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TRANSFORMATION OF HOCHIMINH CITY TO a METROPOLIS regional coordination issues

SOUTH-EAST ASIA URBAN SYSTEMS WORKSHOP

TRANSFORMATION OF HOCHIMINH CITY
TO A METROPOLIS
Regional coordination issues

Dr. Nguyen Ngoc Hieu, 2017
1


DEVELOPMENT BACKGROUND
REGIONAL COORDINATION
PORT’S COMPETITION
DISCUSSION

Hochiminh city aerial view, travip 2015.

Urban systems in South East Asia

Nguyen Ngoc Hieu


2


DEVELOPMENT BACKGROUND

Disctrict 1 – CBD 2015.
Urban systems in South East Asia

Nguyen Ngoc Hieu

3


DEVELOPMENT BACKGROUND

Hochiminh city








Largest population city
National economic hub & driver
International & regional
connecting role
Kernel of the most dynamic
region
2095 km2
8.2 million

Urban systems in South East Asia

Nguyen Ngoc Hieu

4


DEVELOPMENT BACKGROUND

Fast growth



Population grows 2%
recently
Spatial growth double
its rate

HCMC population 19952015
9000000
8000000
7000000
6000000
5000000
4000000
3000000
2000000
1000000
0

Climate change and adaptation atlas for Hochiminh city, VCAPS, 2013

1995
1997
1999
2001
2003
2005
2007
2009
2011
2013
2015

4.50%
4.00%
3.50%
3.00%
2.50%
2.00%
1.50%
1.00%
0.50%
0.00%

HCMC population

Urban systems in South East Asia
HCMC population growth rate

Nguyen Ngoc Hieu

5


DEVELOPMENT BACKGROUND

Historical review



Expansion
during wartime
Only to the
North

Dupa introduction to HCMC planning, 2012
Urban systems in South East Asia

Nguyen Ngoc Hieu

6


DEVELOPMENT BACKGROUND

Settlement pattern




Compact city
One large core – old centre
Sprawling to the South Eastern economic
region: 30.000km2, 16 mill, in 8 provinces

Landsat map, internet, 2015.

Source: author using census data 2009.
Urban systems in South East Asia

Nguyen Ngoc Hieu

7


DEVELOPMENT BACKGROUND

2008 regional plan for a metropolis (under
revision)



Multi nodal
pattern
Metro links to
regional cities

Urban systems in South East Asia

Nguyen Ngoc Hieu

8


DEVELOPMENT BACKGROUND

2012 plan inward development



Go East, South,
and other
directions
Make use of
available
territorial
resources

Dupa introduction to HCMC planning, 2012
Urban systems in South East Asia

Nguyen Ngoc Hieu

9


DEVELOPMENT BACKGROUND

Housing disparity
& urban poor
• Slum areas
• Segregation
deepening

Slums in Kenh doi, District 4, HCMC, internet, 2016
Urban systems in South East Asia

Nguyen Ngoc Hieu

10


DEVELOPMENT BACKGROUND

Congestion


Private vehicle
boom &
congestion

8000000

20.00%

6000000

15.00%

4000000

10.00%

2000000

5.00%

0

0.00%
2009

2011

2013

2015

Increase rate (%)

VEHICLE NUMBER

Motorised vehicle change
between 2009-2015

Peak hour morning congestion in Hanoi Highway, Dist 2, 2015, internet

Axis Title

car number
motorcycle number
car growth rate

Urban systems in South East Asia
motorcycle growth rate

Nguyen Ngoc Hieu

11


DEVELOPMENT BACKGROUND

Urban flooding



Land cover
change
Climate change

1985

2015
Water body
Rice field
Perennial tree
Bare soil
Residential

Urban systems in South East Asia

Nguyen Ngoc Hieu

12


DEVELOPMENT BACKGROUND

Environmental issue


Water & air pollution increase

Urban systems in South East Asia

Nguyen Ngoc Hieu

13


DEVELOPMENT BACKGROUND
Annual max rainfall volume
Tan Son Hoa station
180

Water supply in
danger

140
120
Xmax (mm)



160

Salinity intrusion
due to high tidal
flood simulation.

100
80
60

y = 0.777x - 1453.5

40
20
0

Year
Counts of water level X
Phu An station
120
100
80
counts

120
60

130
140

40

145
20
0
1975
-20

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

year

Tidal simulation in 2050, Phi, Ho Long, 2011.

Urban systems in South East Asia

Nguyen Ngoc Hieu

14


REGIONAL COORDINATION

HCMC region conceptual multi-model development, SISP, 2008

Urban systems in South East Asia

Nguyen Ngoc Hieu

15


REGIONAL COORDINATION

Regional link

Road & rail: Belt & radial high ways HCMC regional plan 2008

Long
Thanh

Hiep
Phuoc

HCMC regional transport planning, 2008, SISP.

Urban systems in South East Asia

Nguyen Ngoc Hieu

16


REGIONAL COORDINATION

Regional linkage
development
• Within province
competition
• Regional competition

HCMC Regional planning, 2008, SISP.

Urban systems in South East Asia

Nguyen Ngoc Hieu

17


KEY
PROJECTS
REGIONAL
COORDINATION

Rail system



Ambitious ground
rails – freight
priority
Lack of resource –
no commitment so
far

HCMC Transport planning, 2013, Decision 568, PM.

Urban systems in South East Asia

Nguyen Ngoc Hieu

18


KEY
PROJECTS
REGIONAL
COORDINATION

Rail & metro



Ambitious metro
lines & Rail link
Short of resources
and synergy

HCMC Transport planning, 2013, Decision 568, PM.

Urban systems in South East Asia

Nguyen Ngoc Hieu

19


REGIONAL COORDINATION

Industrial (concentrated) parks



Industrial park ribbon within HCMC and in
the region
Within province priority

Existing IPs

Urban
systems
New
IPs in South East Asia

HCMC Regional planning, 2008, SISP.

Nguyen Ngoc Hieu

20


KEY
PROJECTS
REGIONAL
COORDINATION

Road transportation



Lack of resource
Delayed
investment

HCMC Regional planning, 2008, SISP.

Urban systems in South East Asia

Nguyen Ngoc Hieu

21


REGIONAL COORDINATION

Climate change
response
• Dykes & tide control
within city region
• Expansion possibility
later
• Hard measure focus
• Delayed investment
• PPP solution –
started 2016

Tidal flood protection, Decision 1547, 2008, Phi, Ho Long, 2011.

Urban systems in South East Asia

Nguyen Ngoc Hieu

22


REGIONAL COORDINATION

Mushrooming sea ports




Relocation of inner sea
ports upon city
expansion and new
growth strategy.
Sea ports & logistic hub
competition problem

Port relocation, Xuan Thanh, 2012

Urban systems in South East Asia

Nguyen Ngoc Hieu

23


PORTS & IPS COMPETITION

Tan Thuan

ICD & Other

Hiep Phuoc
Long An
Cai Mep – Thi Vai
Sao Mai – Ben Dinh
Urban planning & Design manual, 2010, MOC-DANIDA.

Urban systems in South East Asia

Nguyen Ngoc Hieu

24


PORTS & IPS COMPETITION

Regional sea ports


2+2+1 cities and
provinces

Urban systems in South East Asia

Nguyen Ngoc Hieu

25


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