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HOÀN THIỆN MÔI TRƯỜNG KINH DOANH CHO CÁC DOANH NGHIỆP DU LỊCH VIỆT NAM TRONG TIẾN TRÌNH TOÀN cầu HÓA tt tiếng anh

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BACKGROUND
1. Necessity of the study
Surugiu (2009) unveiled that tourism significantly affects the foreign
exchange flow, infrastructure development, management technique and training
experience as well as other economic sectors, actively contributing to the socioeconomic development of a country. Tasci &Knutson's study (2004) specified that
not only in the developed countries, tourism is known as an increasingly developed
industry both in developing countries and underdeveloped countries. Tourism's fast
growth is recently recorded and acknowledged as the key economic sector of the
country. Tourism activities are eventfully carried out from cities to rural areas, from
coastal and island area to mountainous area and highland. According to Phuong Lien
(2017), Vietnam tourism was recorded with 13 million and 74 million of turns of
international tourists and domestic tourists, increase in 30% and 20%, respectively.
Total direct income from tourism hit over VND 500,000 billion, equivalent to US$ 23
billion, contributing approximately 7.5% to GDP of Vietnam.
Tourism development facilitates the rural and urban appearance
improvement, generating more jobs for the residential classes and the society.
Vietnamese business environment has been perfected for the tourism fussinesses to
develop tourism as the key economic sector even though Vietnam tourism has just
started since opening door policy since 1991. However, Vietnam tourism
development is also recorded with non-sustainability and a series of weakness

against that in other regional countries. Tourism is still recognized as a young
player. The business environment is often impacted by the globalization factors;
hence, tourism business environment is still available with an ocean of
shortcomings, adversely affecting the tourism business performance. Furthermore,
Vu Khac Chuong (2015) emphasized that: Any country which joins this process
shall become prosperous and civilized, vice versa, those reject it shall be subject to
poverty and backward.
It is essential to investigate business environment in the cut-throat competition
context of newly-born service industry to find out the feasible solutions to perfect the
business environment for tourism enterprises. That is why, the “Perfecting the
business environment for Vietnamese tourism enterprises during globalization”
topic selected for the study.
2. Tasks and objectives
2.1. Research tasks:
The research tasks are originated from the above objectives, including:
- Determine theoretical basis on business environment ’s impact on
bussiness;
- Investigate the existing conditions of business environment of available
Vietnamese tourism enterprises;


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- Verify the impact of business environment on business performance of
Vietnamese tourism enterprises.
- Propose the solutions to perfect the business environment of Vietnamese
tourism enterprises.
2.2. Objectives
Originated from the research tasks, the dissertation’s specific research
objectives include:
- Develop the analysis model of business environment impact on business
of Vietnamese tourism enterprises versus the research assumption system;
- Propose and recommend the solutions to perfect the business environment
of Vietnamese tourism enterprises.
3. Research questions
According to the research objectives, the research questions are set forth as
follows:
- What are the affecting models of business environment factors on
enterprise business?
How do factors in business environment affect Vietnam tourism
enterprises?
- Which possible solutions and recommendations are feasible to perfect the
business environment of Vietnamese tourism enterprises?
4. Subjects and scope of the research
4.1. Subjects of research
The study’s subjects cover business environment of tourism enterprises.
4.2. Scope of research
The dissertation studies the business environment of tourism enterprises
during globalization process. However, there are many approaches to enterprise ’s
business environment by different classification such as components, impact levels
to enterprise’s business and business process. Within this dissertation, the
constituent-based approach to business environment is selected by the author.
Accordingly, the business environment shall be studied by specific factors as
follows: economic environment, legal environment, socio-economic environment,
political environment, technology environment, ecology environment and global
environment.
The study is also focused on macro environment study, rather than in-depth
study on industrial environment and business environment, to make contributions
to the State management authorities to successfully control the tourism
management policies.
Scope of venue: Study at tourism enterprises in Vietnam (focusing on main
cities such as Hanoi, Hai Phong, Hue, Da Nang, Ho Chi Minh City).
Scope of time: Data are collected in the period of 2010-2017


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5. Research methodology
In order to launch the study, a series of basic research methodologies are
applied, concretely: Desk research methodology, synthesis and analysis
methodology, comparison methodology, dialectic logical methodology, statistics
methodology, etc., especially, the econometric model is also employed. Such
research methodologies are applied to collect and process:
(1) Secondary data, including: Literature review, theoretical basis on
enterprise’s business environment, constituents of business environment, tourism
enterprise's business, experience in perfecting business environment in the regional
countries, concept on globalization, characteristics and nature of globalization,
existing conditions of Vietnam tourism business, impacts of Vietnam tourism
industry's business environment, etc. Secondary data is collected through books,
newspapers, reports, course books, magazines, Internet, etc., provided by Vietnam
National Administration of Tourism, the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO),
tourism managers and researchers.
(2) Quantitative research and qualitative research methodologies are
combined. Concretely:
- Quantitative research:
Group discussion and direct interview with the tourism experts, administrators
and officials working in the departments and industries to design, develop and adjust
the scale to ensure the content value for the qualitative research.
- Qualitative research:
+ Apply the survey method by delivering the questionnaire to collect the
primary data from the subjects of the research, i.e., the administrators in Vietnam
tourism enterprises.
+ Analyze the statistics with SPSS 20 software to evaluate the impacts of
business environment factors on Vietnamese tourism enterprises’ performance.
6. New contributions of the Dissertation
6.1. Academic and theoretical contributions
By studying over 120 documents related to business environment, tourism,
and academic, new contributions of the dissertation are recorded:
- Design the new research model in good harmony with theoretical system
to explain the relations between the business environment factor with business
performance of tourism enterprises.
- Design the questionnaires with scientific basis and reliability to collect the
primary data to verify the relation between the business environment factors and
business performance of tourism enterprises.
- Affirm the business environment factors, i.e., political, economic, ecology,
socio-cultural, technology and global environment (equivalent to positive) affect the
enterprise's business performance. There is insufficient background to confirm the


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relation between the legal environment and business performance of the tourism
industry.
6.2. New recommendations originated from the findings
The analysis of existing conditions of Vietnam tourism enterprise's
business environment unveiled that: The good international environment and
ecological environment actively and significantly affects the tourism enterprise's
business. Good and stable economic environment, political environment,
technology environment actively and significantly affect the technology
environment's business activities. Moreover, no basis is found to conclude that the
stable legal environment actively affects the tourism enterprises ’ business even
though the excessive and unplanned tourism exploitation as well as the State
management measures are recorded as the weaknesses of available Vietnamese
tourism enterprises’ business environment. Furthermore, the shortcomings on
disqualified tourism human resources, poor marketing as well as infrastructure and
service physical facilities for the tourism development must be specially concerned.
By analyzing existing conditions of business environment where Vietnamese
tourism enterprises operate and conducting quantitative analysis of relation between
business environment factors and business performance of enterprise, 6 solution groups
are proposed to perfect the tourism enterprise’s business environment in the coming time.
7. Structure
In addition to the background, conclusions, list of references, list of figures
and appendix, the study is divided into 5 chapters:
Chapter 1: Overview of dissertation-related studies
Chapter 2: Literature review on business environment of tourism enterprises
Chapter 3: Research methodology
Chapter 4: Existing conditions of business environment of available Vietnamese
tourism enterprises.
Chapter 5: Solutions to perfect the business environment of Vietnamese tourism
enterprises

CHAPTER 1
LITERATURE REVIEW ON PREVIOUS STUDIES
1.1. Overview of studies
1.1.1. Overview about the studies on globalization
Globalization is a trend that the investment funds and domestic enterprises
are required to overcome the domestic market to successfully penetrate into other
global markets because a better competitive position and lower operating costs are
offered to the organizations to archive the great bulk of products, services and
consumers (Incekara & Mesut 2012, p.23-30).


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1.1.2. Overview about the studies on business environment
Chi (2009, p.545-555) summarized the studies on business environment,
shown in table below:
Author

Contributions

(Duncan 1972,
pg.313-327)

Identify customers, rivals, technology and managers as key
factors of business environment.

(Howard 1979)

Develop the theoretical framework on environment-based
aspects in accordance with two viewpoints on natural
resources and population ecology of the organizations.

(Mintzberg 1979)

Firstly propose a 4D framework, demonstrating the overall
characteristics of business environment: Noteworthy is their
level on diversification, complication, dynamics and
threatening.

(Van Dierdonck &
Miller 1980, pg.3746)

Propose a concept model on affiliating the competitive
strategy and design the production management system,
detect the important standby environment, suggest on
significance of considering uncertainty and complication
of environment as context for the operating strategy

(Dess 1984, pg.5273)

Propose and test 3 essential characteristics of environment:
Threat, dynamics and complication

(Wernerfelt & Karani
1987, pg.187-194)

Indicate that environment uncertainty is an important issue
and suggest 4 aspects of environment uncertainty: demand,
supply, competition and inclusive unforeseeable cases.
Instability is increasingly high, resulting in more
unforeseeable and dynamic business environment.

(Swamidass &
Neweli 1987,
pg.509-524)

Setup the significance of business environment as a key
causal factor in operating strategy - successfully
connecting with business performance. Prove that the
dynamic environment shall be dynamic for the enterprises
to focus more on flexible production.

(Kotha & Orne 1989,
pg.211-223)

Assume that suppliers, customers and geographical scope are
important factors to master the environmental conditions.

(Ward/Duray…1995,
pg.99-115)

Remarkable impacts of dynamics and disadvantages from
environment with application of competition strategies and
business performance

(Fine 1998)

Business environment condition varies; company chain
and competition priorities must be properly adjusted.
Otherwise, business performance may be adversely


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Author

Contributions
affected.

(Smith & Reece
1999, pg.145-161)

Environment-associated strategies aim to obtain the high
performance

(Tan/Ghosh…1999,
pg. 1034-1052)

Prove that the competition environment may directly affect
the enterprise’s business performance

(Ward & Duray
2000, pg.123-138)

Prove that consideration of competition strategies and
production strategies of a company must be in dynamic
environment. An inappropriateness between business
environment and competition strategy of the company and
production strategy shall result in lower performance

(Randal & Morgan
2003, pg.430-443)

Business environment is characterized by remarkable statistic
impact on selecting supply chain of company and overall
performance

Source: Chi (2009)
Two main study forms on business environment are available in Vietnam
(Nguyen Duc Thanh/ To Trung Thanh..... 2009, p.4).
The first form is the annual report, evaluating various items of business
environment.
The second form is the in-depth surveys on some main aspects of
business environment.
1.2. Gap and research issue
The study focuses on synchronously investigating all business
environment factors available in a study model and evaluating the impacts of
business environment factors to the tourism enterprise's performance. The study is
applied for the Vietnam tourism enterprises.

CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW ON BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT OF TOURISM
ENTERPRISES
2.1. Enterprise’s business environment
2.1.1. Concept and viewpoint on enterprise’s business environment
2.1.1.1 Tourism enterprise


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Tourism enterprises refer to the special corporate and business forms,
mainly involving in the organization, construction, selling and launching the
package tourism program for the tourists. Moreover, it may initiate the
intermediary activities, i.e., selling products offered by the tourism product/service
providers or other general business activities to ensure that the tourist ’s demands
are successfully satisfied from the first phase to the last one during their tourism
journey. Tourism service refers to provision of services on travel, transportation,
residence, foods, entertainment, information, guideline and others to satisfy the
tourist demands.
2.1.1.2 Enterprise’s business environment
Enterprise’s business environment is known as a collection of (intrinsic
and extrinsic) mutually affected factors, directly and indirectly affecting the
enterprise’s business activities (Ngo Kim Thanh 2013, Nguyen Ngoc Huyen 2015).
2.1.2. Characteristics of business environment
Business environment is characterized by the following:
- Objective necessity
- Generability
- Diversity
- Dynamic features
- Complexity
- Systematicality
2.1.3. Constituents of enterprise’s business environment
2.1.3.1. Economic environment
2.1.3.2. Political and legal environment
2.1.3.3. Socio-economic environment
2.1.3.4. Technology environment
2.1.3.5. Natural environment
2.1.3.6. Global environment
2.1.4. Role of business environment for enterprise
2.2. Tourism enterprise's business
2.2.1. Concept on business activities
2.2.2. Tourism enterprise's business
2.2.3. Factors affecting the tourism business performance
2.2.4. Business environment impact on enterprise’s business activities
2.3. Experiences on perfecting business environment for tourism enterprises
2.3.1. Experience of Thailand


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2.3.2. Experience of Singapore
2.3.3. Experience of China
2.3.4. Some lessons for Vietnam
2.4. Globalization
2.4.1. Concept on globalization
2.4.2. Concept on tourism globalization
2.4.3. Nature and characteristics
2.5. Research model and assumptions
2.5.1. Research model
According to the literature review, the research model is
proposed as follows:

Economic
environment

Political
environment

Global
environment

Business
performance

Socio-economic
environment

Technology
environment

Natural
environment

Figure 2.2. Research model
Source: Collection by the author
2.5.2. Research assumptions
Fig. 1: Stable economic factor actively impacts on tourism enterprise ’s
business activities.
Fig. 2: Stable political factor actively impacts on tourism enterprise ’s


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business activities.
Fig. 3: Good technology factor actively impacts on tourism enterprise ’s
business activities.
Fig. 4: Good socio-economic factor actively impacts on tourism enterprise ’s
business activities.
H5: Transperant and clear legal factor actively impacts on tourism
enterprise’s business activities.
Fig. 6: Good international environment factor actively impacts on tourism
enterprise’s business activities.
Fig. 7: Good natural environment factor actively impacts on tourism
enterprise’s business activities.

CHAPTER 3
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1. Research process
3.2. Data collection method
3.2.1. Primary source
3.2.2. Secondary source
3.2.2.1. Questionnaire design
3.2.2.2. Sampling method
3.3. Data processing method


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CHAPTER 4
EXISTING CONDITIONS OF BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT OF
AVAILABLE VIETNAMESE TOURISM ENTERPRISES
4.1. Overview about Vietnam tourism environment
4.1.1. Introduction about Vietnam tourism
Vietnam is a country with diversified and abundant tourism potential. It is
recognized as a great potential to successfully develop the tourism, supported by a
diversified natural landscape, a series of beauty spots, long-time cultural tradition
with various festivals and good and unique habits and customs, regional and
historical relics, unique art architecture deeply submerged with humanism,
abundant, intelligent, hardworking and kind-hearted human resources.
4.1.2. Vietnam tourism development policy
The Law on Tourism (amended) was officially ratified in 2017 by the
National Assembly, creating the favorable legal corridor for Vietnam tourism
development in the new area.
4.1.3. Vietnam tourism potential
4.1.4. Socio-economic impacts of tourism economic development
- Vietnam is offered with great opportunities by tourism during transforming
from an agricultural economy to service-based economy.
- Tourism improves the budget income for the tourism development areas,
actively facilitating the improvement of national income and redistribution of
national income among regions.
- Tourism accelerates development of other economic sectors.
- Tourism makes use of other economic sector’s physical facilities.
- Tourism not only offers jobs to many female but a great chance for the
advancement of women.
4.2. Existing conditions of business of available Vietnamese tourism
enterprises
4.2.1. Tourism infrastructure
Table 4.1. International travels in the period of 2005 - 2017
Year
j
2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
The Stateown
119 94 85 69 68 58 13
9
9
8
7
5
5
enterprise
Liability
limited
222 276 350 389 462 527 621 731 845 949 1,012 1,081 1,164
company
Joint Stock
74 119 169 227 249 285 327 371 428 474 475 489 556
Company
Private
3
4
4
4
4
5
4
6
8
9 10 10 11


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enterprise
Joint Venture
10 11 12 12 12 13 15 15 15 15 15 15 16
Company
Total
428 504 620 701 795 888 980 1,132 1,305 1,456 1,519 1,600 1,752
Source: Vietnam National Administration of Tourism
- Infrastructure in general and tourism infrastructure in particular have
been remarkably improved, the airway, waterway and road traffic systems, etc.,
have been ceaselessly invested, expanded and upgraded; the energy, ICT and other
socio-economic infrastructure is basically renovated to facilitate the tourism
development. Up to now, about 10 international airports are available nationwide,
including Noi Bai and Tan Son Nhat International Airport with high occupancy; the
seaport, terminal and station systems are gradually improved to satisfy the traveling
and tourism demands.
Table 4.2. Residing facilities in the period of 2009 - 2017
Year
2009 2010 2011 2012 2014 2015 2016 2017
Number of facilities
11,467 12,352 13,756 15,381 16,000 18,800 21,000 25,600
Growth (%)
10.2
7.7 11.4 11.8
- 18.7 10.5 21.9
Number of rooms
216,675237,111256,739277,661332,000355,000420,000508,000
Growth (%)
6.9
9.4
8.3
8.1
- 11.4 13.5 21.0
Average occupancy rate
56.9 58.3 59.7 58.8
55
57 56.5
(%0
Source: Vietnam National Administration of Tourism
4.2.2. Human resources of tourism industry
- Tourism is known as one of the industries generating the most jobs in the
world, covering every corner in the areas from rural areas, cities and especially the
remote areas.
- Tourism’s great contribution is found to successfully eliminate the
poverty and transforming the rural economic structure.
4.2.3. Tourism products
Tourism products have been gradually formed such as landscape visit,
heritage visit and relic visit; sea and mountain-based leisure tourism; spiritual and
festival tourism. Tourism products connected with Vietnam culinary are also
recognized by the market. Some new tourism products such as sport-adventure
tourism, eco-tourism, MICE tourism, etc., are recently developed.
4.2.4. Tourism promotion activities
Thanks to tourism development, the national image and destinations are
widely popularized in both Vietnam and other countries, creating an active
recognition on images of Vietnamese country and human, improving the prestige in
the international arena.


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4.2.5. Tourism business performance in the period of 2008 - 2017
Table 4.3. Total income from tourism in the period of 2008 - 2017
Unit: VND 1,000 billion
Items

2008 2009 2010 2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

Gross income
60.00 68.00 96.00 130.00 160.00 200.00 230.00 338.00 400.00 510.90
from tourism
Growth rate
7.1 13.3 41.2 35.4 23.1 25.00 15.0 46.9 18.4 27.78
(%)
Source: Vietnam National Administration of Tourism
4.3. Shortcomings
- Travel information management is concerned.
- Excessive exploitation and unplanned development are found in many
provinces and cities where fail to thoroughly consider the advantages of the tourism
resources.
- Vietnam is kept further behind the developed countries regarding number
of hospitality management human resources.
- Tourism management models and methods are found with a series of
weakness.
- Legal system is not perfected.
- Vietnam tour operator’s competitiveness is much poorer than that of foreign tour
operators.
4.4. Investigate the business environment of Vietnamese tourism enterprises
4.4.1. Descriptive statistics
Various evaluations in terms of independent variables’ factor roles and
impacts are caused by differences between the subgroups of study samples (Kotler
& Keller 2012).
4.4.1.1. Gender
The analysis results in the chart unveiled that the study sample includes 198
males (accounting for 63%) and 118 females (accounting for 37%). The research
samples were characterized by remarkable difference in gender. It was implied the
difference in attitude and evaluation of the interviewee against the factors ’ impact
on dependent variables.


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Gender

Male
Female

Figure 4.1. Sample statistics by gender
Source: The author's calculation from survey data
4.4.1.2. Age
Analysis results in Fig. 3 unveiled that the age group of 30-40 (group 2)
makes up 55% of samples. This age range was suitable for managers. Because the
respondents focused on business managers and researchers, the number of
respondents within the age of less than 30 only made up 14% which was
completely suitable.

Age

Over 50

Figure 4.2. Sample statistics by age
Source: The author's calculation from survey data
4.4.1.3. Qualification


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The survey results revealed that the respondent qualification is relatively
high, up to 62% of respondents had university qualification and 21% of
postgraduate qualification. This was extremely advantage for the survey.

Qualification
High school

Vocational
school/college

Figure 4.3. Sample statistics by qualification
Source: The author's calculation from survey data
4.4.1.4. Income
The survey results unveiled that majority of respondents have income of
over VND 10 million/month. Only 4 respondents had income of less than VND 10
million (accounting for 1%). Comparing with the average income in Hanoi (VND
60 million/year), income of respondent was relatively high.


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Income
Less than VND 10
million
VND 10 -20 million
VND 20 -40 million
VND 40 -60 million
Over VND 60
million

Figure 4.4. Sample statistics by income
Source: The author's calculation from survey data
4.4.1.5. Operating experience
With operating experience in the fields of tourism, over 66% of surveyed
enterprises had operating experience of over 3 years. Number of surveyed
enterprises operating less than 1 year made up small rate (only 7%). With such
survey sample, the survey quality would be successfully assured.

Operating experience
Less than 1 year
1-3 years
3-5 years
Over 5 years

Figure 4.5. Sample statistics by operating experiences
Source: The author's calculation from survey data
4.4.2. Exploratory factor analysis and scale test
4.4.2.1. Scale verification
Table 4.5. Summary of variables’ Cronchbach’s Alpha coefficient


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Item-Total Statistics
Code

Scale Mean if
Item Deleted

Scale Variance if Corrected Item- Cronbach's Alpha
Item Deleted Total Correlation if Item Deleted

Legal environment scale Cronbach’s Alpha = 0.703
leg1
10.64
3,927
.489
leg2
10.82
3,437
.588
leg3
10.65
4,128
.497
leg4
10.74
3,926
.395
Economic environment scale Cronbach’s Alpha = 0.810
eco1
13.67
8,432
.538
eco2
13.56
8,228
.573
eco3
13.69
8,265
.642
eco4
13.80
8,076
.644
eco5
13.73
7,840
.595
Ecological environment scale Cronbach’s Alpha = 0.713
env1
10.87
3,381
.501
env2
10.88
3,414
.570
env3
11.00
3,470
.554
env4
11.08
4,286
.383
Political environment scale Cronbach’s Alpha = 0.808
pol1
20.80
15,250
.543
pol2
20.83
14,932
.570
pol3
21.20
14,556
.559
pol4
21.15
15,098
.495
pol5
21.35
15,047
.510
pol6
21.03
14,545
.551
pol7
21.04
15,033
.576
International environment scale Cronbach’s Alpha = 0.769
gob1
10.34
5,026
.514
gob2
10.17
4,610
.625
gob3
10.27
4,376
.616
gob4
10.22
4,700
.528
Socio-economic environment scale Cronbach’s Alpha = 0.760
soc1
17.30
10,161
.493
soc2
17.70
9,514
.594
soc3
17.56
9,803
.542
soc4
17.33
10,108
.465
soc5
17.45
9,588
.511
soc6
17.29
10,596
.402

.639
.571
.638
.702
.791
.780
.761
.759
.775
.652
.606
.616
.713
.783
.778
.780
.791
.789
.781
.777
.741
.685
.688
.736
.727
.699
.714
.734
.722
.749


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Item-Total Statistics
Code

Scale Mean if
Item Deleted

Scale Variance if Corrected Item- Cronbach's Alpha
Item Deleted Total Correlation if Item Deleted

Technology environment scale Cronbach’s Alpha = 0.717
tec1
9.63
5,510
.400
.713
tec2
9.69
5,060
.506
.653
tec3
9.94
4,467
.602
.591
tec4
9.82
4,880
.513
.649
Business activity scale Cronbach’s Alpha = 0.759
eff1
11.26
3,182
.472
.749
eff2
11.25
2,923
.536
.717
eff3
11.21
2,704
.671
.636
eff4
10.93
3,348
.574
.702
Source: The author's calculation from survey data
The calculation results of Cronchbach’s Alpha coefficient unveiled that
reliability is secured, the Cronchbach’s Alpha coefficient of variables is over 0.7
and variable- total correlation coefficient obtained over 0.3. Therefore, data
collected through the study’s questionnaires was completely reliable to conduct the
next steps.
4.4.2.2. Exploratory factor analysis


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Table 4.6.

Component
1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

eco3
.730
eco4
.708
eco2
.633
eco5
.624
eco1
.616
gob2
.712
gob3
.683
gob1
.570
gob4
.567
pol7
.750
pol6
.731
pol4
.545
soc6
.624
soc2
.575
leg1
.765
leg2
.712
leg3
.647
eff4
.836
eff3
.833
eff2
.632
tec3
.778
tec4
.622
tec2
.555
pol2
.756
pol1
.741
pol3
.553
env3
env2
env1
Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.
Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization.
a. Rotation converged in 18 iterations.
Source: The author's calculation from survey data

9

.607
.592
.520


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Table 4.7. KMO and Barlett’s Test
Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy.
Approx. Chi-Square
Bartlett's Test of Sphericity
df
Sig.

.888
5012.411
703
.000

The testing results unveiled that Sig. = 0.000 < 5% (corresponding to value
of KMO Test of 0.888), the original assumptions may be rejected. This meant that
the sufficient statistics evidences prove that EFA application is suitable for data
analysis.
Moreover, the results of Total Variance Explained (TVE) from the model
were also reflected in table below:
Table 4.8. (TVE)
(TVE)
Initial Eigenvalues
Compone
nt

Extraction Sums of
Squared Loadings

Rotation Sums of
Squared Loadings

% of
% of
% of
Cumulativ
Cumulativ Tota
Cumulativ
Total Varianc
Total Varianc
Varianc
e%
e%
l
e%
e
e
e

1

10.46
27.551
9

27.551

10.46
27.551
9

2

2.434

6.406

33.957 2.434

6.406

3

2.045

5.383

39.340 2.045

5.383

4

1.843

4.851

44.191 1.843

4.851

5

1.594

4.194

48.385 1.594

4.194

6

1.407

3.704

52.088 1.407

3.704

7

1.285

3.381

55.469 1.285

3.381

8

1.214

3.196

58.665 1.214

3.196

3.33
5
2.87
33.957
7
2.73
39.340
3
2.62
44.191
7
27.551

2.53
7
2.53
52.088
0
2.38
55.469
5
2.27
58.665
2
48.385

8.777

8.777

7.572

16.349

7.193

23.542

6.913

30.455

6.676

37.131

6.657

43.788

6.275

50.064

5.978

56.042


20
9

1.028

2.705

61.370 1.028

10

.969

2.549

63.920

2.705

61.370

2.02
5

5.329

61.370

Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.
Source: The author's calculation from survey data
4.4.3. Regression analysis and assumption test
Upon exploratory factor analysis, 9 factors were drawn out, corresponding to 8
environment variables (2 factors generated for the political environment variables
alone: “Political environment 1 demonstrating the impact of the Government ’s
policies; “Political environment 2 demonstrates the Government’s transparency,
less corruption and bribe) and 1 enterprise’s business variables:
X1: Economic environment
X2: Global environment
X3: Political environment 1 (political policies)
X4: Socio-economic environment
X5: Legal environment
X6: Technology environment
X7: Political environment 2 (transparency)
X8: Ecological environment
EFF: Tourism enterprise's business
The regression analysis results were shown as follows:
Table 4.9. Regression analysis results
Coefficientsa
Model

1

Unstandardized
Coefficients

Standardized
Coefficients

t

Sig.

140,051

.000

B

Std. Error

Beta

(Constant)

3,720

.027

X1

.072

.027

.128

2,690

.008

X2

.116

.027

.208

4,376

.000

X3

.132

.027

.236

4,952

.000

X4

.166

.027

.296

6,221

.000

X5

-.007

.027

-.013

-.274

.784

X6

.063

.027

.113

2,380

.018


21
X7

.074

.027

.132

2,770

.006

X8

.150

.027

.268

5,625

.000

a. Dependent Variable: EFF
The regression analysis results unveiled that the variables with the highest
impact on tourism enterprises’ performance included X4 (Socio-economic
environment), X8 (Ecological environment), X3 (Political environment 1), X2
(Global environment). This result was used as the basis to set up the solutions to
perfect the business environment for tourism enterprises.
Table 4.10. Summary of conclusion on research assumptions
Mark of
With statistic
Conclusions on
respective
Assumptions
meanings at
research
regression
50%
assumptions
coefficient
H1

+

Yes

Accept

H2

+

Yes

Accept

H3

+

Yes

Accept

H4

+

Yes

Accept

H5

-

No

Reject

H6

+

Yes

Accept

H7

+

Yes

Accept

Assumed that H5 (X5 variable) due to sig. = 0.784 > 5%, therefore it was
rejected. It is possible to conclude that the legal environment has impact on tourism
enterprises’ business performance.
Table 4.11. Anova analysis
ANOVAa
Model
1

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

Regression

30,022

8

3,753

16,833

.000b

Residual

68,442

307

.223

Total

98,464

315

a. Dependent Variable: EFF
b. Predictors: (Constant), X8, X7, X6, X5, X4, X3, X2, X1
Results in ANOVA analysis table with statistics F = 16.833 and value Sig. =
0.000 < 5%, all variables in the regression model have the same impact on


22
dependent variable (Gujarati, D. N., & Porter, D. C. , 2009).
Moreover, variables in the model explained 66.4% change in dependent
variables. According to the standards on model appropriateness proposed by (Gujarati
& Porter 2009), the research model was assumed to be extremely suitable for
explanation of dependent variable behavior.
Above regression analysis specified 8 factors (considered to be 8 variables)
used to explain 66.4% fluctuation of dependent variables (due to R2 = 0.664). This
implied that the model’s explanation level or the model appropriateness is high.
This fact was shown in table below
Table 4.12. Model summary

Model

R

R Square

Adjusted R Square

Std. Error of the
Estimate

1

.815a

.664

.643

.47216322

a. Predictors: (Constant), X8, X7, X6, X5, X4, X3, X2, X1
Therefore, 6/7 assumptions set forth in Chapter 1 were accepted; only 1
assumption was rejected. Moreover, due to positive mark of regression coefficient,
the business performance of tourism enterprises may be successfully improved if
the business environment factors are completed.
4.4.4. Discussion of main findings
According to the regression model results, some conclusions on
assumptions are drawn out as follows:
First, Stable economic factor actively impacts on tourism enterprise ’s
business activities. This result is well matched with the main findings of Griffin
(1997).
Second, Stable political factor actively impacts on tourism enterprise ’s
business activities.
Third, Good technology environment factor actively impacts on tourism
enterprise’s business activities. This result is well matched with the main findings
of Adeoye (2012).
Forth, Good socio-economic environment factor actively impacts on
tourism enterprise’s business activities.
Fifth, No reliable backgrounds are available to conclude that transparent
and clear legal environment has positive impact on tourism enterprise's business


23
performance (The assumption is not accepted).
Sixth, Good international environment factor actively impacts on tourism
enterprise’s business activities. According to the regression results, such factor's
significant impact is found on the tourism enterprise’s activities.
Seventh, good ecological environment factor actively impacts on tourism
enterprise’s business activities. Ecological environment factor is found with sharp
impact on tourism enterprise’s business activities.
Conclusions: Through the analysis of Vietnam tourism enterprise's
business environment from primary and secondary data sources with various
collected data processing methods, it is realized that: The good international
environment and ecological environment actively and significantly affects the
tourism enterprise's business. Good and stable economic environment, political
environment, technology environment actively and significantly affect the
technology environment's business activities. Moreover, no basis is found to
conclude that the stable legal environment actively affects the tourism enterprises’
business even though the excessive and unplanned tourism exploitation as well as
the State management measures are recorded as the weaknesses of available
Vietnamese tourism enterprises’

business environment. Furthermore, the

shortcomings on disqualified tourism human resources, poor marketing as well as
infrastructure and service physical facilities for the tourism development must be
specially concerned. This is a reliable basis for the author to recommend the
solutions described in Chapter 5 herein.
CHAPTER 5
SOLUTIONS TO PERFECT THE BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT OF
VIETNAMESE TOURISM ENTERPRISES
5.1. General evaluation on viewpoints and objectives to develop Vietnam
tourism industry
5.1.1. Viewpoints and objectives to develop Vietnam tourism industry
The Decision No. 2473/QD-TTg on approving “Vietnam tourism
development strategy to 2020 with vision to 2030 ” was approved on 30 December
2011 by the Deputy Prime Minister Nguyen Thien Nhan. The strategy specifies the


24
main contents, relating to viewpoints, objectives, solutions and specific action plan.
5.1.2. Analysis of strength, weakness, opportunities and challenges for Vietnam
tourism enterprise
STRENGTH

WEAKNESS

1. Diversified tourism resources

1. Poor management of tourism resource

2. Abundant resources for tourism
development

operation

3. Tourism development policies focused
by the State

infrastructure and physical facilities

4. Long-year experience in tourism
development

2.

Poor

and

disqualified

technical

3. Insufficiency of high quality tourism
human resources
4. Poor tourism marketing
5. Insufficient capital and technology
6. Poor State management on tourism

OPPORTUNITIES

THREATS

1. Intensive economic integration
2.
Knowledge-based
development trend

economy

3. Sharp development of the global
tourism
4. Favorable geographical position

1. Increasingly cut-throat international
competition
2. Climate change
3. Ever-changing world tourism demand
4. Unstable politics and economics in the
partnership
markets

countries

and

traditional

5.2. Solution for perfecting business environment for Vietnamese tourism
enterprises in globalization process
5.2.1. Solution group to perfect the global environment
5.2.1.1. Focus on improving international competitiveness to plan and launch the
development of tourism resources and products
5.2.1.2. Improve the awareness on tourism globalization
5.2.1.3. Enhance the tourism management connection with the world


25
5.2.1.4. Continue launching open policies
5.2.2. Solution group on ecological environment and tourism environment
protection
5.2.3. Solution group to perfect socio-economic environment
First, acquire the cultural integration by selecting values from other cultures.
Second, prevent and fight against intrusion of hazardous cultural products.
Third, introduce Vietnam history, country, people and culture to the world.
5.2.4. Solution group on application of science and technology
Improve the quality of science and technology in Tourism
Enhance application of science and technology for tourism operation
5.2.5. Solution group to perfect the legal environment
- Amend the Law on Tourism to be well matched with the practice on tourism
development and international commitments.
- Review and strengthen the legal documents on tourism.
5.2.6. Solution group on human resources


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