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Chính sách phát triển thương mại miền núi khu vực bắc trung bộ tt tiếng anh

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INTRODUCTION
1. Rationale of the thesis
North Central Region includes of 6 provinces, which are: Thanh Hoa, Nghe An,
Ha Tinh, Quang Binh, Quang Tri and Thua Thien Hue. This region not only locates
next to the Northern key economic zone and the Central key economic zone but also
on both the North – South arterial road transport and rail transport, with long and
narrow area, its East side borders with sea, its Wesst side borders with Laos.
Policies on trade development in mountainous areas of the State as well as local
authorities in the North Central mountainous provinces has not made use of all
potentials, advantages such as: cleft sedge, cement, rubber of Thanh Hoa, tea, orange
of Vinh City, sugar, ordianry rice, wood, handicraft of Nghe An; Ore, iron and steel,
confection of Ha Tinh; fertilizer, resin, rubber of Quang Binh, pepper, coffee of
Quang Tri; textiles, handicraft of Thua Thien Hue.
Policies have not encouraged the development comprehensively in terms of the
North Central trade infrastructure. In fact, in the North Central mountainous area,
there are many local markets, whereas there are not many other kinds of retail
business such as supermarket, trade center, retail stores series, limited-line store to
achieve the goal of Project on planning of trade development in the North Central
provinces.

Due to that fact, it is necessary to present scientific basis to formulate the policy
on trade development for the North Central mountainous area. Evaluating, finding
causes of the current situation of trade development policy for this mountainous area
helps to propose solutions and recommendations to adjust and maximize the
efficiency of policies on trade development in the North Central mountainous area as
well as the value of national mountainous areas. Therefore, PhD candidate has
decided to choose and study the subject “The policy on trade development for the
North Central mountainous area”. The subject has practical meaning in both
theretical basis and practical basis.
2. Objective and mission of the thesis
* Objective of the thesis
The thesis aims to build a theoretical and practical basis for mountainous trade
development policy in the North Central region in the period of 2010 - 2017. Since
then, propose solutions to complete the trade development policy in mountainous
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areas. North Central region period 2019 - 2025 and orientation to 2030.
* Mission of the thesis
To achieve objective above, the thesis completes these missions:
- To systemize and develop theoretical basis related to trade development policy
for mountainous area.
- To analyse and evaluate the real situation of trade development policies for the
North Central mountainous area; to find out progress, limitations and causes.
- To propose solutions, recommendations to complete trade development policy
for the North Central mountainous area in the coming time.
3. Object and scope of research
Object of the thesis : The research object of the thesis is the trade development
policy in mountainous areas of the North Central region, including objectives,
content, implementation status, results of the policy of mountainous trade
development in the BTB region.
Scope of the thesis:
+ As for spatial dimension: The mountainous region of the 6 provinces of Bac
Trung Bo province based on the summary and statistics of the thesis according to the
Decision 964/QD-TTg 2015 of the Prime Minister in 2015 and the geographical
position, the North Central region has 40 mountainous district.
+ As for time dimension: the thesis aims at researching the real situation of
the policy trade development for the North Central mountainous area in 2010- 2017
period, proposing solutions and recommendations for policy on trade development in
mountainous areas by 2025 and orientaitons towards 2030.
+ As for content: The thesis studies theoretical and practical issues on trade
development policies in mountainous areas in the North Central region, focusing
mainly on the content of 8 policies.
4. Research method
4.1. Data collection method
* Primary data collection method
- Questionnaire investigation: The survey was conducted from January 1, 2018
to April 2018. For trade enterprises, the number of sent questionnaire was 320,
resulting in 301 votes, after processing (cleaning up data), there were 290 valid votes
for analysis. For individual business households, the number of sent questionnaire
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was 220, there were 195 valid votes. For state management agencies, the number of
outgoing questionnaire was 130 and collected was 120 valid votes. Survey data was
made to ask 8 policy contents.
- Interview method: Interviewees are: (1) Managers of Domestic Market
Department, Import- Export Department; (2) Managers of 6 North Central provinces;
(3) Specialists of Universities and Institutes.
* Secondary data collection method: Data source includes documents related to
research area which were published through books, journals, scientific conferences,
research reports by scientists, institutes, universities, annual reports of Ministry of
Industry and Trade, Ministry of Planning and Investment, Ministry of Finance,
Association of Enterprises, 6 Departments of Industry and Trade, Department of
Planning and Investment, annual abstracts of statistics of 6 North Central
mountainous provinces.
4.2. Data processing method
Method of analysis, comparison: Comparison in analysis is contrasting criteria,
economic phenomena which were evaluated that have same content, characteristic to
identify the trend, level of fluctuation of criteria.
Method of point: This method is applied to measure the evaluation of effect of
trade development in mountainous area to enterprises in the North Central
mountainous area. Distance scale was used, specifically the Likert scale 3 – 5 point,
based on specific criteria.
5. Achievements of the thesis
The thesis has codified a number of theories about mountainous trade
development, policies, trade policies, trade development policies. Thereby creating a
theoretical framework on mountainous trade development policy.
The dissertation analyzes the current situation of mountainous trade
development policies from 2007 up to now, assesses the achievements, limitations
and shortcomings and the causes of successes and limitations, to improve the trade
policy of mountainous areas in the North Central region, establishing a practical basis
for proposals to improve solutions up to 2025.
Chapter 1
THEORETICAL BASIS ON THE POLICY ON TRADE DEVELOPMENT IN
MOUNTAINOUS AREAS
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1.1. Trade development in mountainous areas
1.1.1. Definitions and characteristics of trade development in mountainous
areas
1.1.1.1. Definitions and classification of trade
Trade is the synthesis of the phenomena, activities and economic relations
associated and arising with the exchange of goods and services for the purpose of
profit. In particular, commercial activities include: goods trading, service
provision, investment, trade promotion and other lucrative activities.
Trade is the synthesis of the phenomena, activities and economic relations
associated and arising with the exchange of goods and services for the purpose of
profit. In particular, trade activities include: goods sale and purchase, service
provision, investment, trade promotion and other lucrative activities.
1.1.1.2. Definition and characteristics of trade in mountainous areas
- Definition of mountainous areas
From the definition of trade, we can give the definition of trade in mountainous
areas based on the scope of trading activities. Trade in mountainous areas is
understood to be a synthesis of trading activities, including: goods sale and
purchase, service provision, investment, trade promotion and other lucrative
activities in mountainous areas for profit purposes.
1.1.1.3. Definition of trade development in mountainous areas
Trade development in mountainous areas is a process of expanding the scale,
accelerating the growth rate in combination with enhancing the efficiency and
quality of trading activities in the region to be appropriate with the socio-economic
conditions of localities in mountainous areas in a specific period of time.
1.1.2. Approach method and content of trade development in mountainous
areas
1.1.2.1. Approach method of trade development in mountainous areas
There are basic approach methods of trade development in mountainous areas
such as:
- Approaching trade development in mountainous areas in the width: the scale of
the growth of total transport of goods and service; the scale and speed of importexport turnover; the volume of mountainous market; the quantity and scale of
enterprises in mountainous market; mountainous infrastructure.
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- Approaching trade development in mountainous areas in the depth: the
improvement in productivity; the quality and value- added in association with trading
activities in mountainous areas; shift in mountainous trading structure.
- Approaching trade development in mountainous areas in both the width and
depth: The quality of the growth of trade in mountainous areas; the efficiency of
mountainous trading sources.
1.1.2.2. Content of trade development in mountainous areas
In the developing process of trade in mountainous areas, the scale and quality of
trade growth in mountainous areas is a fundamental content of that development. The
contents are: The growth of total transport of retail sale in mountainous areas;
Number and size of business subjects in mountainous areas; Import and export
turnover of goods and services in mountainous areas; improving the quality of growth
of trade in mountainous areas; creating more jobs and raising incomes and human
resources in mountainous areas.
1.1.3. Role of trade development in mountainous areas
Firstly, trade development in mountainous areas not only plays an important role
in economic development generally but also the factor to boost growth and economic
development in mountainous areas.
Secondly, trade development in mountainous areas is the vital factor to link
mountainous provincial economy with Vietnam’s economy and neighboring
countries’ economy.
Thirdly, trade development in mountainous areas contributes to ensure the macro
economy of the province particularly and mountainous area generally.
1.2. Policy on trade development in mountainous areas
1.2.1. Classification of definitions of the policy on trade development in
mountainous areas
1.2.1.1. Definitions of policy and trade policy
Policy is one of the most useful tools of the State in economic management and
is understood as the whole viewpoints, ideologies, objectives and basic means of the
subjects affects to objects in order to gain objectives.
Types of policy documents in Vietnam recently: Decree, Resolution, Decision,
Directive / Official Letter, Circular.
In this thesis, the author has approached trade policy in line with the viewpoint
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of the State manager Le Danh Vinh (2005): “Trade policy is the system of viewpoints,
standards, institutions, solutions, means used by the State for effect in order to adjust
domestic and international trading activities and achieve socio- economic
development objective in each specific period. Basically, Trade policy is a part of the
State economic policy, it has close-knit connection with national socio- economic
development”.
1.2.1.2. Definition and classification of the policy on trade development in
mountainous areas
a) Definition of the policy on trade development in mountainous areas
The policy on trade development in mountainous areas is the part of National
trade program including the whole of guidelines, mechanism, plans, solutions of the
State and Government as the base for environment construction for trading activities
in mountainous areas to develop in both the width and depth in a specific period of
time.
b) Classification of the policy on trade development in mountainous areas
On the base of the formulation of the policy, the policy on trade development in
mountainous areas can be classified into policies:
- Policy on commodity development: Forbidden business commodity;
Conditional business commodity; Free business commodity.
- Policy on market development: development of urban market in mountainous
areas, rural markets in mountainous areas; border markets; preferential markets and
non- preferential markets.
- Policy on the development of business subjects in the market: development of
FDI enterprises; domestic enterprises; small and medium- sized enterprises.
1.2.2. Objectives, principle and role of the policy on trade development in
mountainous areas
1.2.2.1. Objectives of the policy on trade development in mountainous areas
- Objectives of the policy on trade development in mountainous areas is the
ending, expected result achieved in a specific period thanks for solving by policies in
commodities, services exchange areas.
- Objectives of the policy on trade development in mountainous areas have many
types depending on time, which are long term objectives, short term objectives and
medium term objectives; depending on effect scale which are general objectives and
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partial objectives.
1.2.2.2. The principles and process of implementing the policy on trade
development in mountainous areas
- Main principles:
+ Policy on trade development in mountainous areas must be appropriate with
the Guideline, viewpoints of the Party and Government about socio- economic
development.
+ Policy on trade development in mountainous areas must be appropriate with
national law, customs and routines of international trade.
+ Policy on trade development in mountainous areas must be scientific,
systematic and synchronous.
+ Policy on trade development in mountainous areas must be transparent, united,
stable and feasible.
- The process of implementing the policy on trade development in mountainous
areas: Policy formulation and promulgation; the process of implementing the policy
on trade development in mountainous areas; results of implementing the policy on trade
development in mountainous areas; the completion of policy on trade development in
mountainous areas.
1.2.2.3. Subject and object of the policy on trade development in mountainous
areas
The subjects of the policy on trade development in the North Central
mountainous area includes the Central management and local authorities of 6
provinces in the North Central region.
The object of the policy on trade development in the North Central mountainous
area is mainly trade enterprises and business individuals in the North Central
provinces.
1.2.2.4. Role of the policy on trade development in mountainous areas
- Orientation, guiding and creating a new synchronization in business
environment.
- Controlling, boosting economy, widening the scale of goods exchange and
boosting market competitiveness.
- Role of examination.
1.2.3. Content of the policy on trade development in mountainous areas
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1.2.3.1. Policy on the development of business subject
The policy on the development of business subject (traders) is policies to
encourage, facilitate for domestic and foreign traders to make use of opportunities
and concessionary given by the State and local authorities so that traders can have
successful and effective business in the mountainous areas.
1.2.3.2. Policy on the development of business commodity
The policy on the development of business commodity are guidelines, programs
that the State establishes, all aims at subject which are commodities and producers in
the mountainous areas. That can be regulations of standard of commodities, programs
with the aim of mountainous market stability.
1.2.3.3. Policy on market development
The policy on market development in mountainous areas is the whole of
viewpoints, solutions and tools that the state and local government use to assist
enterprise in finding partners, markets for products and services of enterprises.
1.2.3.4. Policy on support for trade promotion
Policy on support for trade promotion is the overall viewpoints, solutions and
tools used by the State and local authorities to assist enterprises in finding partners,
market for products and services of enterprises operating in the mountainous areas.
1.2.3.5. Policy on the development of trade infrastructure
The policies not only focus on building traditional markets and other traditional
retail models, but also focus on modern retail models such as shopping centers, retail
chains, convenience stores, supermarkets, trade centers in mountainous areas.
1.2.3.6. Policy on the development of trade service system
Trade services actively support the trade development generally and trade in
mountainous areas particularly. The trade service system includes financial service,
logistics service, integrated and specific distribution points in mountainous areas.
1.2.3.7. Policy on the development of trade human resources
Policy on supporting for human resources is the whole views, solutions and
tools that the State and local authorities use to support enterprises in the training and
developing process of human resources.
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1.2.3.8. Policy on the development of border trade
- Policy on the development of border gates; policy on tax-suspension area
- Besides, the State and localities need to increase examination, control activities
tightly the illegal transport border trading commodities in the mountainous areas.
1.2.4. Criteria of evaluation of the policy on trade development in
mountainous areas
1.2.4.1. The efficiency of the policy
The efficiency of the policy on trade development in mountainous areas shows
the level of effect of the policy, changes or maintain the real situation based on the
want of the State or local authorities. The efficiency of the policy on trade
development in mountainous areas shows the right identification of objectives and
result assessment comparing to the objectives.
1.2.4.2. Criteria on the possibility of the policy
The possibility of the policy to trade development in mountainous areas can be
seen through: the level of identification of the policy; price reduction to approach and
implement the policy; increasing the profit that society and enterprises can gain, the
awareness of enterprises about the necessary possibility of the State management; the
level of pleasure of policy subjects with the Government and officers; the general
assessment of the possibility of the policy.
1.2.4.3. Criteria on the equality of the policy
Trade policy in mountainus areas affects trade enterprises and business subjects
in the mountainous areas. Therefore, the evaluation of the level of equality of the
policy on trade development in mountainous areas can show the level of effect of
policy to trade enterprises. This aims at objectives of the policy that have been
implemented or not through the qualiative and positivition approach.
1.2.4.4. The unification of the policy
The unfiication among parts of the policy and between a policy and policy
system will affect to the result and efficiency of the policy. The policy is hard to
implement if policy mechanism has no unification, clarity or the promulgated policy
is not in line with other policies. Therefore, it is necessary to constrast all parts of a
policy and a policy to the policy system.
1.3. Factors affecting to the policy on trade developent in mountainous
areas
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1.3.1. Factors related to regional and international economic integration
The process of liberalization trade have been widened on a regional and global
scale, that has a profound impact on all economic, political, social and environmental
sectors. Countries in the world are attempting to integrate into the international
trading system to take advantage of opportunities for economic development in
general and trade in particular.
1.3.2. Trade institution
To develop trade in mountainous areas, the first and above all condition is that
the State’s agencies at all levels must establish institution including legal system,
policy on trade development in mountainous areas, mechanisms and regulations, the
capacity of management, of institution, which is shown by the capacity of
construction and implementation policy to achieve objectives.
1.3.3. Factors related to natural condition
Natural condition affects significantly to all sectors including trade, which are:
geographical location, natural resources, weather, climate.
1.3.4 Factors related to trade human resources
Human resources in the mountainous areas is an important factor in the trade
development of mountainous areas. Every development is determined by human
being. Human being proposes policies and it is human being implementing policies..
1.3.5. Factors related to infrastructure
Infrastructure affects directly to the trade development in mountainous areas, is
the trading basis of to develop localities, the important base affecting to enterprises’
activities, the quality and price of products.
1.3.6. Factors related to the level of technology
The level of science and technology is so important to maintain the growth rate
of trade in mountainous areas. In mountainous localities, science and technology
development is focused as it not only boosts the industrialization- modernization
process but also plays a key role in the development of producing goods and
environment protection.
1.3.7. Factors related to formulation, promulgation and implementation of the
policy
The State's guidelines and policies in general, the formulation is done by the
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concretization are done by local authorities. Therefore, the localities’ capacity and the
implementing agencies will have a great impact on the effectiveness of the policy. If
the local organization is well organized, active, flexible and creative, the policy will
support the right beneficiaries, ensure timely completion and high efficiency.
1.3.8. Factors related to trade enterprises
Trade enterprises is the subject being affected and also the subject joining in policy
implementation and directly gaining profits from the policy.
Chapter 2
THE REAL SITUATION OF THE POLICY ON TRADE DEVELOPMENT IN
THE NORTH CENTRAL MOUNTAINOUS AREA
1.1. Overview of the real situation of trade development in the North
Central mountainous area
1.1.1. Overview of the real situation of economic development in the North
Central region
The North Central region is the northern part of Central Vietnam, with the area
from the Tam Diep mountains to the northern Hai Van pass, borders with the
Northern Midlands and Mountains, and the Red River Delta to the north , borders
with Laos to the west, borders with the South Central Coast to the south and borders
with the East Sea to the East. The North Central region is one of eight socioeconomic regions assigned by the Government to formulate a master plan on socioeconomic development. The North Central region is considered to be an importantly
strategic, political, economic, social, defense and security area. It has strategic
significance and important advantages in expanding economic exchanges with
countries in the region and in the world.
2.1.2. Real situation of the growth of the total rotation of retail sale and service in
the North Central mountainous area in 2011- 2017 period
The rate of rotation of all goods and services in the North Central mountainous
area have increased stably in recent years.
Table 2.2. Total amount of retail sale based on current price of the North
Central mountainous area
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Total amount of retail
sale of the North
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015 2016
2017
Central mountainous
area
Total
(thousand million 119.617 141.587 168.847 189.962 214.046 230.728 249.177
dong)
Growth rate (%)

24.9

18.4

19.3

12.5

12.7

7.8

8.0

Average growth rate
14.8
in 2011 – 2017 period
Source: The author analyzed on the base of annual abstracts of statistic of the
North Central region
According to the Report of Industry and Trade Conference in the North Central
region in 2016, the rate of purchase per capita in the North Central mountainous area
have increased annually since 2010, reaching 6.34 million dong per capita each year
till 2016, reaching over 8.28 million per capita each year. Therefore, it can be seen
that the value as well as the growth of retail sale of trade in the North Central
mountainous area have increased every year, contributed to the increase in source of
goods of localities in the North Central mountainous area in order to meet the
demand of consumption and business in the area.
2.1.3. Real situation of the quantity and scale of trade in the North Central
mountainous area
Since 2010 till now, the number of enterprises have been increased in the North
Central mountainous area. However, the contribution of each economic factor have
clear difference. Trade factors having the State capital have slowly changed into the
form of owner.
Table 2.4: The number of trade enterprises and business households in the
North Central region
Unit: Thousand of enterprises and households
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2016/2012
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NCR
Thanh Hoa

139
33

156
37

182
44

193
47

201
51

6.5
1.8

47,22
54,33

Nghe An

37

41

50

54

56

1.8

49,41

Ha Tinh

13

16

20

23

24

1.1

82,66

Quang Binh

17

20

21

22

22

0.5

32,63

Quang Tri

14

13

15

17

19

0.7

62,65

Thua Thien Hue

25

27

30

29

31

0.5

19,1

Source : Bui Khac Bang (2016)
Trade enterprises have become an important part of Vietnam’s economy. With a
large number, trade enterprises have contributed significantly to the total income of
the country, created jobs, attracted domestic and foreign capitals for business
activities and solved social issues. Specifically, according to data, trade enterprises in
the North Central mountainous area have created jobs for 330.591 employees,
equivalent with 24.47% of employees in the North Central region in total.
2.1.4. Real situation of the growth of import- export turnover of the North
Central mountainous area
2.1.4.1. Real situation of export activities of the North Central mountainous
area
In recent years, export development have contributed significantly to the
revolution of the North Central region. Export has become one of main motivations of
economic growth, socio- economic stability of the region, source of jobs, income
increase and hunger eradication and poverty reduction. Export activities of the North
Central mountainous area tended to increase from 1651.6 million USD in 2011 to 4251.1
million USD in 2017.
Comparing to the growth rate of the whole country, the average growth rate of
the North Central mountainous area in 2011-2017 period was17.4%. However, the
growth rate of export of the North Central region have not been stable and tended to
decrease from 19.8% in 2011 to 11.3% in 2017. In 2011-2013 period, the growth rate of
export increased from 19.8% to 23.7% in 2013. This is the high growth rate comparing
to other regions of the country.
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2.1.4.2. Real situation of export activities in the North Central mountainous
area
Overall, the growth rate of export turnover of the North Central region in 20112017 period was not stable, whereas the main export type of the North Central region is
direct export ( accounting for 96,4%), the quantity of imports accounted for only 3.6%.
However, the value of import turnover of the province in the North Central mountainous
area only reached 0.31% averagely in the period.
Main export markets of the North Central region have been more and more
diverse. Asia is the main import market of the North Central region, especially China,
Taiwan, Korea, Japan. However, the real value of import turnover in 2011-2017 period
was not really stable, brought risks in developing process of trade of each province in the
North Central region when the markets of these countries have economic instability.
2.2. Real situation of the policy on trade development for the North Central
mountainous area
2.2.1. Real situation of the policy on subject development
a) The State
To ensure for all business subjects generally and subjects in the North Central
mountainous area particularly, in recent years, the State has promulgated legal system
related to trader development such as: The 2005 Civil Law, the 2005 Commercial
Law, the 2005 Investment Law, the 2005 Maritime Law, the 2005 Civil Aviation Law,
the 2005 Competition Law Credit, the 2005 Environment protection law, Law on
Credit organization, Law on Protection of Consumer Rights 2011. These laws,
together with the guiding documents, have contributed to the development of a
regulation on the development of traders. However, the 2005 Commercial Law is still
the most important basis for ministries and localities to develop a policy system to
develop traders suitable for their conditions.
However, in order to develop trade in mountainous areas in general and trade in
the north central region in particular, Decision No. 964 / QD-TTg of the Prime
Minister on 30/06/2015 on the trade development program in mountainous, remote
areas and islands in 2015 - 2020 period is the actual really important document.
Policy on the development of traders in the North Central mountainous area is also
based on this document.
b) North Central provinces
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The speed of the developing process of trade in the North Central mountainous
area in 2010-2016 period have been fast. This can be seen through the number of
trade enterprises as well as individual households increasing from 13.9 thousand
subjects in 2012, till 2016, the number was 20.1 thousand business subjects. The
average number of subjects in 2012-2016 period was 17.42 thousand. Every year, the
number of subjects in the North Central region have increased by 1.55 thousand
averagely in 2012-2016 period.
Through the table above, the average number of trade enterprises in the
North Central mountainous area in 2010-2016 period was 8329 enterprises. Every
year, the number of trade enterprises have increased by nearly 1000.
- Policy on subject development of Thanh Hoa:
To develop business subjects, Thanh Hoa has promulgated a business
development plan of Thanh Hoa by 2020. The plan has identified by 2020, there will
have been at least 20,000 enterprises, reaching 56 enterprises / ten thousand people;
The enterprise sector will contribute over 65% of the provincial GDP, accounting for
about 60% of total social investment; There will be over 200 enterprises engaged in
export activities, the registered number of new established enterprises is about
200,000.
- Policy on subject development of Nghe An
By 2017, Nghe An has more than 9,900 enterprises in operation, accounting for
61.5% of the total 15,000 established enterprises. In terms of type, Nghe An has
32.61% is shareholding companies; 40.8% is limited liability companies; 26.59% is
private enterprises. According to Department of Statistics of Nghe An, registered
enterprises doing business in the delta account for 74.8%, in mountainous area the
number accounts for 25.2%. The majority of registered enterprises have small and
micro scale (98%).
One of the most important policies of Nghe An related to the trade development
in mountainous areas is Decision 89/2009 / QD-UBND on 15/09/2009 on approving
Trade Development plan of Nghe An by 2020.
- Policy on subject development of Ha Tinh:
Ha Tinh province has nearly 6,000 enterprises, more than 1,300 People’s
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Committees and more than 3,000 cooperative groups by 2017. This area has many
potential, advantages to develop into enterprises. From 2011 up to now, Ha Tinh has
promulgated and enforced policies to develop business subjects to support a part for
enterprises, People’s Committees that have been facing difficulties in capital and
land, market information.
Decision No. 15/2013 / QD-UBND on 27 August 2013 of the People's
Committee of Ha Tinh on policy to support the development of rural trade in
association with new rural construction in the province.
- Policy on subject development of Quang Binh:
To develop business subjects in provinces, especially mountainous areas, Quang
Binh has promulgated many policies such as: Decision No. 1333 / QD-CT on
11/06/2012 on approval of the Trade Development Plan of Quang Binh by 2020 in
order to encourage subjects to join in trade development of Quang Binh mountainous
area. Decision No. 2046 / QD-UBND on 4/8/2011 of Quang Binh People's
Committee on approving the adjustment of the outline and cost estimation of Trade
Development Plan of Quang Binh by 2020.
- Policy on subject development of Quang Tri:
The policy on subject development for trade development of Quang Tri’s
mountainous area is based on the following decisions: Decision No. 20/2013 / QDUBND on Trade Development Plan of Quang Tri by 2020 and orientations for the
following years, on July 18, 2013, encouraging factors to participate in the trade
development in mountainous areas, including: State-owned trade and trade of other
economic sectors; small business households.
- Policy on subject development of Thua Thien Hue
To develop subjects doing business in the area, Thua Thien Hue has
promulgated Decision No. 1975/ QD- UBND on August 24, 2006 of People’s
Committee of Thua Thien Hue on approving the outline of adjusting Trade
development planning of Thua Thien Hue by 2020; Decision No 682/ QD- UB on
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March 12, 2003 of Thua Thien Hue People’s Committee on approving Trade
development planning of Thua Thien Hue in 2001-2010 period; Decision No. 740/
QD- UBND on April 8, 2009 on approving adjustment of Trade development
planning of Thua Thien Hue by 2010 and orientation towards 2020.
2.2.2. Real situation of the development policy on business commodity
a) The State:
Decision No. 2441 / QD-TTg on 31 December 2010 of the Prime Minister
approving the National Product Development Program by 2020; Decision No. 2204 /
QD-TTg on December 06, 2010 of the Prime Minister approving the suppport
program on development of intellectual property in 2011 - 2015 period to support
enterprises having business in the North Central mountainous area while registering
for protection, geographical indications and origin for specialty in the North Central
mountainous area.
b) North Central provinces
To the North Central mountainous area, products which are the speciality of
provinces such as: Cleft sedge, cement, rubber of Thanh Hoa, Tea, Orange of Vinh,
sugar, ordinary rice, wood, handicraft of Nghe An, Ore, iron and steel, confection of
Ha Tinh, fertilizer, resin, rubber of Quang Binh; pepper, coffee of Quang Tri; textile,
handicraft of Thua Thien Hue.
Based on the table above, it can be seen that the North Central provinces have
advatages in terms of wood, rubber, tea, ore export, and each province has its own
specific export commodity such as Ha Tinh steel, Thanh Hoa cleft sedge, Quang Tro
pepper, all have joined in international market and contributed to improve the export
turnover of the North Central provinces in 2011-2017 period.
2.2.3. Real situation of the policy on market development
a) The State:
j Policy on market development for the North Central mountainous area is based
on the objectives and organizational, implementation forms in policies such as
Decision No. 1114 / QD-TTg on approving the master plan for socio- economic
development of the North Central region and the Central Coast by 2020 by the Prime
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Minister of Vietnam on July 9, 2013; Decision No. 964 / QD-TTg of the Prime
Minister on 30/06/2015 on Trade Development Program for mountainous, remote
areas and island in 2015 - 2020 period has identified the development of domestic
market, the import and export markets and the border trade area are very important
not only for mountainous provinces generally but also for the North Central
mountainous provinces.
b) North Central provinces
The orientation of development of domestic market such as: in the North
Central mountainous provinces, the North Central market; other markets or importexport markets as well as in the border market are clearly identified by the North
Central provinces in the Trade Development Program.
2.2.4. Real situation of the policy on support for trade promotion
a) The State:
Decision No. 72/2010 / QD-TTg on November 15, 2010 of the Prime Minister
on the Regulation on the Construction, Management and Implementation of the
National Trade Promotion Program. In the North Central mountainous area, trade
promotion activities are built on the basis of orientations for export development;
domestic market; and trade in mountainous areas, border trade, in line with the socioeconomic development strategy in every period of the North Central mountainous
area and of each North Central province.
b) North Central provinces
- There have been 3 supports for trade promotion programs in the North Central
mountainous area. In fact, in 2011-2017 period, Ministry of Industry and Trade
organized many exhibitions, fairs and advertisements for the North Central
mountainous area by Domestic Market Department and previous Mountainous
Market Department. Besides, Ministry of Industry and Trade have cooperated with
Trade Promotion Center of the North Central provinces to organize fairs attracting
hundreds of enterprises in the North Central mountainous area and other areas, FDI
enterprises, Laos’ enterprises to introduce, advertise special products in many sectors
of many localities in the North Central mountainous areas.
- Results of survey on trade enterprises in the North Central mountainous areas:
Table 2.13: Evaluation of policy on supporting trade promotion of the North
Central mountainous area based on the views of enterprises
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19

Num
ber

Level of feeling

Evalua
Point
tion
views 4 & 5
3 point 1 & 2
(turns) point
(%) point (%)
(%)

The diversity, regularity
of
trade
promotion
290
1 program
of
local
authorities
The level of which
enterprises
receive
information and regularity
2 that enterprises participate 290
in
trade
promotion
programs
of
local
authorities.
The ability of enterprises
to
approach
new
customers, new partners
290
3 when participating in
trade promotion programs
of local authorities

34,5

40,3

19,3

55,2

57,6

80,7

Average
Standard
point
Deviation
(Mean)

10,3

3,24
(Average)

0,626

2,1

3,41
(Average
)

0,589

0

3,21
(Average
)

0,439

Source: Results from SPSS 20 software
In 2011 - 2017 period, the North Central provinces have implemented many
trade promotion programs to create opportunities to expand the consumption market
as well as business cooperation opportunities for enterprises in provinces.
2.2.5. Real situation of the development policy on trade infrastructure
a) The State
Other documents related to the development of trade infrastructure such as the
Government's Decree No. 02/2003 / ND-CP of January 14, 2003 on development and
management of markets; Decree No. 114/2009 / ND-CP of December 23, 2009,
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amending and supplementing a number of articles of the Government's Decree No.
02/2003 / ND-CP of January 14, 2003 on development and management of markets.
b) North Central provinces
In 2011- 2017 period, thanks for the support of the State and the effort of local
authorities, trade infrastructure of the North Central region have had improvement,
which can be seen like the increase in the number of markets, supermarkets, retail
stores, trade centers in the area, specifically in the North Central mountainous area.
Markets: The number of markets tends to increase and decrease based on
period of the North Central region. In 2011- 2015 period, the number of markets in
the North Central region increased from 1336 ones in 2011 to 1421 ones in 2015.
However, in 2015- 2016 period, there was a sharp decrease, from 1421 to 1376 ones.
2.2.6. Real situation of the development policy on trade service system
a) The State
The State has promulgated many policies to develop the system of trade
services such as logistics services, credit services, to develop trade service system
in all country generally and the North Central mountainous areas particularly.
b) North Central provinces
According to statistics, the North Central region has more than 1,618 enterprises
operating in the field of logistics (transportation, warehousing, postal and delivery
services). In the North Central provinces, at the end of 2017, the number of
enterprises having a good growth rate was 10.5% as an average in 2011-2017 period.
Table 2.18: Evaluation of development policy on trade service for the North
Central provinces based on the views of enterprises
Average Standard
Point
Evaluat
Num
Level of feeling ion
4&5
3
1 & 2 point Deviation
ber Factors

views
(turns)

The diversity of local credit
1 sources that enterprises can 290
access

point
(%)
24,1

20

20

point
(%)
75,9

point
(%)
0

3,37
(Averag
e)

0,705


21

The ability of approach
2 local credit sources in
localities
3

290

19,3

69,3

11,4

The equality in policy on
290
credit support of localities

6,6

64,5

28,9

3,08
(Averag
e)
2,78
(Averag
e)

0,549

0,553

Source : Results from SPSS 20 software
Overall, enterprises evaluated the diversity of local source of credit quite good.
Although this criterion was at average level, but average point is close to the good
level (3.37/5.0). Thanks for the network of Agribank agencies in many localities with
many programs, preferential policies to borrow capital for enterprises, especially
SME (accounting for 98% of total enterprises).
2.2.7. Real situation of the development policy on trade human resources
a) The State:
With the development of trade human resources in the North Central region, it
can be seen from Decision No. 1114 / QD-TTg of the Government approving the
master plan for socio-economic development of the North Central and Central Coast
by 2020.
b) North Central provinces
Human resources training: The North Central region identifies prioritized areas
for training such as mechanical engineering, textile, footwear, electronic devices,
telecommunication and information technology, software technology, numeric data,
supporting industries for high technology development, products from new
technology, processing and export of agricultural, forest and aquaculture products and
handicraft.
Table 2.21: Evaluation of development policy on trade human resources of
the North Central provinces based on the views of trade enterprises
Level of feeling
Evalua
Point
Average Standard

21

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22

tion 4 & 5
3 point
views point
(%)
(turns) (%)
The diversity of training
facilities and the quality of
training activities for human
resources
in
training
facilities in localities
The level of pleasure in
terms of quality of human
resources in localities
The level of local support to
enterprises in terms of
training human resources for
enterprises

290

290

290

34,8

6,6

11,7

1&2
point
point
Deviation
(Mean)
(%)

14,8

3,27
(Averag
e)

0,790

87,2

6,2

3,00
(Averag
e)

0,358

82,8

5,5

50,4

3,06
(Averag
e)

0,411

Source: Results from SPSS 20 software
It can be seen that the criterion of quantity and quality of training facilities of
human resources in the North Central region is evaluated quite good by enterprises
(101/290 enterprises). However, there is a few number of enterprises evaluated at 5
point in the Likert scale 5 point, therefore, the average score of this criterion is only
3.27 / 5.0.
2.2.8. Real situation of the policy on the development of border trade
The Government have promulgated Decree No. 14/2018 / ND-CP specifying the
border trade activities of traders and buying and selling goods of border residents. In
2015, the Border Trade Agreement between Vietnam and Lao PDR was signed. In
2016, the Ministry of Industry and Trade has issued Circular 08/2016 / TT-BCT
guiding the implementation of a number of articles of the Border Trade Agreement
between Vietnam and Laos.
2.3.3. General evaluation
2.3.3.1. Achievements
Policies on trade development in mountainous areas have improved the rate of
trade growth in the North Central mountainous area as relatively high in 2011- 2017
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period.
Policies on trade development in mountainous areas have contributed to upgrade
the value –added of trade in mountainous area as relatively stable and higher than
other economic sectors in the North Central area.
2.3.3.2. Limitations
Policy on trade development for the North Central mountainous area has not
facilitated at its best for trade development. The rate of trade growth in the North
Central mountainous area is still low. Trade growth in the North Central mountainous
area is mainly focused on width development, not depth development.
Many policies on trade development have contributed to the increase in natural
resources depletion, biological diversity reduction and environment pollution, namely
Formosa case in Ky Anh, Ha Tinh.
2.3.4.3. Causes of limitations
- The North Central mountainous area with small economic scale, economic
efficiency is not high, geographical conditions are difficult.
- Trade infrastructure in the North Central mountainous area has not met the
requirements of trade development.
- The staff and qualifications of business officers have not met the
requirements.
Chapter 3
SOLUTIONS FOR THE COMPLETION OF THE POLICY ON TRADE
DEVELOPMENT FOR THE NORTH CENTRAL MOUNTAINOUS AREA BY
2025 AND ORIENTATION TOWARDS 2030
3.1. Domestic and international context affecting to trade development in
the North Central mountainous area
3.1.1. Domestic context
Forecasts about results of national trade have created both huge positive and
negative effects to trade activities of the North Central mountainous provinces.
3.1.2. International context affecting to trade development of the North
Central mountainous area
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The North Central region is an area not only adjacent to the North West
mountainous area, the North Central Delta, the South Central Coast, but also a border
area close to Laos. Trade activities usually occur not only through the system of
border gates such as Cau Treo - Ha Tinh or Lao Bao - Quang Tri ... but also through
small - scale activities.
3.2. Viewpoints and orientation of policy on trade development for the
North Central mountainous area by 2025, orientation towards 2030
3.2.1. Viewpoints of completing policy on trade development for the North
Central mountainous area
Firstly, policies on trade development for the North Central mountainous area
need to widen the scale of trade and quality, efficiency and trade structure
improvement.
Secondly, policies on trade development for the North Central mountainous area
is the motility for business subjects making use of advantages of the area for socioeconomic development.
Thirdly, policy must ensure to reduce the negative effects of trade activities to
environment, connecting trade development in the North Central mountainous area
with biological environment protection.
3.2.2. Orientation, policy on trade development in the North Central
mountainous areas by 2025, orientation towards 2030
- Making use of all potentials, advantages to develop trade in the North Central
provinces, elevating the diversity, quality of main products for producing and
consumption.
- Orientations of products should improve productivity through test and new
breed application, intensive farming for higher quantity and quality, improving the
value of advantageous products of the North Central mountainous area through deep
processing.
- Besides, it is needed to focus on developing trade business facilities in the
North Central mountainous area, network of markets, especially rural, remote market.
Developing trade center, supermarkets, trade warehouse and logistics service center
that are appropriate with general development planning of each province.
3.3. Solutions for completion of policy on trade development in the North
Central mountainous area
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3.3.1. Solutions for completion of policy on development of business subject
The State and localities need to encourage the development of private trade
types, especially households in the North Central mountainous area in the direction of
efficiency, sustainability and stability in the coming time.
In areas where there are no conditions of People’s Committee as ones in area II,
area III, it can be implemented development policy on units of joined sale and
purchase, or units of joined purchase and private sale or services units to support
each other in producing, business and support for life in the North Central
mountainous area.
3.3.2. Solutions for completing policy on business commodity development
- The State should encourage producing facilities and enterprises to formulate
strategy on production for proper plans, investment orientations and risks avoidance;
Products must be of high quality, ensure hygiene and food safety, in accordance with
tastes of customers.
- The State should encourage small-scale producing and business facilities,
especially individual households need to change their mind and producing practices
to concentrating production along the direction of mechanization with larger scale
production, technological innovation; focuses on building and developing the brand.
3.3.3. Completion of the policy on market development
+ The State and enterprises proactively and actively builds, implements trade
promotion activities such as participating in fairs, exhibitions, research on market,
popularizing market information, opening and enhancing information gate to supply
information on import policy and characteristics of market for enterprises.
+ Ministry of Industry and Trade and People’s Committee of the North Central
provinces must have assessment in terms of market scale, the level of people income,
the demand for goods, service that enterprises have been expanding while joining in
that market. With new markets, the State needs to analyse precisely so that enterprises
can have specific orientations with each commodity and specific market.
3.3.4. Completion of the policy on support for trade promotion
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