determine for
DM, CP, CF and ash (AOAC, 1990). The data were analyzed
(Minitab, 2016).
Results
Dry matter intake, growth rate and feed conversion
There was no effect of the additives on feed
intake. Growth rate tended to be better and feed conversion was
improved for both additives. There were no benefits from
combining both additives compared with feeding each one
separately.


18
Table 5.3. Mean values for change live weight, feed intake and
conversion for Moo Lath pigs
Live weight
CTL BIO RDB BIO+RDB SEM
Initial, kg
15.9 15.8 15.6
16.0
0.619
Final, kg
36.5 40.5 40.1
41.6
1.52
Daily gain, g
179 215 220
220
9.51
DM intake, g/d
787 850 859
874
41.7
DM conversion (kg/kg) 4.43b 3.96a 3.89 a
4.02 a
0.13
ab

p
0.692
0.423
0.089
0.58
0.048

Means without common superscript are different at p<0.05

Discussion
The positive effect of RDB on growth rates and feed
conversion of the Moo Lath pigs agrees with previous results
where: RDB 4% improved N retention by 36% and the biological
value of the nitrogen by 18% (Sivilai and Preston, 2017) and
RDB4% increased the litter weight of weaned pigs by 67% and
the overall feed conversion by 64% (Sivilai et al., 2018).
To our knowledge, the feeding of biochar to pigs has not
previously been reported. The degree of response observed in this
experiment with growing pigs (20-23% and 11-14% for growth
and feed conversion) is similar to the 15 and 18% improvements
in growth and feed conversion reported for biochar fed to cattle
(Sengsouly and Preston, 2016). Biochar and RDB each increase
pig growth rate and efficiency but they were effected when they
combined.
Conclusions
 In pigs, growth rate tended to be better (p=0.089) and feed
conversion was improved (p=0.048) for both additives, fed
separately or together, when compared with the control diet. There
were no benefits from combining both additives
 It is postulated that biochar and distillers’ byproduct
recommended to bind toxins from the feed which are either


19
excreted in the feces or degraded by some organisms in the
animal’s gut microbiome.
GENERAL DISCUSSIONS AND CONCLUSIONS
The reasons for using indigenous pig breeds such as the
Moo Lath in rural areas of Laos, usually in some form of semiscavenging system have been well documented (Phengsavanh et
al., 2011).
Bananas are grown everywhere in Laos and there is a long
tradition of chopping the pseudo-stem and feeding it to pigs and
poultry. However, this abundant feed resource has received little
attention from researchers. By contrast, Taro have been
thoroughly researched as a component of diets for pigs
(Chittavong et al., 2012; Kaensombath and Lindberg, 2012; Hang
et al., 2015). The only negative attribute the high level of oxalic
acid has been shown to be controllable by ensiling and
supplementation with a source of calcium (Hang et al., 2011).
The objective of this thesis was to test a number of
initiatives which would lead to better utilization of these two
forages abundantly available in tropical ecosystems when fed to
indigenous native “Moo Lath” pigs.
In Paper 1 (chapter 2), the experimental diets were (% DM
basis) ensiled banana pseudo-stem: 0, 5, 10 and 15% the results
were supported evidence for the decision made in the conclusion
to restrict the level of ensiled banana pseudo-stem to 10%.
In Paper 2 (chapter 3) was a follow-up to findings by
fellow researchers (Phanthavong et al., 2016; Sangkhom et al.,
2017; Binh et al., 2017; Sengsouly et al., 2016) that byproducts of
beer manufacture (brewers’ grains) and local rice wine
fermentation-distillation. It was suggested beneficial presence of
β-glucan, a component of the cell wall of both cereal grains and


20
yeasts, that is unknown for RDB and BG in pig diet, as this result
is positive effect on digestibility and N retention
The follow-up to the previous experiment in paper 3
(chapter 4) was the testing of the same two additives in the diets
of pregnant and lactating native Moo Lath gilts and their progeny
to weaning. The gilts gained more body weight during gestation,
and were heavier at the end of lactation, when their diet was
supplemented with 4% BG or 4% RDB. Litters from dams
supplemented with the additives were heavier at birth, and at
weaning, and grew faster than litters from un-supplemented gilts.
Supplementation of the dams appeared to have no effect on piglet
mortality at birth or during lactation, nor on live weights of piglets
at birth or weaning, and did not affect overall feed DM intake.
However, DM feed conversion was improved by 60% when the
Moo Lath gilts were supplemented with 4% RDB
The experiment described in Paper 4 (chapter 5) was also a
follow-up to findings by colleagues (Leng et al., 2012; Silivong
and Preston, 2016; Sengsouly and Preston, 2016) that biochar
appeared to have “prebiotic” properties when fed to cattle and
goats. Biochar was fed at 1% of the basal diet of taro-banana
pseudo stem in a comparison with RDB at 4%. Growth rate
tended to be better (p=0.089) and feed conversion was improved
(p=0.048) for both additives, fed separately or together, when
compared with the control diet. There were no benefits from
combining both additives compared with feeding each one
separately. Whilst considerable research needs to be done, the
possibility is that biochar and RDB bind toxins or immobilize
anti-nutritional compounds in feeds which are either excreted in
the feces or degraded by some organisms in the animal’s gut
microbiome, thesis concluded:


21
1) The biological value of the protein in ensiled taro foliage
was not recommended to have more than 10-15% of ensiled
banana pseudo-stem in a diet based in ensiled taro foliage for
native Moo Lath pigs.
2) Additives (4% in diet DM) in the form of rice distillers’
byproduct or brewers’ grains, improved feed intake, digestibility
and N retention, with a greater response in N retention and
biological value of the protein for rice distillers’ byproduct.
3) These additives also improved performance of gilts when
fed throughout pregnancy and lactation with specific benefits in
weight of piglets weaned and overall feed conversion.
4) Biochar fed at 1% of diet DM, appeared to support equal
benefits in growth and feed conversion in Moo Lath pigs as the
4% addition of rice distillers’ byproduct. It is suggested that both
these additives act as “prebiotics” in neutralizing anti-nutritional
components in the feed thus enhancing animal performance and
wellbeing.


22
1)

2)

3)

4)

5)

LIST OF PUBLISHED SCIENTIFIC PAPERS
Sivilai, B., Preston, T.R. and Kaensombath, L., 2016. Feed
intake, nutrient digestibility and nitrogen retention by Moo
Lath pigs fed ensiled banana pseudo-stem (Musa spp) and
ensiled taro foliage (Colocasia esculenta). Livestock Research
for
Rural
Development,
28
(6),
http://www.lrrd.org/lrrd28/1/boun28006.html
Sivilai, B. and Preston, T.R., 2017. Effect of level of dietary
protein on growth and feed conversion of Moo Lath pigs fed a
mixture of ensiled taro foliage (Colocasia esculenta) and of
ensiled banana pseudo-stem (Musa spp). Livestock Research
for
Rural
Development,
29
(34).
http://www.lrrd.org/lrrd29/2/boun29034.htm
Sivilai, B. and Preston, T.R., 2017. A low concentration of rice
distillers’ byproduct, or of brewers’ grains, increased diet
digestibility and nitrogen retention in native Moo Lath pigs fed
ensiled banana pseudo-stem (Musa spp) and ensiled taro
foliage (Colocasia esculenta). Livestock Research for Rural
Development.
29
(123).
http://www.lrrd.org/lrrd29/6/lert29123.html
Sivilai, B. Preston, T.R., Hang, D.T. and Linh, N.Q., 2018.
Effect of a 4% dietary concentration of rice distillers’
byproduct, or of brewers' grains, on growth rate and feed
conversion during pregnancy and lactation of native Moo Lath
gilts and their progeny. Livestock Research for Rural
Development,
30
(20).
http://www.lrrd.org/lrrd30/1/lert30020.html
Sivilai, B., Preston, T.R., Leng, R.A., Hang, D.T. and Linh,
N.Q., 2018. Rice distillers’ byproduct and biochar as additives
to a forage-based diet for growing Moo Lath pigs; effects on
growth and feed conversion. Livestock


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