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Nguyen Thu Thuy


Major: Commercial Business


Ho Chi Minh City - 2019

This thesis is made at: University of Economics Ho Chi Minh City

Professional advisor: Asso.Prof., PhD, NGUYEN DINH THO

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1. Rationale for the study
Rokeach (1973) officially defined 'personal values' as a part of the broader
concept 'human values'. Sequently, a number of scientists have developed the
concept of 'personal values' and built up many measurement systems based on
Rokeach value scale (1973). The concept of ‘value’ was set by Rokeach (1973)
in relation to 'attitude' and 'behavior'. Whereby, many scientists have also
proposed a system of 'value – attitude – behavior' to study human behavior
(specifically in consumption). The most typical one is the 'value – attitude –
behavior' system of Homer and Kahle (1988).
The concept of 'personal values' and the system of 'value – attitude – behavior'
have been studied and developed by many scientists around the world, resulting
in forming logically a chain of scale systems for 'personal values'. The systems
start from: The Rokeach Value system – RVS (Rokeach, 1973); The List of
Values – LOV (Kahle, 1983); Schwartz Value Survey - SVS (Schwartz, 1990).
Along with these measurement systems, many studies on social behavior and
consumer behavior have been conducted in many countries around the world,
including Vietnam.
Therefore, the author identifies the research problem as 'Personal values in
service consumption'; and determines the including contents: (i) adjusting the
'personal values' scale to adapt the research environment in Vietnam; (ii) testing
the concept of 'personal values' corresponding to specific model of service
consumption behavior in Vietnamese market. These contents corresponds to 2
stages of the study.
2. Objectives of the study
The study must achieve specific objectives:
1. Adjust the scale of 'personal values', then find what aspects of 'personal
values' are relevant to the current market in Vietnam.
2. Testing the concept of 'personal values' as well as its aspects corresponding
to the behavioral model in some typical service industries in Vietnam.
3. Check the reliability of the research model used in testing 'personal
values' with service consumption behavior.
3. Research problem and scope of the study
- Research Problem: The concept of 'personal values', particularly the
concept of 'personal values' with the decision to service consumption.
- Scope of the study:

+ Selected subject: Vietnamese citizens.
+ Spatial scope of the study: Vietnamese research market.
+ Temporal scope of the study: From 2011 to 2017.
3. The novelty and contribution of the study
3.1. The novelty of the research results
The novelty of the study can be listed specifically as follows:
1) Scale 'personal values': the current research results are relevant to
Vietnamese research market and have scientific contribution in perfecting
the studies on consumption behaviors in Vietnam.
2) Testing the concept of 'personal values', corresponding to the
behavioral model: Consumption behavior service model is a combination of
two classic models of VAB (Value - Attitude - Behavior) and TRA (Theory
of Reasoned Action) to confirm the role of 'personal values' in the decision
to service consumption in Vietnam. At this point, no research has been
conducted yet.
3) The behavioral model in this study is based on the concept of 'behavior'
which was measured by observing directly the variables.
3.2. The contribution of the research results
The study has resulted in a complete 'personal values' scale that is relevant
to the research field of service consumption in Vietnam. Thus, the research
results have the following specific contributions:
To researchers: 'personal values' may be one of the significant concepts
that need to be considered in order to know what attracts consumers to a
certain service. By using the 'personal values' scale (adapted to Vietnamese
market), they may consider the relationship between 'personal values' and the
choice of service. The research results may be used by consumption behavior
researchers as a reference scale for the concept of 'personal values' in
research models of various fields.
To executives: The aspects of the 'personal values' scale are the basis for
building marketing strategies, as well as business strategies in the service delivery.

1.1. Literature review
1.1.1. The development of the concept of 'personal values' - human values
The concept of 'human values' (including 'personal values') was defined
by Rokeach as: ‘A value is an enduring belief that a specific mode of conduct
or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or
converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence.’ (Rokeach 1973, p.5).
'Personal values' was derived from Rokeach's concept of 'human value'
and has the meanings as the five assumptions given by Rokeach (1973, p. 3):
1) The total number of values that a person possesses is relatively small.
2) All men everywhere possess the same values to different degrees.
3) Values are organized into value systems.
4) The antecedents of human values can be traced to culture, society and
its institutions, and personality.
5) The consequences of human values will be manifested in virtually all
phenomena that social scientists might consider worth investigating and
With these five assumptions, we can understand that the forming of an
individual's 'personal values' (in 'human value') is based on his or her
personality, habitat, beliefs (assumption 4) - is not due to economic
conditions. At the same time, 'personal values' are the desires in individual
life (as defined by Rokeach) and are the same among individuals but do not
have similar significances (assumption 2). Rokeach's assumptions show that
the concept of 'personal values' exists in every human being, regardless of
their living conditions (rich or poor in material and mental...) and can be
measured (assumptions 1, 3 and 5).
From Rokeach's (1973) proposition of 'human value', and with five
specific assumptions, the concept and scale of 'personal values' are
developed as the following diagram (Figure 2.1):


Figure 2.1: The development of 'personal values'
According to the diagram above (Figure 2.1), the researcher made a
statement that the process of forming and developing the scale of 'personal
values' went through the following periods:
- The Rokeach Value system - RVS consists of two kinds: (i) instrumental
values (18 observable variables): moral values and competence values; (ii)
terminal values (18 observable variables): personal values and social values.
- The List of Values - LOV scale (9 observable variables) is applied in
the marketing field and is formulated by reducing the variables of the RVS
to 9 (Nguyen Xuan Lan et al., 2011, p.274). LOV was created before
Zeithaml's theory of cognitive structures (1988).
- The Schwartz Value Survey - SVS (56 observable variables) consists of
components derived from Rokeach's instrumental values and is a
psychological scale (Nguyen Xuan Lan et al., 2011, p. 273).
In addition, Yi, Hong & Yue (2012) have affirmed the relationship of
scale systems: first of all is Rokeach’s with 18 observations of the value
components obtained in Rokeach value system - RVS. The LOV - Kahle
value system is widely used because it is simple and easy to use; and this
system is also based on Maslow, Rokeach and Feather theories.
1.1.2. Assess some current 'personal values' scales
There are quite a number of scales for the concept of 'personal values'. On
a general scale, there are: the Rokeach Value System - RVS (1973); Schwartz
Value Survey- SVS (1990). On the scope of consumer analysis, there are:
Vinson et al. (1977); The List of Value - LOV of Kahle (1983); Values and

Lifestyles - VALS by Mitchell (1983) and Durgee Value System (1996)
(Lages & Fernandes, 2005).
In Vietnam, the concept of 'personal values' which is used by scientists in
studying service consumption behavior is measured by the SERPVAL scale
- a study by Thuy & Hau (2010, 2011), but has not put into the specific
behavior model yet. Although in the study by Mai & Svein (2015), 'personal
values' have been placed in the relationship of 'value-behavior-attitude' - the
VAB model, the field of study is not service consumption. At the same time,
when SERPVAL scale was used in Vietnamese research market, quite a
number of observable variables were excluded from the measurement model.
Therefore, the author finds that there must be a complete scale to measure
the concept of 'personal values' in the field of service consumption, and
'personal values' must be tested in specific service consumption behavior.
1.2. The concept of 'personal values' in the behavioral model
1.2.1. 'Personal values' in relation to 'attitudes' and 'behaviors'
Since the conceptualization, 'personal values' has been placed in relationships
with 'attitudes' and 'behaviors' (Rokeach, 1973). In line with the development of
the concept of 'personal values', Kahle successfully built the LOV scale - a list
of values, and set it in a specific consumption scope, along with the clear
formation of the system of 'value - attitude - behavior '- VAB (Homer & Kahle,
The VAB - 'value - attitude - behavior' model shows that the 'personal values'
will influence specific behaviors through mediating factors (attitude, intention
or motivation) (Vaske & Donnelly, 1999). Values may also have a direct impact
on behavior (Homer & Kahle, 1988).
In Vietnam, the concept of 'personal values' was introduced by Thuy & Hau
(2010, 2011) to the system of 'personal values - satisfaction - loyalty'.
Meanwhile, the study by Vu Van Hiep & Nguyen Thu Thuy (2015) which was
conducted with a behavioral model demonstrated the 'value-attitude-behavior'
relationship in dormitory choice decision of students. All conducted studies have
used the SERPVAL scale developed by Lages & Fernandes (2005).
The study uses a model of relationship between the three factors in 'personal
values - attitude - behavior' system as the basis to build up its research model.

Figure 1.1: Theoretical model – VAB

Researchers found that the theoretical model (Figure 1.1) had two
variables (attitudes and behaviors) similar to a cognitive behavioral model Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) . (Figure 1.2)

Figure 1.2: Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA)
(Source: Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980)
1.2.2. A research model for testing the aspects of 'personal values' in
In order to test the aspects of 'personal values' in service consumption in
Vietnamese market, the researcher chose the theory model of VAB –
'personal values - attitude - behavior'. But the researcher also revised the
objective of the study: testing the aspects of 'personal values' in different
environments (sectors) of service consumption in Vietnam, specifically the
relationship with the other two elements (attitude and behavior). Then the
researcher considered that the TRA model is quite appropriate because it has
been used by scholars in studying consumption behavior in many markets as
well as many different fields. At the same time, the TRA model also shows
the other two concepts ('attitude' and 'behavior') in 'personal values-attitudebehavior' system, and the model has already had a scale system for hidden
and simple variables when analyzing data. In addition, Mai & Svein (2015)
also refered to the combination of VAB and TPB models (Ajzen's planned
behavior) – which were developed from the TRA model by adding
'behavioral control' variable when analyzing the impact of 'personal values'
on behavior. The combination of the concept 'personal values' and the
behavioral model was used by Sheng et al. (2017) in the study of holiday
behavior among Australian students. Sheng et al. built the model based on
how 'personal values' affects variables in Ajzen's TPB model. At this point,
the researcher found evidences to prove that the impact of personal values
on the behavioral model was the TPB model. And there was no impact of
personal values on the TRA model (Reasoned Action).

Thus, the researcher decided to combine the VAB model (Personal Values
- Behavior – Attitudes) and the TRA model (Reasoned Action) in the process
of testing the aspects of 'personal values' on consumption behaviors in
Vietnamese market. It means building a causal relationship between the
concept of 'personal values' and its impact on 'attitude' on two grounds: (i) the
theoretical model of the study has defined the causal relationship between
'personal values' and 'attitude' of consumers; (ii) Yuanfeng & Randall (2012)
used the behavioral model in studying the small-scale shopping behavior in
China and Thailand, taking into account the impact of 'personal values' and
'attitude' of customers. The research model is specifically shown in Figure 1.3:

Figure 1.3: Research model of personal values in service
consumption in Vietnam

2.1. Research process
To achieve the objectives, the study was conducted in two phases:
- Phase 1: to adjust the scale
- Phase 2: to test the scale with behavioral model.
2.1.1. The necessity for two phases in the study
The research needs to be conducted in two phases because:
1) Currently in Vietnam, in many studies of 'personal values' in service
consumption, scientists are using the SERPVAL scale - the Service
Personal Values (Lages & Fernandes, 2005). Lages & Fernandes (2005)
have confirmed that the SERPVAL scale is a scale that reflects the notion
of 'personal values' in the service field. But the author approached the
SERPVAL scale through Zeithaml string theory (1988). Meanwhile, a List
of values - LOV of Kahle (1983) were approached through the theory of
Maslow's hierarchy of needs (1943) ( William & Richard, 1999). This
shows that SERPVAL scale reflects only 'personal values' in the narrow
range of consumers - consumers of services.
Indeed, when building SERPVAL scale, Lages & Fernandes conducted
direct surveys of customers who were using the service mobile networks in
Portugal. Maybe that’s why when Thuy & Houston (2010, 2011) used
SERPVAL in research for various types of services in Vietnam, this scale
showed the inconsistencies (many observable variables were excluded
from the measurement model after analyzing data). Thus there must be a
more appropriate scale to measure the concept of 'personal values' in
researching about consumer service.
That is why the author finds that it’s necessary to have Phase 1 - to
adjust the existing 'personal values' scale.
2) When the 'personal values' scale has been adjusted to fit the research
environment, it is necessary to include it in the consumer behavior model
to test the compatibility of the new scale, and to test the impact of scale’s
aspects to consumption behavior. That is the second phase of the study.
2.1.2. Research process of the study
To complete the research and achieve the objectives, the research was
conducted with two studies corresponding to two phases: Phase 1: adjusting
the 'personal values' scale to fit the research environment in Vietnam. Phase

2: testing the 'personal values' scale with the consumer behavior model in
different service fields in Vietnam.
On the basis of well-defined that the study needs to be conducted in two
phases associated with two studies, and also based on the process of
developing and evaluating the scale of Gilbert & Churchill (1979) and
Nguyen Dinh Tho (2011), the author built a more detailed research process
that was appropriate for current research. Specifically (Figure 1):

Figure 1: Research process of the study
2.2.2. The process of conducting research in phase 1
While conducting the study, the author refered to the Lages & Fernandes
(2005) methods used to create the SERPVAL scale – personal value in
service. Thus, the 'personal values' scale was defined by the researcher as a
second-order scale - similar to the SERPVAL scale of Lages & Fernandes
(2005) (SERPVAL scale generation is the basis reference of the researcher).

Sampling method
According to the whole research process (Figure 1), the first phase
consists of two steps:
Qualitative research: The researcher established two discussion groups.
Group 1: - The exploration group: The objective of the group is to discuss
the definition of 'personal values' in service consumption and to identify the
factors that make up 'personal values', also to build the scale for the concept.
Interviewees are people from all walks of life, so that there are many
opinions from different perspectives. Thus, the researcher selected the
objects as teachers, office workers, managers, general laborers, small
business operators ....
Group 2 - control group: The objective of the group is to test the results
of group 1 discussions and to adjust.
Interviewees are teachers who are colleagues of the researcher. They are
experienced university lecturers, so they are able to understand and identify
the problem of the research.
Quantitative research: - The objective is to have a 'personal values' scale
that has been adjusted to fit Vietnamese environment through market data.
Observed objects are Vietnamese people between the ages of 25 and 60
(people who are in working age, have career orientation, have full capacity
of behavior, have enough ability to feel about life and themselves). Sampling
period is the end of 2013.
Data processing methods
Data analysis steps in quantitative studies: (i) Exploratory factor analysis
- EFA; (ii) reliability testing; (iii) Confirmatory factor analysis - CFA.
2.2.3. The process of conducting research in phase 2
The behavioral model used in the research is a combination of two
theoretical models of Personal Values – Attitudes – Behavior (VAB) and
TRA (Theory of Reasoned Action). The consumer domain was identified as
service consumption. (Figure 1.3)
Hypothesis 1: The adjusted 'personal values' scale that consists of
5 components and 15 observational variables are preserved through
data analysis process (Cronbach Alpha - EFA - CFA).
Hypothesis 2: The aspects of the concept of 'personal values' that
exist in the testing model are statistically significant ('personal values'
impacts on 'attitudes toward behavior').

Hypothesis 3: Variables in research model about the consumption
service behavior have a causal relationship (the non-zero path
coefficient is significant).
The researcher expect these three hypotheses to be supported by
market data.
Sampling method
Researchers select three service sectors to test the 'personal values' scale.
They are tourism service, passenger transport service and fitness service.
Particular observed objects are:
Observation representative for tourism services: domestic tourists to
Nha Trang. Sampling period is on the holiday of 30 April - 1 May, 2015.
Observation representative for passenger transport service: are rail
passengers and airline passengers (from Nha Trang to Hanoi and from HCM
City to Hanoi). Sampling period is from March to May 2015.
Observation representative for fitness service: are the guests at the
gymnasium in Nha Trang city. The sampling period is May 2017.
Data processing methods
Data analysis with statistical tools:
+ Cronbach Alpha Factor.
+ Exploratory Factor analysis - EFA.
+ Confirmatory Factor analysis - CFA.
+ Structural Equation Model - SEM.

3.1. The research results of phase 1 - adjusting the 'personal values' scale
to fit Vietnamese market
Qualitative research
After conducting group discussion and retrieval of all measurement variables
of the current scale systems (SERPVAL, LOV, RVS), the composite scale was
formed (Table 3.2).
Table 3.2: Composite scale for the concept of 'personal values'
1 Tranquility
15 More freedom to act
Better communication with
2 Family security
3 Harmony and stability in life
17 Self-respect
4 Fun and enjoyment in life
18 Sense of accomplishment
5 Respect from others
19 Self fulfilment
Feeling that the world is more
20 Sense of belonging
7 Social recognition
21 A world of beauty
8 Status
22 Equality
Stimulating and adventurous
23 Happiness
10 Higher integration in my group 24 Mature love
11 Better relationships
25 National security
Strengthen my friendship
26 Salvation
Strengthen my family
27 True friendship
14 More comfort in my life
28 Wisdom
Quantitative study (sample consists of 319 observations)
After carrying out the data analysis sequence: EFA Exploratory Factor
Analysis → Cronbach 'Alpha Reliability Test → Confirmatory Factor
Analysis CFA. The results of the 'personal values' scale for the research
environment in Vietnam are as follows:

Table 3.5: Result of personal value scale in Vietnamese market
Value1 I have a tranquil life.
Lages &
Peaceful life Value2 My family is secure.
Value4 I am pleased with my life.
Value23 I am happy.
Sentiment Value24 I have mature love.
Value27 I have true friendship.
Value5 I am respected by the others.
Lages &
Value7 My society recognizes me.
Value8 I have a high social status.
Value17 I am self-respecting.
Consciousness Value18 I have sense of accomplishment.
Kahle, 1983
Value19 I fulfill myself.
Value10 I highly integrate into my group.
I have good relationships with the
Lages &


Figure 3.1: CFA model with standardized results
3.12. The research results of phase 2 - testing of the 'personal values'
scale with the service consumption behavior model
The measurement model in the 'personal values' scale – adjusted with the
components of the service consumption behavior model for three areas of
tourism service, passenger transport service and fitness service, as follows
(Tables 3.8, 3.13, 3.18):




Tables 3.8; 3.13; 3.18: Measurement model in testing 'personal values' scale
with service consumption behavior model
Measurement variables
V1 I have a tranquil life.
V2 My family is secure.
V3 I am pleased with my life.
V4 I am happy.
V5 I have mature love.
V6 I have true friendship.
V7 I am respected by the others.
V8 My society recognizes me.
V9 I have a high social status.
V10 I am self-respecting.
V11 I have sense of accomplishment.
V12 I fulfill myself.
V13 I highly integrate into my group.
V14 I have good relationships with the others.
V15 I strengthen my family relationships
Fitness service
service (sample Transport service
(sample - 339
- 408
(sample - 372
Traveling is a Taking a plane Exercise at the GYM
good idea.
(train) is a good idea. is a good idea.
Traveling is an
Taking a plane Exercise at the GYM
V17 enjoyable
(train) is a good idea. is a good idea.
Taking a plane Exercise at the GYM
benefits me.
(train) benefits me. benefits me.
Taking a plane Exercise at the
is GYM is necessary
necessary to me.
necessary to me. to me.
Taking a plane Exercise at the
is GYM is important
important to me.
important to me. to me.




family My family support
V21 support me to me to travel by
plane (train).
friends My friends support
V22 support me to me to travel by
plane (train).
My colleagues
support me to
V23 support me to
travel by plane
People around People around me
me think that think
is traveling by plane
(train) is essential.
I Sometimes I think
V25 think I should I should take a
plane (train).
I am intending to
I am intending
travel by plane
to travel.
I have had a plan to
I have had a plan
travel by plane
to travel.
I Sometimes I travel
by plane (train).
travel I frequently travel
by plane (train)..
On average,
On average, how
how many times many times a
a year do you
year do you travel
go traveling:
by plane (train):


My family support
me to exercise at
the GYM.
My friends support
me to exercise at
the GYM.
support me to
exercise at the
People around me
think that exercise
at the GYM is
Sometimes I think I
should exercise at the
I am intending to
exercise at the GYM.
I have had a plan to
exercise at the GYM.
exercise at the GYM.
I frequently exercise
at the GYM.
On average, how
many times a week
do you exercise at
the GYM:

At the end of the analysis process, the final result is:

Figure 3.3: Standardized SEM model for travel behavior model

Figure 3.5: Standardized SEM model for passenger behavior model


Figure 3.9: Standardized SEM model for GYM exerciser behavior model
At the end of the testing process of 'personal values' scale – adjusted
with service consumption behavior model, the results from data showed that
the three research hypotheses are fully supported. The specifications of the
models are satisfactory. The relevance of the model to the value data does not
exceed the threshold. Load coefficients and path coefficients are statistically

4.1. 'Personal values' and behavioral model
4.1.1. The adjusted 'personal values' scale
The results define the concept of 'personal values' in the analysis of
service consumption. The researcher did the measurement in the social
environment of Vietnam with the implications of Rokeach's concept of
'personal values – human values' that: There are still three aspects of the
SERPVAL scale - peaceful life; social recognition; social integration - and
two aspects - sentiment; consciousness - extracted from the value
components of the RVS system (Rokeach, 1973) and the LOV scale (Kahle,
1983). These five aspects represent individual psychological states (as
defined by Rokeach about values), without elements of secular (physical)
needs or means of helping individuals to exist (in accordance with the
comments of Inglehart and Welzel). This corresponds to Rokeach's 'human
values' division, which consists of four parts: 'personal values' and 'social
values' - in terms of values of obtainment; 'moral values' and 'competence
values' - in terms of value of means.
4.1.2. The concept of 'personal values' in the service consumption
behavior model
By putting 'personal values' into the behavioral model, the five dimensions
of 'personal values' scale in Vietnam are used by the researcher to measure the
underlying concept of 'personal values' in service consumption analysis. They
show quite clearly the second assumption (in 5 assumptions of Rokeach about
the values): "Everyone everywhere has the same set of values, but what does
differ from person to person is the importance given to each value. " (Rokeach,
1973, p. 3). We can understand people “everywhere” - everywhere as people
in different consumption situations. Thus, when applying behavioral model to
the survey objectives as tourists who use the tourism service, passengers who
use the transport service, or exercisers who use the fitness services, the five
components and 15 indicators of the scale were meaningful in measuring the
underlying concept of 'personal values' before putting them into the behavioral
model. But when this scale was placed in the behavioral model, the 'personal
values' aspects had different prominence in each of the different types of
services (load factors in Figure 3.3; 3.5; 3.9).

4.1.3. The impact of factors on service consumption behavior
All the three services use the same research model, test the impact of
'personal values', 'attitudes', 'subjective norm' and 'intention' on 'behavior' service
consumption. But there are two kinds of effects that exist between the factors in
the model. Specifically:
For the behavior of traveling and the behavior of using the fitness service, the
researcher identifies them as services to increase the quality of life, not the
consumers’ essential needs. The factors presenting in the test model demonstrate
the influence on the positive side of behavior. However, the impact on behavior
in the direction from the 'personal values' to 'attitude' then to 'intention' in the
tourism services and the fitness services is stronger than that in the direction from
the 'subjective norm.
Specially, the behavior of using passenger transport services is inevitable
behavior when individuals wish to move. Factors in the testing model do not
show behavioral influence. There is only a positive effect from 'subjective norm'
to 'intention', but 'intention' does not affect 'behavior'. Besides, 'attitude' does not
mean anything to 'intention'.
4.2. Implications drawn from research results for administrators
Business in service generally
For businesses: The dimensions of the scale (tranquil life, sentiment,
social recognition, consciousness, social integration) provide some
suggestions for managers to change their business strategies to higher
oriented service, towards the real needs of customers. The 'personal values'
scale with five components can be used to determine whether a marketing
strategy of a business is consistent with the consumer's expectations.
Administrators can better understand the reason for using the service, so that
they can handle more effectively.
For consumers: The 'personal values' scale identifies real needs and
provides consumers with knowledge when they choose the service.
Business in the three services:
For the tourism service: Administrators who want to increase the number of
customers using the tourism service must pay attention to the following implications:
(drawn from the SEM model, Figure 3.2)
1) The 'attitude' of an individual influences the 'intention' more than the
'subjective norm'. It means that the intention to travel will be greatly
influenced by the attitude of the individual - the individual who finds travel
as a good idea (variable V16) and an enjoyable experience (variable V17),

then the individual will always be ready to travel. The impact from the
surrounding people is weaker.
2) Individuals with high 'social recognition', 'consciousness' and
'social integration' (3 aspects of 'personal values') will have a positive
'attitude' on traveling.
So, administrators must focus on reaching out to people who have high
social status, and who have positive behavioralistic, and outwardly oriented to
exploit information from them and provide them services.
For the passenger transport service: With the goal of increasing the
number of passengers and the competition between the two types of transport
(planes and trains), the implication for administrators is as follows:
1) The 'attitude' of an individual hardly affects the 'intention' of using the
service. The 'intention' is affected only by the 'subjective norm'. It means that
the decision to use the transport service (plane or train) is affected by the
surrounding people and other factors.
2) The nature of the passenger transport service is an irrevocable service
if the individual needs to move, so the characteristic of 'personal values' does
not make sense to decide whether to use it this service or not.
So administrators only need to consider the factors that create competitive
advantages between the two types of transport (planes and trains).
For fitness services: The gym should note the following implications:
1) The main effect on 'intention' is 'attitude', and 'attitude' is strongly
influenced by 'personal values'.
2) Individuals going to the gym, who have 5 aspects of 'personal values',
play the same role.
Therefore, anyone who runs a gym needs to know: people going to the
gym are those who have full and balanced aspects of 'personal values'.

The study ended and achieved three objectives set to implement the
core content: a research on 'personal values' in service consumption in
Vietnam. Specifically:
The first objective: is to adjust the scale for the concept of 'personal
values' to fit Vietnamese market - achieved in phase 1. The 'personal
values' scale is adjusted (consisting 5 components: tranquil life,
sentiment, social recognition, consciousness, social integration).
The second objective: is to test the concept of 'personal values' and
the adjusted scale in the behavioral model in the typical service
industries in Vietnam - achieved in phase 2. The result is that the
concept of 'personal values' exists in a statistically testing model; and
that five components of the adjusted 'personal values' scale represent
value in measuring underlying concept and promote its role in the
consumption behavior model.
The third objective : is to test the reliability of the research model
used in testing the 'personal values' with consumption behavior service
– achieved in phase 2, in particular with the estimation of the Structural
Equation Model SEM for three different sectors of service consumption.
The result shows that all specifications reflecting the suitability of the
models are satisfactory.
To complete the content of the study, the author had to perform two
small study periods with four sets of independent samples. The
hypotheses in the study were mostly supported by data, resulting in high
Findings of the study:
(i) Adjusting the 'personal values' scale to fit the Vietnamese context in
studying the service consumption. It is adjusted from the currently used
scales (RVS, LOV ...).
(ii) The behavioral model used in the test is formulated from a
combination of two traditional models: VAB (Personal Values – Attitude
– Behavior) and TRA (Theory of Reasoned Action).
(iii) In particular, the concept of 'behavior' in the research model
developed by the author is direct measuring variable and is tested with data.
However, due to objective conditions, current research still has some

(i) The scope of application of research results is not broad - only in the
field of service consumption.
(ii) There is no definition of 'personal values' in the Vietnamese market
– therefore the definition of Rokeach (1973) was still used.
(iii) Narrow sample space (concentrated in Nha Trang and Ho Chi Minh
City) – therefore the overall representation of the research is limited.
Further Research Directions: The study will test the 'personal values'
scale in Vietnam with a variety of services to increase the reliability of the

Vietnamese references
Nguyễn Đình Thọ (2011). Research Methodology in business, Society
Nguyễn Xuân Lãn, Phạm Thị Lan Hương & Đường Thị Liên Hà, (2011).
Consumers’ Behavior, Financial Publisher.
Vũ Văn Hiệp & Nguyễn Thu Thuỷ (2015). The influence of personal values
on students’s choice intention to stay in Nha Trang university’s
dormitory, Journal of Fisheries science and technology, vol 3, 95 - 100.
English references
Ajzen. I. & Fishbein. M. (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social
behavior. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Gilbert,. A. & Churchill. J. R. (1979). A Paradigm for Developing Better
Measures of Marketing Constructs. Journal of Marketing Research, XVI
(February 1979), 64-73.

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