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Longman exam skills new proficiency use of english teachers book


Use of English
Teacher's Bool<

Fiona Scott~Barrett





Diagnostic test


Key to diagnostic test


Key to Students' Bool<


University of Cambridge sample
answer sheets


C am brl~e G..eltifLcate oLe.tQfLcleJJ C'J "JJ.£nglisb
The UCLES (University of Cambridge Local Examinations
to the Certificate of Proficiency consists of five papers:


Syndicate) examination


Use of English

From December 2002 each paper contributes 40 marks to the overall total of 200 marks.
In order to pass, a candidate must achieve a minimum score of about 60% of the total
marks. The marks for all the papers are combined; it is not necessary for candidates to
achieve a pass mark in each individual paper.


Consists of:




a cloze test with fifteen

the learner's knowledge
of grammar and vocabulary.

One mark for each
correct answer.


a text containing ten gaps.
Each gap must be filled with
a word formed ii'om the stem

the learner's knowledge of
vocabulary and word formation.

One mark for each
correct answer.


six questions each containing
three sentences with a gap in
them. The missing word is the
same for the three sentences.
Candidates must find one word
which fits all three sentences.


eight sentences which must be
transformed using a given word.

the learner's knowledge of
grammar and vocabulary.

Two marks for each
correct answer.


• two texts on which you
answer a total of four questions.

• the learner's awareness of
the use of language in a text.

• Two marks for each
correct answer.

• a summary-writing
on the two texts.

• the learner's ability to extract
relevant information from texts
and write a short summary.

• Up to a total of
fourteen marks.


task based

the learner's knowledge of
. vocabulary (phrasal verbs,
collocations, set phrases, etc.).

Two marks for each
correctly answered

E ofLcleJJc'J Us~EngJls_

New Proficiency Use of English Students' Book consists of: .
• a comprehensive introduction to the new format Cambridge Proficiency Use of English
paper with exercises analysing the tasks and building up efficient strategies for dealing
with them.
• fifteen main units each consisting of a grammar section, a vocabulary section and a
section devoted to the summary task.
• five full-length Practice tests at Proficiency level and in Proficiency format, including exam
• appendices covering frequently-used idioms, phrasal verbs, and verbs, nouns and
adjectives used with dependent prepositions.
The fifteen main units are theme-based and cover all the main topics that are listed by
UCLES for the new format exam (from December 2002 onwards).

111e fifteen main units are theme-based and cover all the main topics that are listed by
UCLES for the new format exam (from December 2002 onwards).
New Proficiency Use of English Teacher's Book contains the sections listed below.
• Introduction.
• Diagnostic
test. This photocopiable test contains 50 four-option, multiple-choice
questions and is based on the Advanced grammar points contained in the fifteen main
units of the Student'.s Book. You may use it at the start of a course to identify which areas
of advanced grammar a class or individual student has most difficulty with.
• Diagnostic
test answer key.
• Answer key to the Students' Book Introduction, Units 1 to 15 and the five Practice tests.
New Proficiency Use of English may be used in a number of ways:
• Sequentially (i.e. from Unit 1 to the end in order).
• In non-sequential order to supplement grammar practice in the class's main coursebook.
• In non-sequential order to provide practice of advanced grammar points which have been
identified as causing difficulties by means of the diagnostic test.
• In non-sequential order to complement the topic of a coursebook
extension and further practice of relevant vocabulary.

unit and to provide

• By doing the summary sections in sequential order, to provide thorough,
practice of the skills required for Part 5 of the Use of English paper.


Whichever of these methods you use, it is strongly recommended that you work through the
Introduction to the new format Paper 3 on pages 6 - 19 of the Studei1ts' Book with your
class before your students attempt any of the other sections.

Each unit starts with a Grammar overview. This summarises the main points related to the
unit grammar that learners at this level are expected to be familiar with. For easy reference,
the information is presented in the form of tables. One way to exploit these would be to ask
your students to study the tables at home, and to check any points of difficulty with you at
the start of the next lesson.
Each unit then presents a number of Advanced grammar points. These are points which
commonly cause difficulty at this level and/or which are frequently tested in Cambridge
Proficiency Paper 3 questions. Each point consists of one or more Focus questions which
are designed to get the students thinking actively and analytically about the grammar point,
rather than just reading a grammar rule. A brief explanation of the structure and usage of
each point follows the Focus activity. You may want to ask your students to cover this
explanation with a piece of paper while they do the Focus activity. The Focus questions for
each Advanced grammar point have answers in the key.
A variety of Practice exercises follow the Advanced grammar points. Those which come
earlier in the grammar section practise only the items presented in the Advanced grammar
points. The later Practices may also include items from the Grammar overview. In the
grammar section of each unit there is at least one Practice exercise in the style of Proficiency
Paper 3 Part 1 and/or Part 4. Each Practice activity has answers in the key.
Some units also contain activities entitled Use your English. These are designed to
encourage freer practice of grammar points that have been studied. These sections do not
have answers in the key.

These sections have been specially designed to reflect the stronger emphasis on vocabulary
and word grammar in the new format Cambridge Proficiency exam. The vocabulary items
and word grammar which are presented and practised in these sections relate to the overall
theme of each unit and thus do not follow exactly the same pattern in every unit. However,
every unit contains a word formation task in the style of Proficiency Paper 3, Part 2 and a
gapped sentences task in the style of Proficiency Paper 3, Part 3. The vocabulary sections in
some units also contain tasks in the style of Proficiency Paper 3, Part 1 and/or Part 4.
Special features
Phrasal verbs and idioms are presented in the context of texts or sentences which relate to
the unit theme. This makes it easier for the students to learn how they actually function in
sentences and to deduce their meaning from the context. Practice of these phrasal verbs is
also contextualised within the theme. Alphabetical lists of idioms and phrasal verbs appear
in the appendices in the Students' Book.
Several activities recommend using dictionaries in class. At Proficiency level, bilingual
dictionaries or companions are not a sufficient guide to the subtleties of meaning or usage
which need to be understood and handled by students. Therefore, it is recommended that
you have sufficient copies of advanced level English-English dictionaries, such as the
Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, for students to consult while working together
in pairs or small groups. By looking up new words and alternative meanings, students take
an active part in expanding their own vocabulary and are more likely to remember new
items than if they were translated for them.
In addition, several activities in the vocabulary section invite students to add their own ideas
and examples to those offered in the book. Again, this encourages an active role in their own
learning process and helps to build the learners' confidence. Possible answers to these
activities are suggested in the answer key.
Study tips in this section offer ideas for recording and remembering new vocabulary. It is
recommended that you read through these tips in class and invite comments and further
examples, where appropriate, from the students. You may also want to check later if students
are using any of the strategies that have been suggested in earlier units and to discuss which
they have found helpful.
The vocabulary section also contains Use your English activities. These are word games,
pairwork activities or discussion activities which are designed to offer freer practice of
vocabulary and word grammar. These activities do not have answers in the key.

• Units 1 to 4 focus in detail on how to answer questions 40 to 43.
• Units 5 and 6 focus in detail on how to identify the four content points to be included in
the summary.
• Unit 7 focuses on how to rephrase the content points in your own words.
• Unit 10 deals with paraphrasing the first draft of a summary.
• Units 8, 9,11,12,13,14
and 15 offer practice of complete Part 5 tasks
(Questions 40 - 44) with varying levels of help and guidance.
In addition, Practice tests 1 - 5 contain complete Part 5 tasks (Questions 40 to 44) with
some tips.
Before doing any of the Summary sections, it is strongly recommended that you work
through the introduction to the new format summary task on pages 14 -19 of the Students'
Book with your class.
For some units, Information
provided in the key.

boxes including background information about the topic are

Practice tests: marking
There are five full-length Practice tests in the Students' Book.
Part 1: Questions 1 - 15

1 mark per correct answer

Part 2: Questions 16 - 25

1mark per correct answer

Part 3: Questions 26 - 31

2 marks per correct answer

Part 4: Questions 32 - 39

2 marks per correct answer

Part 5: Questions 40 - 43

2 marks per correct answer

Question 44

1 mark for each correctly identified
content point plus up to 10 marks
for the summary-writing task
75 marks .,<


'.' To convert to a score out of 40 (the total possible adjusted score for
Proficiency Paper 3), divide the student's total marks by 75 then multiply
that figure by 40.
Note: Answers to questions 40 - 43 are provided in the key. For question 44, the four
content points are listed, but model summaries are not provided as it is not possible to
anticipate the range of appropriate answers that may be given.

Summary: marking
First, allocate one mark for each content point which has been correctly identified.
There is a maximum number of ten marks available for the summary writing task itself.
To qualify for high marks (between eight and ten) the summary:

must be within the limit of 50 - 70 words.
must not include sections copied word-for-word from the original texts.
should be logically organised with appropriate use of connecting phrases.
should be grammatically accurate and correctly spelt.

If the summary fulfils none of the criteria listed above, allocate marks between zero and two.
Allocate marks for average summaries between three and seven, depending on how well the
criteria above have been fulfilled.

Diagnostic test

This test can be used at the start of a course to identify which areas of
advanced grammar a learner entering the CPE level has most difficulty with.
1 You
wonderful! Is that a new perfume you're wearing?
a are smelling
b smell
c will smell
d have been smelling
2 Their train is
a bound

to get in at 19.05.
b likely
c due

3 It gets on my nerves that way that Carol

a forever boasts

4 Since I
a have known

b is forever

about her job.
c never boasts
d is never boasting

you; I have never seen you cry.
b know
c am knowing

5 When I lived in Paris, I
strolling along the banks of the river Seine.
a was enjoying
b had enjoyed c would enjoy
d used to enjoy
6 We
to the new Harry Potter film on Saturday. If we can get tickets,
would you like to come too?
a were going
b were thinking c had planned
d had been meaning
to go
of going
to go
to go
7 Our last holiday in Italy was
a quite
b fairly
8 The louder he talks,
a very irritated

I become.
b so irritated
c the more irritated d more irritated do

9 She prefers an evening at the cinema
a to going out
b rather than
go out

Rod is too poor
a that he can buy

11 He
talk to.
a must

be famous, but that doesn't necessarily mean he's interesting to
b could

13 Given the chance, many children

a are watching

a Owl is a

to bars or clubs:
c than going out
d to go out

a new car.
b so as to buy c for buying

The lecture's been cancelled, so we
a might
b could


c exceedingly

b will have

nocturnal creature(s).
b An owl is a

c should

d may

as well go for lunch now.
c should
d will
TV uninterruptedly for hours.
c will be watching d will watch




is an instrument for looking at small objects.
a A microscope
b Microscope
c The microscope

d One microscope

My brother has
a the contacts

d a contact

in the personnel department who might be able to help
b contact

c the contact

That's strange - I sent the parcel by courier, so you
a must
b couldn't
c should

have received it by
d needn't


The engagement ring he gave her
a couldn't have
b might have

been more beautiful.
c shouldn't have
d must have


My teacher says it's a pity I didn't start lessons when I was younger, because she
thinks I
have become a professional musician.
a must
b would
c may
d could

20 Several witnesses said they saw the woman and child leaving the building together.
However, as the child was smiling and holding the woman's hand, they assumed
his mother.
a had to be
b must be
c must have been
d was to be

He told me he
a was to

~ finish a report before he could join us for a drink.
b must have to c had to
d must have had to

22 This is
a argued
23 He begged
a that she
24 That was

a any

to be the best film the famous director has made.
b accepted
c hoped
d thought

b that she
c for her forgiving
should forgive

d her to forgive

party last night - I haven't had so much fun for years!
b some
d no

25 Unfortunately,
children nowadays are able, or prepared, to read classic
works, such as Peter Pan or Treasure Island, in the original versions.
a little
b little
c few
d a few
26 I would normally have been on that train that was derailed yesterday, but

............... told me I should take my car to work instead.
a anything
b everything
c something
27 We've had a burglar alarm installed in our holiday cottage
about leaving it unoccupied for long periods.
a lest we should
b in order that c so that we will
we should

d nothing
feel happier
d for fear that we will

her excellent qualifications, she hasn't yet found a suitable job.
a Thanks to
b Despite
c Although
d As a result of

29 The plot was

a very

complicated it spoiled my enjoyment of the book.
b such
c so
d so much


these new regulations to come into force, our work would become much
more difficult.
a If
b Should
d Were


If you
a do

keep teasing the dog, you shouldn't be surprised that it snaps at
b will

c shall

d did

32 If you had paid more attention in class, you

a would have

b will have

better marks now.
c ought to have
d should have

33 She can't have studied chemistry at school if she

a doesn't even

b hadn't even

what a heavy element

c wouldn't even

d won't even know

34 I'd rather

all those stories about me as a child to my new boyfriend,
Mum. I was awfully embarrassed.
a not have told
b you didn't tell c you wouldn't tell d you hadn't told

35 I wish you

a won't interrupt

when I'm telling you something important.
b wouldn't
c didn't interrupt
d hadn't interrupted

36 What's the matter? You look as though you

a are seeing

b see

37 Oh no! It looks like my rucksack

a has left

b has got left

c saw

a ghost.
d had seen

behind in the scramble to get on the
c had left

d had been left

38 The book was banned in Britain because it was seen

a be

b to be

c being

39 I think it's disgraceful that the children aren't

a let

b let to

offensive to racial
d having been
go outside during the

c allowed

40 The colours you've chosen are lovely, dear, but next time try

shading within the lines a bit more.
a keeping
b to be kept

c and keep

41 The girl said she went up the tree because her brother

a had dared her


a Hearing

b had dared
her to

c was dared

d allowed to
d that you should keep
climb it.
d had dared

the news of the birth of her first grandchild, Mary burst into tears of joy.
b Having heard c Being heard
d Having been heard


are staff to enter this area without wearing protective clothing.
a Absolutely not
b Out of the
c On no account
d In no way

44 Scarcely had the islanders recovered from the earthquake

began to erupt.
a that

b when

45 Only after a dozen attempts

a did she pass
46 Hardly

a voted anyone

b she passed

a why

b what

48 I don't think it's my fault;

computer crashed!
a all
49 What I really want

her driving test.
c passed she

b when

I like most about summer.
c which
d that
I did was touch that key there, and the whole
c that

d the only

up your bedroom.
b would be for you c is for you to
to tidy

50 He doesn't like children chatting in class

a Such

d than

for the independent candidate.
b did anyone c anyone voted

47 It's the long, light evenings

a is that you
should tidy

c then

the volcano

b Those

c That

d is you tidying

he will not put up with.
d This thing


Present and future tenses


Past and perfect tenses


30d; 31b; 32a; 33a

4a: 5d: 6b

and adverbs


I: present and future


Nouns and articles


Modals II: past


20b; 21c; 22d; 23d


and pronouns

24b; 25c; 26c

Passives and causatives


and gerunds




17c; 18a; 19d


37b; 38b; 39d

----.,. 12a; 13d

1).2:±s; 15a; 16d

Unreal past and wishes

34d; 35b;

7a: 8c; 9a; 10d


27c; 28b; 29c

lb; 2c; 3b



47d; 48a; 49c; 50c

I16 restrictions; 17 upbringing; 18 invaluable; 19 outdoors;
20 observant; 21 sleeplessness; 22 increasingly;
23 recounted; 24 income; 25 officially

,EarLl: CLnze tesl_~_...,...-_

art3: G-apped SeQtenc~es........,..,,....,..-,,.
Strategy building I

That it is impossible to predict earthquakes
gap 13 = no

the second one ('hit' is a noun here; in the other two
sentences it is a verb)

Strategy building II
26 verb (past participle); 27 adjective; 28 noun;

29 verb (past tense); 30 noun;
31 verb (present tense/bare infinitive)

1 gap 8


gaps 2, 7 and 14
gaps 3, 6 and 1
gaps 9 and 11
gap 5
gap 10

Strategy building II
26 laid; 27 deep; 28 flight; 29 sank; 30 custom; 31 stand

EJ and II
1 in; 2 for; 3 As; 4 far; 5 one; 6 only; 7 in; 8 led;
9 result; 10 issued; 11 spite; 12 caused; 13 no;
14 on; 15 rather

ar.t.,~t:Key' word tranSfOJ1UatLnns
Strategy building I

Strategy building II
17 noun; 19 adverb; 20 adjective; 21 noun; 23 verb;
24 noun; 25 adverb

Strategy building II


Strategy building III

• identifying synonymous phrase:
forever -+ no matter how often
• changing verb tense: present continuous


recount (the other verbs formed from count are account,
discount and miscount)

-+ present simple

• identifying synonymous phrase:
immediately after -+ no sooner ... than
• changing after + gerund -+ no sooner + past perfect

Strategy building IV



• identifying synonymous phrase: stop being unrealistic
bring someone down to earth
• changing verb to noun: lost -+ the loss
• identifying dependent preposition the loss of

gaps 17, 18, 19,21,22,23

and 25


• identifying synonymous phrase:
because -+ but for ... (not)
• changing verb tense and making it negative:
simple past -+ wouldn't have + past participle
• identif)ing synonymous phrase:
it II'asn't someone 's fault -+ someone's not to blame
• identifying dependent preposition + gerund following it:
to blame for + gerund
• changing active modal verb to passive verb:
must not (enter) -+ (entry) is forbidden
• identifying dependent preposition: forbidden to
• identifying emphatic construction: it was (my father) who
• identifying synonymous phrase:
persuade -+ talk someone into
• identifying use of gerund after talk into
• identifying synonymous phrase:
had just got dressed -+ had finished dressing (hersell)
• changing word connecting clauses: when -+ than


matter how often she warns
sooner had she graduated than she went
1055 of his job brought Phil down to
for her father's assistance, she wouldn't have
not to blame for the dog chewing
is strictly forbidden to anyone
my father who talked me into learning
had she finished dressing (herselO than

Part 5: SumllJ_ar task
Detailed look at the task:
Questions 40 to 43


Text 1
. There is no reason to assume that the success rate
Eorhumans would be any better and the
disappointment and pain caused by miscarriages,
abnormalities and early deaths would undoubtedly be
much ~reater.
Cogent though these arguments against human reproductive
cloning are, the prospect of success is even more alarming.
Imagine this scenario: a young boy grows up in the
shadow oEa giEted brother killed in a car accident. At
each stage in his liEe, the achievements oEhis deceased
sibling are held up to him and his own failings are
constantly ridiculed. Normally such a child would
protest that .be should not have to live up to unreal
expectations. But this boy cannot, for he is a clone,
created Eroma cell taken from his brother's body. Or
consider the situation in which a person creates a clone of
himself or herself to overcome infertility. A child created
this way would be the identical genetic copy oEhis
Eather (or mother). So how would he react iEhis
parent succumbed prematurely to an illness oEgenetic
origin? Such worries may once have seemed fanciful and
remote, but, according to Ian Wilmut, creator of the world's
first cloned mammal, Dolly the sheep, the issue is so
pressing as to demand a national debate among psychologists
and biologists.
Text 2
... and thus would ask for those genes to be eliminated from
the donor cell. But where should the client, or the law,
draw the line? What iEthe parent knew he or she was
likely to pass on a genetic predisposition Eor
depression or dyslexia, or even for a body shape they
happen to dislike? Such questions must be resolved
before we start playing God with our genes.
Furthermore, if customised cloning became widely accepted
and practised, how would people regard children who
weren't cloned and customised to design
specifications? What about children born with
disabilities, or even those who did not fit the accepted
norms oEcloned beauty, health or intelligence? Would
society view such children with tolerance or come to
see them as errors in the genetic code - in short as
defective products? If that were to happen, we might lose
the most precious gift of all, the human capacity to
empathise with each other.

They are both about cloning human beings/reproducing
humans by cloning.

2,3,4 and 5
(points 1 and 8 are summarised by point 2, points 6 and 7
are irrelevant)

(3 and 2 relate to cloning in general; 4 and 5
related to customised cloning)



Grammar point 3

Is the summary the
right length?


No - too long
No - too shon


Are all four content
points included?





Have the ideas from
the texts been
rephrased in the
writer's own words?



Hardly at all


Are the ideas linked
together coherently
into a short paragraph?


No - just a list of points





Practice B



Practice C





1 doubt whether Carol will pass; 2 is sure to come; 3 about
to leave for; 4 (I ordered) is due to; 5 guests are to leave







Practice 0



1 will look; 2 will be glancing; 3 will already be;
4 will have; 5 will feel; 6 fall; 7 pick; 8 phones; 9 see;
10 are bringing; 11 will have spent; 12 agree; 13 appreciate;
14 don't treat; 15 play; 16 are visiting/are going to visit;
17 are travelling; 18 are looking forward; 19 will never be;
20 admire



1 take to - c; 2 fall out with - f; 3 fall for - h; 4 look down
on - k; 5 come between - a; 6 make up - j; 7 get along with
- e; 8 lash out at - b; 9 put someone down - d; 10 put up
with - g; 11 get someone down - i; 12 turn to - m; 13 let
someone down - I


Advanced _rammar

look up to t= look down on
take against t= take to


Grammar point 1

Are you cooking ... (refers to an activity in progress at

the present time.)
I expect ... (stative verb - not usually used in
continuous form.)
If tastes ... (verb used statively to refer to the taste
rather than the activity of trying to see how the food


I fall for, come between, turn to
2 get me down, let me down

3 look down on, put up with
4 fall out with, get along with, lash out at

1 putting his wife down; 2 looked down on; 3 lashed out at;
4 looked LIpto; 5 came between LIS;6 got along with;
7 fell out, made up; 8 took against; 9 let me down;
10 usually falls for; 11 put up with

Grammar point 2
Sentence 2

Practice A
1 is thinking; 2 is forever complaining; 3 suspect, are
having; 4 are having, presume, don't want, abhor; 5 recall;
6 wears, is entertaining, wants, annoys, is always coming out
of, is continually tucking; 7 are you doing, smelling, don't
think, smells; 8 are always interrupting, am talking, doesn't
matter, seems; 9 Do you see, are not seeing, are looking,

Possible answers
decadence, credence, arrogance, accuracy, frequency,
freedom, childhood, desirability, brevity, merriment,
punishment, happiness, forgiveness, prevention, conviction,
caution, tenure, failure, stricture

1 revolution; 2 connections; 3 development; 4 foundation;
5 existence; 6 significance; 7 stability; 8 commitment;
9 intimacy; 10 happiness

Advanced _ramm_ar




3c (cut someone off without a penny)
4b (there is little love lost between)
5a (take good care of)
3a (cut someone dead)
Ib (get on someone's nerves)
la (get your own back on someone)
2b (bring someone down a peg or two)
5b (in care)
4a (love at first sight)
lc (get on like a house on fire)
2a (bring out the best in someone)
4c (puppy love)

Grammar point 1

D 1b; 2a

Grammar point 2
Sentence 2

Grammar point 3

Practice A


1 of; 2 turn; 3 him; 4 out; 5 love; 6 get; 7 sight; 8 take;
9 like; 10 down

Grammar point 4


Practice B

1 Questions 3 and 4
2 Questions 1 and 2

Question 1
1 'view' (line 11); 2 'hopelessly rosy' (line 11);
3 'hopelessly rosy view' (line 11)
Question 2
1 'an attractive feature'; 2 'eyes like saucers' (line 2)
Question 3
1 ... 'a third of children waiting to be adopted remain in
care for more than three years.' (negative comment);
2 'languishing' (line 7)
Question 4
1 'children awaiting adoption'; 2 'those being looked after
by local authorities' (lines 8 - 9); 3 'come with
considerable baggage' (line 9)

1 'bouncing babies and tottering toddlers' (line 12)
2 'obstructive' (line 9)
3 'a strapping adolescent' (line 15)


2 ... I've lived.

1 moved, has improved; 2 has become, has lived; 3 have
existed, has done; 4 have known, has always used; 5 have
always worn, fell, sprained; 6 have been; has never even
offered; 7 has never cleaned, has owned; 8 have become,
have been married; 9 has only learnt, got married; 10 have
been here; have never stopped

Practice C
1 have learnt; 2 monopolise; 3 was; 4 had existed; 5 had
led; 6 epitomised; 7 involved; 8 remain; 9 was; 10 swelled;
11 were joininglhad joined; 12 were fashioninglhad
fashioned; 13 played; 14 was; 15 fuelled; 16 had already
defeated; 17 multiplied; 18 peaked; 19 had begun;
20 sought; 21 grew; 22 has become; 23 remains;
24 will become; 25 will prove

).Locab ula y,--:-~~


1 blow up - d; 2 break in - c; 3 break out from - p; 4 bring
in a verdict on - j; 5 be brought up on charges of - i; 6 come
before - h; 7 be done out of - e; 8 get away with - 0; 9 hold
up - b; 10 be let off -I; 11 make off with - a; 12 on the run
- n; 13 be pulled in - g; 14 be sent down - k; 15 be taken
in - f; 16 turn oneself in - m
give oneself up = turn oneself in
get/make away with = make off with

1 blow; 2 up; 3 off/away;4 broken; 5 before; 6 up; 7 in;
8 off; 9 sent; 10 on; 11 in
immigrate (verb) to come into a country in order to live
there permanently
no preposition

deny, regret


apologise, arrest, blame, forgive,
punish, feellbe held responsible


acquit, convict, repent, suspect,
be found innocent / guilty


admit, confess, plead guilty

1 regretted having wasted / regretted that he had wasted
2 denied being / having been romantically OR denied that
she was / had been romantically
3 was acquitted of murdering / having murdered
4 was found innocent of murdering / having murdered
5 pled/pleaded guilty to (Note: plead has two possible
past tense forms)
6 confessed to having
7 (who are) suspected of being
8 have been arrested for (suspected) / have been arrested
on suspicion of
9 has been accused of stealing / having stolen
10 has been brought up on charges of
11 were done out of
12 were taken in by


implant (verb)

to strongly fix an idea, feeling, or way
of behaving in someone' s mind or to
put something into someone's body by
doing a medical operation

implant (noun)

something that has been implanted in
someone's body in a medical operation

imperil (verb)

to put something in danger

import (verb)

to bring something into a country from
abroad in order to sell it

import (noun)

something that is brought into one
country from another in order to be
sold or the process or business of
bringing goods into one country from

imprison (verb)

to put someone in prison or to keep
them somewhere and prevent them
from leaving

1 antisocial (or anti-SOCial);2 mistrust; 3 malnutrition;
4 inedible; 5 miscalculated; 6 impatience; 7 disinclination;
8 unacceptable; 9 uncharacteristic; 10 immodest

1 convictions; 2 social; 3 pleaded/pled; 4 court; 5 term;
6 resistance; 7 initiative



Note: the prefix anti is sometimes used with a hyphen, and

sometimes not. There are no set rules for when a hyphen is
used or not, but, in general, one is not used in words like
antiseptic or anticlimax, where the combination of prefix +
noun/adjective is quite commonly used. Hyphens are
frequently used in combinations like anti-terrorist, antifascist, anti-nuclear. In some words, both spellings may be
used, depending on individual preference e.g. anticlockwise
or anti-clockwise, antisocial or anti-social.

anti- anti-colonial/anticolonial, antiseptic

discomfort, disinterest, disobedience, dissatisfied


immature, immobile, impolite, implausible


incapable, ineligible, inexperience, intolerant

mal- malformation, malpractice
mis- misbehave, misconduct, misgovernment, misinform

uncomfortable, undesirable, undo, ungrateful,

Question I
1 'it' (line 2); 2 singular; 3 'song', 'money', 'love',
Question 2
1 'their absence'; 2 lack; 3 plural; 4 'goods', 'services',
'luxuries'; 5 inessential/expensive / luxury; 6 the lack
of inessential/expensive

/ luxury goods and

Question 3
2 'depression'; 3 '25-year oIds'; 4 the depression suffered
by 25-year oIds/young people/people

in their

Practice D
1 wealthy westerners / people who live in developed
2 looking for / the search for happiness
3 times when people are so involved in what they are doing
that they don't think about themselves.
Information box t
Page 42, Text 2, lines 1 - 2
'even those of us who have not lain on the couch' = those of
us who have not undergone therapy. The phrase refers to
the practice, particularly in psychoanalysis, of inviting the
patient to lie on a couch while undergoing therapy.



dull a film was it / dull was the film
prefer working at home to spending
older helTom gets, the more tight-fisted Tomlhe
is too proud to ask anyone to lend
in an extremely shocking way/manner
had such a peculiar taste
faster Sandra drives, the more frightened her
would sooner travel by ship than go on
think their daughter is mature enough
10 great a hypocrite is he that

Practice E
1 fairly/quite; 2 enough; 3 best; 4 the; 5 welVfully;
6 whole/entire; 7 too; 8 to; 9 more; 10 than




Grammar point 1
2 and 5

Practice A

angry, annoyed, irritated
enjoyable, nice, pleasant
courteous, kind, polite, sympathetic
aggressive, bad-tempered, loathsome, rude, unpleasant

Practice B


1h; 2k; 3c; 4g; Si; 6j; 1£; 8e; 91; 10d; 11 b; 12a

1 meek and mild; 2 back and forth; 3 off and on; 4 hard
and fast; 5 well and truly; 6 over and above; 7 cut and dried;
8 fair and square; 9 high and dry; 10 fast and furious;
11 tried and tested; 12 safe and sound

• first and foremost - used to introduce the main reason or
purpose for something
• hale and hearty - very healthy and active
• to and fro - back and forth
2 depends on dictionary used
3 hale and fro
4 foremost scientist/expert/writer/authority etc.
a hearty laugh/meal

Grammar point 2
1 and 3

Practice C
1 The longer he played, the more tired he got.
2 The sooner you finish typing that report, the earlier you
may go home.
3 The more chocolate biscuits I eat, the more I want.
4 The more tired he gets, the clumsier he becomes.
5 The more often I see Sam, the less I like him.

Grammar point 3
So convincing a liar was he

Grammar point 4
1c; 2b; 1c

1d (as different as chalk and cheese); 2f (as dull as
ditchwater); 3i (drink like a fish); 4c (as old as the hills);
Sh (sing like a lark); 6b (as hard as nails); 7a (as tough as
old boots); 8e (as similar as two peas in a pod);
9g (as pretty as a picture)



as pretty as a picture, took to it like a
duck to water


as dull as ditchwater, drinks like a fish,
mutton dressed as lamb, like a bull in a
china shop, looks like butter wouldn't
melt in her mouth

it depends

as different as chalk and cheese, as
hard as nails, as similar as two peas in
a pod, like a red rag to a bull


blissful, cheerful, delightful, disgraceful,
forgetful, playful, restful, wasteful


artistic, chaotic, dramatic, ecstatic, idyllic,
materialistic, sarcastic, therapeutic

dreadful- dread (noun and verb)
about something that may happen

D artful-


Question 2
1 an unhappy situation
2 No
3 It emphasises the negative aspect of the situation
and the fact that nothing can be done to alter it.
Question 3
1 negative aspects
2 positive
3 however, there are also drawbacks/disadvantages
Question 4
1 health problems
2 to fire / set off the gun
3 Yes, cause and effect
.4 number
5 set off/cause/lead to a number of/several health

a feeling of / feel anxiety
1 people who like staying up late/who feel the function
better at night
2 is severely affected in a negative way
3 the people who were studied
4 to emphasise that working at night is not natural for

clever at deceiving people

Possible answers - archaic, aquatic, atavistic, chic, eccentric,
erratic, frenetic, prolific, rustic, septic, sporadic

Part 1
1 some; 2 of; 3 merely/just; 4 over; 5 here; 6 one;
7 such/similar; 8 contrast; 9 in; 10 so; 11 who/that;
12 more; 13 only; 14 while; 15 all

Part 2
1 meaningful; 2 therapeutic; 3 stressful; 4 uneventful;
5 atmospheric; 6 distasteful; 7 enthusiastic; 8 resentful;
9 unrealistic; 10 hypocritical

16 sainthood; 17 misrepresentation;
18 impulse;
19 transform; 20 improbable; 21 exceptional;
22 humanity; 23 admirable; 24 unsuccessful;
25 submissive

Part 3
26 dead; 27 face; 28 charged; 29 given; 30 last; 31 line

Part 4

They are both about the twenty-four

hour society and its


Question 1
1 'after six 0 'clock', 'evening', 'late-night', 'at all hours of
the day or night', 'all-night'. Most of these refer to
night -time.

32 should have been repaired a long
33 no question of the team giving up
34 that he should accompany her
35 gap appears/seems to be narrowing these
36 expressed a preference for goinglbeing taken
37 letting/having let his friend talk him into robbing
38 found her novel so absorbing (that) she forgot
39 found the test plain sailing except


Part 5
40 not working very well / operating only with difficulty
41 a depressing / financially uncertain one (for older people)
42 One in which all unemployed people are paid by the
43 'the growing burden on the healthcare system posed by
the ageing population' (lines 15 -16)
44 Content points
The social budget has been depleted by high medical
costs due to greater life expectancy (Texts 1 and 2).
This budget also pays out a lot of money to support the
unemployed (Text 2).
Fewer people are now working and contributing to the
budget (Text 1).
By 2010 more than a third of the British population will
have reached or be approaching retirement age (Text 1).

- __

1 put in for - i; 2 take up - d; 3 change over to - h; 4 be
snowed under - k; 5 toil away - e; 6 keep on top of - f;
7 take on - a; 8 be laid off - 1; 9 turn your hand/s to - g;
10 bring in - b; 11 bring up - c; 12 take up - j

bring in - regulations, a salary
put in for - a pay rise, the post of
take on - a project, new staff
take up - grievances, the post of

1 brought in, taken up; 2 take on; 3 am snowed under,
taken on; 4 layoff, turn their hands to; 5 bring up, toiling
away/slaving away; 6 put in for, changed over to; 7 bringing
in, took up, keep on top of

Grammar point 1
1 and 3

Practice A

may not be easy to work with, but
may not be much of a cook, but
may be expensive, but it is more durable
may be the boss, but that doesn't
may work in adjoining offices, but


overdraw, overindulge, overpopulated, overrule,
oversee, oversleep, overtime, overview


undercut, underdeveloped, underemployed,
undergraduate, undernourished, underprivileged


overestimate/underestimate, overpaid/underpaid,
overqualifiecl/undergualified, overrated/
underrated, overstaffed/understaffed, overtake/
undertake, overtone/undertone

Grammar point 2
1 all refer to the present

Grammar point 3

Practice B


Practice C
1 can/may; 2 can/may; 3 should/ought to; 4 will/may;
5 don't have to/don't need to/needn't; 6 may/might/could;
7 may/will/could/might; 8 can; 9 will/would;
10 can/may/should; 11 must; 12 mustlhave to;
13 should/ought to; 14 could; 15 could/might; 16 might;
17 could

overtake = go faster than, and so pass someone or something
undertake = agree to do a task

1 overpopulated; 2 underprivileged; 3 undernourished;
4 overactive; 5 underage; 6 underdeveloped

1 underachieving; 2 overestimated; 3 overnight;
4 underscores; 5 undermining; 6 underclass; 7 overtime;
8 underpaid; 9 undertake; 10 overlooked

Grammar point 2

D Possible answers

1 , 3 and 4 (but 4 is only used when giving a definition)


Grammar point 3
They are all adjectives used as nouns.
1 The good = good people; the great = great people
2 the good = the benefit (abstract noun)

a bunch of
grapes, bananas, amateurs
a group of
people, buildings, children
a pack of
cards, dogs, rogues
a series of
accidents, coincidences, tests
Note: series relates to things arranged in or events
happening in a sequence.

1 A tapeworm is a parasite which lives in the stomach and
intestines of mammals.
2 Pets/a pet often provide/provides comfort and company for
the elderly.
3 A telescope is an instrument which allows you to see long
4 Orang-utans/The orang-utan are/is native to the forests of
Sumatra and Borneo.
5 I always give money to charities which help the homeless.
6 A hospice is a place where the terminally ill are looked
7 Teenagers often go through a phase of being fascinated by
the supernatural.
8 The unknown can be frightening but often turns out to be
more enjoyable than the familiar.

uncountable nouns
an act of
a bit of
cheese, land, news, sand, truth
a grain of
sand, truth
clothing, news
an item of
a piece of
cheese, land, news

Practice C

1 loads of
2 a handful of
3 a sack of
4 a packet of
5 a box of
6 a roomful of
7 a pile of

1 adder is the only venomous snake native
2 to help the illiterate are being introduced
3 join the ranks of the
4 a thesis on the social behaviour of the
5 critic of the extravagance/extravagant habits of the

m Possible answers
people, books, money, work
people, occasions, salt, loose change
potatoes, coal, cement
cigarettes, matches, cereal, soap powder
matches, chocolates, soap powder
antiques, people, dust, furniture
books, wood, laundry

Practice D
1 0; 2 the; 3 an; 4 the; 5 0; 60; 70; 8 the; 9 O/the;
10 O/the; 11 the; 12 the; 13 the; 14 a; 15 the; 160; 17 a;
180; 19 an; 20 The; 21 the; 22 a; 23 0; 24 the; 25 the



Countable nouns
events, llowers,
friends, lies,

Uncountable nouns
clothing, courage,
land, news, sand,

Plural nouns
pliers, scissors,
stairs, trousers


countable nouns
a bunch of
a group of
a pack of
a series of

flowers, teenagers
animals, friends, teenagers
lies, teenagers
events, lies


Beauty is in the eye of the beholder. (Someone' s opinion
of who or what is beautiful is subjective.)
A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush. (What you
have now is more important than risking it to try to get
something else you do not have.)
An apple a day keeps the doctor away. (Eating an apple
every day will keep you healthy.)
Pride comes before a fall. (If you are too proud of your
achievements, you will suffer bad luck)
A stitch in time is worth nine. (It is better to deal with a
problem immediately, or it may get worse later.)
The meek shall inherit the earth. (A saying ofJesus
Christ = Humble people will be happier in the end than
powerful and proud people.)
Youcan't teach an old dog new tricks. (Old people
don't want or like to learn anything new.)
The proof of the pudding is in the eating. (Youdon't
know how good or bad anything will be until you try


Fools rush in where angels fear to tread. (Foolish
people do things in a hurry, without considering the
consequences first)
10 Neither a borrower nor a lender be. (Don't borrow or
lend money.)

outbreak, outbuilding, outdistance,
outburst, outlaw,
outdo, outgrow,
outlook, outpatient,
outlast, outlaw,

Learners can study at their own pace and follow
different pathways with varying academic content.
(Points 2 and 3)
Students can move to a more academic pathway / to
a higher level after completing a less academic one /
a diploma. (Points 3 and 4)
(Succeeding in) vocational training builds their
confidence and leads to better academic results.
(Point 8)
They may repeat classes/years until they reach the
minimum standards. (Point 9)


outburst (burst out) = an explosion / sudden occurrence of
something, e.g. noise, anger, protest
outlook (look out) = the prospects for something, e.g. the
economic outlook; the outlook for tomorrow's weather or
your attitude to life, e.g. an optimistic outlook
outset (set out) = the beginning
outspoken (speak out) = unafraid to voice an opinion openly

Grammar point 1
1 outstrip; 2 backgrounds; 3 outperforming; 4 achievement;
5 underperformance; 6 discouragement; 7 resentment;
8 underprivileged; 9 outstandingly; 10 outshone


Grammar point 2
come upon = come across (4)
get on = get ahead (5)
make up = think up (1)
put across = get across (4)
work out = think out (1)


Practice A
1c (no difference): 2b; 3c (should have become = advice;
could have become = unfulfilled possibility); 4c (no
difference); Sb; 6b; 7c (would have taken = decision made
in the past, but abandoned; could have taken =unfulfilled

Practice B
They are both about the ways in which the Dutch education
system helps pupils who are not academically gifted.

1d; 6a; 7b; 10c


couldn't have chosen a better present
could have gone to lecture/work as a lecturer
could/might have given me that
should have been handed in
illness I would have finished
might as well not have gone
couldn't have been Auntie Maude who

Practice C
1 must have struck; 2 would/must have found; 3 should
have been preserved; 4 had to; 5 was able to; 6 would/must
have been worn; 7 could not have been; 8 would have been
crushing; 9 must have dazzled; 10 must/would have been;
11 had to

)LQcabu lary
1 plough through - d; 2 delve into - f; 3 hunt down - b;
4 piece together - j; 5 dig up - c; 6 pore over - g; 7 look up
- e; 8 carry out - i; 9 trace back - h; 10 turn up - a

happen on = turn up
wade through = plough through

carry out
delve into
dig up

a dig/excavation
an archive
an ancient manuscript,
fragments of pottery
an ancient manuscript
fragments of pottery
an ancient manuscript

an artefact,

classic = a very typical example of something
classical = based on or belonging to a traditional style or set
of ideas, especially in art or science or connected with the
language, literature etc of Ancient Greece and Rome
comic = amusing, making you want to laugh
comical = funny in a strange or unexpected way
economic = connected with trade, industry, and the
management of money
economical = using money, time, goods etc. carefully and
without wasting any
historic = important because it is, or will be, remembered as
part of history
historical = connected with the study of history
politic = sensible and likely to bring advantage; prudent
political = connected with the government or public affairs of
a country or with the ideas, activities, or advantage of a
particular party or group in politics

1 political; 2 lyrically; 3 archaeological; 4 essentially;
5 providentially; 6 classical; 7 mythical; 8 financially;
9 dictatorially; 10 controversial

(if it is in pieces),

1 poring; 2 together; 3 out; 4 digging/turning;
6 trace; 7 on; 8 delve; 9 up

5 turning;


1d; 2f; 3a; 4c; 5h; 6b; 7j; 8g; 9i; 10e

beneficial, colonial,
commercial, conspiratorial,
experiential, pictorial,
preferential, substantial,

biological, farcical,
methodical, nonsensical,
philosophical, typical,

1 no (irrelevant to the subject ofthe summary)
2 no (irrelevant to the subject of the summary)
3 yes
4 possibly
5 possibly
6 no (no space to include this in a 50 to 70 word summary)

Many anthropologiststake the latter view. They believe
that homo sapiens strangled the opposition, slowly but
effectively,by monopolising resources. Neanderthals
liked to move around but returned to favourite caves
when times got hard. Slowly groups would find that
when they went back to those caves they had been
taken over by spreading tribes of homo sapiens .
.. it is hard to avoid the notion that our meetings with
Neanderthals were often violent and fatal. Backed by
improved linguistic abilities and a capacity to use
mental symbols when working out problems, homo
sapiens would have been a deadly foe.

m Possible answers
bicentennial, burial, commercial, cordial, editorial, initial,
material, memorial, perennial, potential, serial, testimonial

Part 4
... modern humans had more complex and specialised tools
and their superior language skills would have allowed them
to plan and adapt their methods of hunting to the
circumstances. As the Neanderthals had to compete with
the shrewder homo sapiens [or their meals, they would
have suffered bouts o[ starvation and a consequent
decrease in the overall Neanderthal population, which
could have been the cause o[ extinction.
It is also possible that when homo sapiens first
encountered Neanderthal man, he could have
introduced devastating new diseases, much as the
conquistadors did when they arrived in Latin America. Not
having developed immunity to these illnesses,
Neanderthals would have quickly perished.
Another theory postulates that Neanderthals interbred to
a greater or lesser extent with the incoming homo
sapiens, whose genes eventually became dominant at
the expense o[ the genes delivering Neanderthal




Homo sapiens were more efficient and technologically
advanced than Neanderthals and thus starved them of
resources, such as shelter and food.

[I Possible

32 must submit your entry by
33 matter how often I remind her to take
34 is put at risk, you must adhere
35 but Paul can shed (some) light on
36 the merry-go-round span, the more piercingly
37 it not been for the heavy downpour
38 until five years had gone by did
39 their failure to learn anything on the fact

Part 5
40 They have little significance nowadays. / They are less
important in people's lives than they used to be.
41 are the first adopt the idea of creating your own career
42 'has also pushed work up the agenda' (line 8)
43 'an increase in the levels of personal interaction at work'
(line 15 - 16)

Work is now the main means by which we define our
People shape their own careers, which makes work
more interesting
More women work than before, and do a greater variety
of jobs
Work has become more sociable and enjoyable


The Neanderthals could have become extinct as a result of
being deliberately exterminated by modern humans.
Homo sapiens may also have introduced deadly illnesses to
which the Neanderthals were not immune.
Another possibility is that homo sapiens and Neanderthals
interbred and the former's genes dominated.

~d~arLced gramm

ar P_Q iIlts

Grammar point 1
1 a; 2e; 3i; 4b, c, h; Sf; 6i; 7d; 8i

1 since; 2 time; 3 one; 4 less; 5 someone; 6 conclusion;
7 back; 8 under; 9 recommend/suggest;
10 should/may;
11 out; 12 some; 13 lead; 14 gap; 15 whose

Part 2
16 mystified; 17 abandonment; 18 unearthed;
19 disappearance; 20 discovered; 21 spaciousness;
22 powerful; 23 inscriptions; 24 achievements;
25 understanding

Part 3
26 break; 27 gold; 28 acquired;
31 study

29 responded;

30 clock;

Practice A
1 could go home early since she wasn't feeling well.
2 would be here/there by six thirty.
3 (that) she didn't need to/didn't have to/wouldn't have to
help him with his homework that day since he was able
to/could manage it on his own.
4 we should have taken the second turning on the right, not
the first.
5 must be Daphne's daughter since she looked just like
Daphne had at the same age.
6 might join us for a drink after dinner but he had to go and
visit his sister in hospital first.
7 were not to write on the question sheet.

Practice B
Possible answers
1 (We promise/vow that) this will never happen again.
2 Viewers can vote people off the programme if they think
they constitute temptations.
3 Please don't show this programme.
4 The producers of Temptation Island should be ashamed of
themselves - they are trying to force the destruction of four
relationships for the purposes of entertainment.
5 (I'm sure/confident that) our viewers will see that the
show is not immoral, but that it is exploring the dynamics
of serious relationships.

Grammar point 2

Practice C
Possible answers
a Before Columbus' historic voyage, the Earth was (widely)
said/thought/believed to be flat. or
Before Columbus' historic voyage, it was said/thought/
believed that the Earth was flat.
b Sea levels are predicted to rise by 88cm by 2100. or
It is estimatedlbelieved/predicted/claimed that sea levels
may/could rise by 88cm by 2100.
e He is rumoured/said to be very rich and to own a yacht. or
It is rumoured that he is very rich and owns a yacht.
d It is reputedlbelieved/claimed that her next album will be
a solo one.
e It is widely accepted that Internet charges are too high and
should come down. or
Internet charges are agreed to be too high and it is hoped
that they will come down.
f The film's production costs are estimated to be in the
region of £5 million. or
It is estimated that the film's production costs will be in
the region of £5 million.

1 keep up with
2 play (someone) along
3 play up

play up

1 ... recently he's taken to doing ... , ... he's playing on
people's fear ..
2 so friendly that I sailed through it.
has taken up playing squash after work as he says it
helps him to relax and takes his mind off office politics.
they've been playing her along for six weeks now.
prizes take off ...
want to play my grandmother's senility up/play up my
grandmother's senility, but ... , ... could you just play
7 ... charity is teaming up with students from the drama
college to put on an unusual fund-raising cabaret. The
students who take part in the cabaret will be given a topic
drawn at random from a hat, for example to send up a
famous politician. As they won't know the topics in
advance, the students will have to play it by ear.

(+ preposition) + (someone) + + that clause

+ that +

boast of/about,
complain of/
about, insist
on, suggest,
talk about


Practice D
1 is understood to be out of hospital and
2 is rumoured not to be going to make
3 is believed (that) the chairman will offer/tender his or
is believed the chairman will hand in his
4 is recommended (that) you (should) spend no
5 survivors of the fire are reported to have

Practice E
1 well; 2 the; 3 once/when; 4 although/though; 5 few;
6 between; 7 who/that; 8 as; 9 be; 10 remains/is; 11 good;
12 the; 13 all; 14 qualms; 15 despite/notwithstanding

Vocabu lar}!
1 take up - k; 2 keep up with -1; 3 take to - a; 4 take your
mind off - m; 5 take part in - h; 6 play along - j; 7 team up
with - n; 8 put on - i; 9 play on - g; 10 play up - f; 11 send
up - c; 12 play it by ear - d; 13 sail through - e;
14 take off - b

agree, beg,
invite, offer,
remind, vow

agree, boast,
imply, insist,
suggest, vow



1 biological; 2 overprotect; 3 unstructured; 4 outdoors;
5 academic; 6 underestimate; 7 psychologically;
8 antisocial; 9 attainment; 10 dissatisfaction

SummatY._-.... __


Like many of the best-known
are extraterrestrials.


ever, their


1 'children of the current pre-teen generation' = young

2 ' ... the story of a boy whose father has left him. Luke
Skywalker has an absentee dad'

Text 1

... modern cinema's two great money-spinners - Lucas and
Spielberg- are both regressives, producing what in effect are
big-budget children's movies with enough visual
panache and sub-spiritual mumbo-jumbo that adults
find them entertaining as well. (1) The plot of Star Wars
draws heavily from fairytale and nods to Tolkien in the large
quantities of furry creatures featured. In addition,
examination of box-office history reveals that a high
percentage of the most famous movies of all time share
one element: their central characters are either wholly
or partially removed from the soil on which the
cinemas stand. (2)
Text 2

... a novel published soon after the appearance of The
Phantom Menace explored the possibility that the films are
marital parables. In the novel, children of the current preteen generation obsessively watch Star Wars videos as they
are sh unted between the separate homes of their mummies
and daddies, clutching plasticjedi light-sabres and other tiein merchandise. Crucially, not only do they identify with
Luke (3), but a love of these celluloid fantasies gives
them a bond with their parents, who share this
language with them. (4)

children whose fathers have left them = children from a
broken home / children with divorced mothers
'identify with' = relate to
3 'celluloid fantasies' = films
5 'share this language' = they grew up watching the same

Possible answers
Young children relate to Luke, whose mother is divorced, as
many of theirs are. Their love of the films gives them a bond
with their parents, who also grew up watching them.
(32 words)
The central character comes from a broken home, a fact
which many young children can relate to. As their parents
also watched Star Wars in their childhood. their shared love
of the films forms a bond between them..
(38 words)


It is, perhaps, no surprise that the most successful cinematic
franchise of all time originated in the Seventies. For there
is increasing evidence in our current culture that the
generation that grew up in that decade is becoming
tyrannically nostalgic, engineering the return of their
formative obsessions to stage, screen and record store,
and imposing their infatuations on a new generation.
This is not a content point, as the first line of the next
paragraph says However, parental nostalgia alone cannot

explain the continuing popularity
of films.

D a, b, e,f,g

of the Star Wars series

They are children's
movies which adults enjoy as well.
The films appeal to both adults and children.

a should be some, as it refers to a QTOUpof people, but not
all street musicians.
b should be some, as the question is an offer expects the
answer 'yes'.
e should be any, as it's a general question
f should be any, as it refers to help in any shape or form,
not a specific kind of help
9 should be anyone, as it is a conditional sentence

Grammar point 2
1d; 2b; 3a; 4c

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