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Innovation research proposal pham hoa

Research
Proposal
Pham Thi Hoa


Lead-in


Learner Autonomy through
Writing Portfolios


Main Contents
 Rationale for the research
 Introduction of the Context
 Research Question
 Literature Review & Proposed Extension
 Methodology
 Methods of Data Collection & Data Analysis
 Ethical Issues



Rationale
 Importance of learner autonomy
“Learner autonomy is a key concept in the modern teaching
and learning theory.” (Ozcan, 2007)
 Negative attitudes in writing classes
“When it comes to writing in the second languages the
students’ hardship and pain are worse.” (Gilmore, 2009)
 Advantages of Portfolios
They allow Ts & Ss to track progress, give feedbacks, and
make improvements over a period of time. (Baird &
Northfield, 1992)


Main Contents
 Rationale for the research
 Introduction of the Context
 Research Question
 Literature Review & Proposed Extension
 Methodology
 Methods of Data Collection & Data Analysis
 Ethical Issues


Context









TOEFL iBT Preparation - Writing course
Number of students: 10-15
Students’ level: intermediate to high-intermediate
Age: 16-25
Duration: 2 months
Lesson/week: 1
Number of lessons: 11
Content: TOEFL writing (independent & integrated)


Main Contents
 Rationale for the research
 Introduction of the Context
 Research Question
 Literature Review & Proposed Extension
 Methodology
 Methods of Data Collection & Data Analysis
 Ethical Issues


Research Question
What changes in learner autonomy do
portfolios

bring

about

preparation courses?

in

TOEFL

iBT


Main Contents
 Rationale for the research
 Introduction of the Context
 Research Question
 Literature Review & Proposed Extension
 Methodology
 Methods of Data Collection & Data Analysis
 Ethical Issues


Literature Review
 Learner Autonomy
 Definition
 Indications of Autonomous Learners
 Portfolios
 Definition
 Components
 Portfolios as a means to boost learner autonomy
 Related Studies


Learner Autonomy
Learner Autonomy is…
the capacity of taking charge of one’s own learning
(Holec, 1981)
essentially a matter of the learner's psychological
relation to the process and content of learning and
depends on the exercise and development of a capacity
for detachment, critical reflection, decision-making,


and independent action (Little, 1991)
the capacity of the learner towards taking control of the
language learning process and assuming responsibility
for the process (Dam, 1990)


Learner Autonomy
Learner autonomy is the ability to take charge of
one’s own learning by developing and exercising
the capacity for detachment, critical reflection,
decision making and independent action.


Autonomous Learners
 Breen & Mann (1997): 7 indicators
 Omaggio (1978): 7 indicators – learning
strategies, learning styles & learning approaches.
 Chan (2001): 5 indicators
 Holec (1981): An autonomous learner assumes
responsibility for determining the purpose,
content, rhythm and method of their learning,
monitoring its progress and evaluating its
outcomes


Portfolios
A portfolio is defined as a collection of samples of
a student’s work and self-reflection that helps to
show the whole student. The process of collecting,
selecting

and

reflecting

upon

learning

is

a

systematic, dynamic, and meaningful process,
particularly in creating a writing portfolio.
(Rotta & Huser, 1995)
*Ref: Brown & Hudson (1998); Venn (2000); Mueller (2008)


Components of Portfolios
Samples that
requirements

are

considered

class

assignment

“Processed samples” that were “previously graded by the
teacher”;
“Revisions of student work” that are “graded and then
revised, edited, and rewritten”;
Reflections that are associated with the “processed
samples,” and these reflections give students opportunities
to identify their own strengths and weaknesses;
“Portfolio projects” that include work mainly designed for
students to put into their portfolios.
Crockett (1998)


Portfolios  Autonomy
ELP (European Language Portfolios) - 2001
 Passport: Linguistic Identity & Self-assessment
 Biography: On-going process of learning
 Dossier: Language proficiency & intercultural
experiences
 A tool to promote learner autonomy (Little, 2005)


Related Studies
 Duong (2008): awareness towards learner
autonomy + university setting
 Trinh (2005): designing curriculum  promote
learner autonomy
 Nguyen (2008), Nguyen (2005) & Ta (2005):
portfolios as an assessment tool


Extension:

portfolios

to

promote

autonomy + intensive test prep courses

learner


Main Contents
 Rationale for the research
 Introduction of the Context
 Research Question
 Literature Review & Proposed Extension
 Methodology
 Methods of Data Collection & Data Analysis
 Ethical Issues


Methodology – Case study
Learner Autonomy is hard to measure.
“even autonomous learners are not autonomous all
the time.” (Mynard, 2006)
“Affective factors such as mood, psychological
factors such as tiredness or hunger, motivational
variables such as their attitude towards the subject
matter and environmental factors such as noise,
temperature or time of day all effect students’ levels of
autonomy in any given time.” (Sinclair, 2000)


Methodology – Case Study
 Case study allows researchers to “investigate the
uniqueness of a context according to participants’
thoughts and perceptions so that interpretations
can be offered”. (Earnest, 1994)
 Small-scaled research.


Main Contents
 Rationale for the research
 Introduction of the Context
 Research Question
 Literature Review & Proposed Extension
 Methodology
 Methods of Data Collection & Data Analysis
 Ethical Issues


Data Collection
 Semi-structured interviews
 Interviews = getting the story behind a
participant’s experiences + in-depth info. (Hoang
& Nguyen, 2006)
 Semi-constructed interviews = flexibility +
adequate power and control (Vu, 2007)
 Key concepts provided + Vietnamese + informal
context + small presents


Data Collection
 Learner Journals
 Dam (2000): how students in Denmark reflected
on their learning process through semi-guided
journals.
 Guidance (English & Vietnamese) + collection of
journals after each writing lesson.


Data Collection
 Participant Observation


Researcher

actively

gets

involved:

deep

knowledge of the situation and the normality of
his/her presence in the context. (UEA, 1994)
 Lack of impartiality  recording.


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