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Application of land readjustment toolfor upgrading urban poor neighborhood TRA VINH CASE STUDY

SUSTAINABLE URBAN DEVELOPMENT – APPLICABLE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
VGU, 2015

Dr. Hieu, NGUYEN NGOC
SUD, VGU


INTRODUCTION

1.

LPR concept

2.

LPR in Vietnam

3.

Tra Vinh case study


4.

Discussion

10/13/2015

Dr. Hieu Nguyen Ngoc 2015

2


LR CONCEPT

Basic concept

Land pooling: pool
into a mass before
readjustment

Land Re-adjustment:
re-parceling without
pooling into a mass

Land sharing: haves
share with the havenots
10/13/2015

Land consolidation:
rural area, merge
plots & reorganise

Dr. Hieu Nguyen Ngoc 2015

3


LR CONCEPT

Case of Bhuj, Gujarat, India

Before

After

Source: Mukherji, Anuradha. 2001. Negotiating Housing Recovery: Why Some Communities Recovered While Others Struggled To
Rebuild In Post-earthquake Urban Kutch, India. Master Thesis, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas.
10/13/2015

Dr. Hieu Nguyen Ngoc 2015

4


LR CONCEPT

Applications

Sweden
Finland

Columbia

The
Germany
Netherlands
France
Japan
Turkey
Spain
South Korea
Iraq
Israel Iran N
China
e Bhutan Taiwan
India
pa Thailand
Philippines
Ethiopia l
Indonesia
Angola
Australia

Chile

10/13/2015

Dr. Hieu Nguyen Ngoc 2015

5

Source: Hong Yu-Hung, 2015


LR CONCEPT

10/13/2015

Applications

Dr. Hieu Nguyen Ngoc 2015

6

Source: Hong Yu-Hung, 2015


LR CONCEPT

10/13/2015

Applications

Dr. Hieu Nguyen Ngoc 2015

7


LPR IN VIETNAM

Application in small
scale of community
housing development

Premature situation

Unestablished legal
support

Rural land
consolidation
experience

10/13/2015

Donation tradition, not
professional
readjustment

Concept introduced
and being piloted in
development project
(Tra Vinh)

Dr. Hieu Nguyen Ngoc 2015

8


LPR IN VIETNAM

Community housing development

Hai Duong city

Tan An city

ACVN COMMUNITY
DEVELOPMENT
PROGRAM 2010-2013
Viet Tri city

10/13/2015

OTHER LAND CONTRIBUTION &
DONATION FOR DEVELOPMENT
PROJECT
Dr. Hieu Nguyen Ngoc 2015

Vinh city

9


LPR IN VIETNAM

Community housing development in Hai Duong

Before

After

• Small scale – 12 households in the same lane
• Full support of local authority as a pilot project
• Rely on technical support and funding from ACVN Cities Alliance
10/13/2015

Dr. Hieu Nguyen Ngoc 2015

10


LPR IN VIETNAM

Community housing development in Vinh city

Before

After

• Small but larger scale 29 households, 1,800m2
• No regulation, piloted and ad-hoc support
10/13/2015

Dr. Hieu Nguyen Ngoc 2015

11


LPR IN VIETNAM

For and against

Support

Un-support

• Land law enables
community development
approach (though unclear)
• Land exchange/
consolidation
tradition/experience
• Political support to have
pilot project
• Technical assistance
available (international)

• Administrative red tape
context
• Unprofessional planner
working on negotiation
based development
• Inexperienced stakeholders
• Law not yet specified
• Culture of exchange
unprecedented

10/13/2015

Dr. Hieu Nguyen Ngoc 2015

12


TRA VINH CASE
STUDY

Tra Vinh city

City class III (2010), 9 wards
109000 people (2015)

Area: 68km2, density 1607/km2
Growth
10/13/2015 rate: 1.05%
Dr. Hieu Nguyen Ngoc 2015

13


TRA VINH CASE
STUDY

Site location

~10ha inside, 236hh incl.
adjacent to the boundary

10/13/2015

Next to the city centre
Inside the built up area
Unplanned development - poor
neighborhood
Dr. Hieu Nguyen Ngoc 2015
14


10/13/2015

Dr. Hieu Nguyen Ngoc 2015

15


TRA VINH CASE
STUDY

Project rationale

WB willingness to
support & Tra
Vinh buy in

Lack of budget to
compensate land
to develop class
III infrastructure

Poor serviced,
flood prone, poor
neighborhood

Proposal for road
crossing by the
site
Buy in
reasons

10/13/2015

Dr. Hieu Nguyen Ngoc 2015

16


TRA VINH CASE
STUDY

Suspending
over time and
revised

LIA first then
urban
upgrading
project

Overlapping & other issues

Lack of budget
for
compensation

Mount up self
development
problems

Poor
households
objections –
small size HH

Concerns

LIA upgrading - orange
Urban upgrading - blue
10/13/2015

Dr. Hieu Nguyen Ngoc 2015

Source: Shirley Ballaney, 2015
17


TRA VINH CASE
STUDY

Consensus
inside mixed
developed

Increase land
values and
benefit

Boundary selection

Fair and just
outside &
inside?

Minimize
compensation
– cost benefit

Selection for
the majority
support –
inside/outside

Boundary
selection

LIA upgrading - orange
Urban upgrading - blue
10/13/2015

Dr. Hieu Nguyen Ngoc 2015

Source: Shirley Ballaney, 2015
18


TRA VINH CASE
STUDY

Other considerations

Political
Commitment

Financing

Community
social capital

Market
needs

Professional
capacity

Legal support

10/13/2015

Source: Nobou Geley, 2015

Dr. Hieu Nguyen Ngoc 2015

19


TRA VINH CASE
STUDY

LR project cycle
Initiate
Plan

Evaluate

Physical
implementation

Consult

Collect cash & Pay
compensation

Revise &
Finalize
Approve

10/13/2015

Dr. Hieu Nguyen Ngoc 2015

20


TRA VINH CASE
STUDY

Planning & design directions

City project
feasibility

Infrastructure –
transport &
flood problem –
local issues

10/13/2015

Time & financial
constraint to
merge 2 projects

Project
planning &
design
directions
Dr. Hieu Nguyen Ngoc 2015

Consensus
building
approach – but
Vietnam context

21


TRA VINH CASE
STUDY

Project phasing

Preparation – 2015-09

Preliminary study
Establish working
groups and organization
support

Feasibility 2016-03

Design & introduce plan

Implementation 2016-12

Data collection

Second meetingrevision

Plan disclosed & 4th
meeting on
implementation

Training negotiation

Third – wrap up

Monitoring training

Plan approval

Monitoring process of
implementation

10/13/2015

First meeting feedback

Dr. Hieu Nguyen Ngoc 2015

22


TRA VINH CASE
STUDY

Guiding rules

Small land
exception –
alternative
move out

2/3 consent

Minority
subjects to
majority and
private to
public interest

Avoid and
minimize
destruction &
resettlement

Area-based
contribution
(+cash) with
exceptions of
conversion options
10/13/2015

Guiding
rules
Dr. Hieu Nguyen Ngoc 2015

Transparency &
monitored by
community

23


TRA VINH CASE
STUDY

Economic viability analysis (proposal) - discussion

Site analysis,
insertion area

Calculation of
value before each
POOLING plot &
total

Grid design &
variant

Calculation of
space
requirement for
infrastructure

Calculation of
space for
recovering cost of
development

Calculation of
estimated
revenue

Calculation of
development cost

Calculation of
property & land
compensation

Calculation of
receivable land to
each contributor
& cash transfer

REDESIGN
GROUPS AND
BOUNDARY TO
MAXIMIZE THE
GAIN AFTER
NEGOTIATION

Calculation of
total contribution

10/13/2015

Calculation of
value increase
(RATE OF GAIN)

Dr. Hieu Nguyen Ngoc 2015

24


TRA VINH CASE
STUDY

Higher price
to road
accessibility

Lower price to
small façade
plot

Land value analysis by plot feature & accesssibility

Lower price to
agricultural
land

Lower price to
large plot

Source: Hieu, Nguyen, 2015
10/13/2015

Dr. Hieu Nguyen Ngoc 2015

25


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