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MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING
CAN THO UNIVESITY

SUMMARRY OF DOCTORAL THESIS
Specialized: Rural Development
Code:9620116

PHAM XUAN PHU

FARMER’S INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE AND
THEIR ADAPTIVE CAPACITY WITH FLOODS IN
AN GIANG


Can Tho, 2019

THE PhD THESIS WAS COMPLETED AT
CAN THO UNIVERSITY

Scientific supervisor: Assoc. Prof. Dr. NGUYEN NGOC DE
The doctoral thesis was evaluatedby The Board of Examiners at basic

level.
Meeting at: Meeting room 3, 2nd floor, administrative house, Can Tho
University.
At 8:00 a.m, date 04/08/2018.

Reviewer 1: Assoc. Prof. Dr. DUONG NGOC THANH
Reviewer 2: Dr. LE NGOC THACH

The thesis can be referred at:
Learning Resource Center, Can Tho University.
National Library of Vietnam.


LIST OF PUBLICATION
1. P.X.PHU and N.N.DE, 2016. The situation and solutions for
using indigenous knowledge of local people in adaptation to
floods in An Giang province, Vietnam. Asia-Pacific Journal
of Rural Development, Volume XXVI, Number 2 (2016).
ISSN 1018-5291.
2. Pham Xuan Phu and Nguyen Ngoc De, 2017. Assessment
of vulrerrability on livelihood of farmer’s due to floods in An
Giang province. Journal of Agriculture and Rural
development, No 8 (2017). ISSN 1859-4581.
3. Pham Xuan Phu and Nguyen Ngoc De, 2017. Farmer’s
indigenous knowledge and their adaptive capacity to floods
in An Giang province. Can Tho University Journal of
Science, No 50 (2017): 13-25. ISSN: 1859-2333.
4. Pham Xuan Phu and Nguyen Ngoc De, 2018. Study on
assessment of indigenous knowledge in adapting of farmes
in An Giang. Journal of Science and Technology
Development – Science of the Earth and Environment,
Volume 2, Number 2 (2018). ISSN: ISSN: 1859-0128.
5. Phu PX, De NN and Tran NTB. Use of indigenous
knowledge to adapt with climate change: A case study in An
Giang province, in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam, 2019.
Biomedical Journal of Scientific and Technical Research,
Volume XII, Issue 4 (2019): 1-4. ISSN 2574-1241.
6. Pham Xuan Phu, Nguyen Ngoc De and Ngo Thuy Bao
Tran, 2019. Contribution of indigenous knowledge to adapt
to floods in Mekong Delta, Vietnam:Case study in An Phu,
Chau Thanh, Tri Ton districts, An Giang province. Journal
of Modern Environmental Science and Engineering, Volume
5, Number 1 (2019): 92-102. ISSN 2333-2581.


7. Pham Xuan Phu, Nguyen Ngoc De and Ngo Thuy Bao
Tran, 2019. Study on assessment of indigenous knowledge
in adapting to floods of farmers in An Giang province,
Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Journal of Acta Scientific
Agriculture, Volume 3, Number 4 (2019): 275-283. ISSN
2581-365X.


Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION

1.1 Necessity of dissertation
An Giang, one of the headwater provinces in the
Mekong River Basin, should be influenced by the annual
floods. When floods coming, besides bringing a huge
amount of silt and improving soil fertility, field sanitation,
washing alum (Duong Van Nha, 2006); as well as creating
jobs and income for local people through natural fishing,
aquatic vegetable picking, tourist services, ect. However,
from 2000 to the present, the abnormal flood
circumstances have affected livelihoods of local people.
To be able to adapt to the changes of the flood, with the
changes of the society and environment, human must
always know how to use indigenous knowledge to exploit
natural resources appropriately and manage more flexibly
(CRES, 2010). Indigenous knowledge in adapting to
floods in An Giang is understood as experience that has
been accumulated by the local community over many
generations and inherited widely. It is reflected in the lives
of local people and harmonized responses to floods every
year to effectively exploit resources brought by the flood,
but to avoid the damage caused by floods (Van et al.,
2011).Responding to floods activities based on prior
knowledge of the local community should be investigated
and disseminated effectively to contribute to the
sustainable development of the locality before the
circumstances of climate change are affecting vagaries of
floods. There had many systematical research and
evaluation relevance system to indigenous knowledge to
adapt to flooding changes in agricultural production in the
study area in the scene of climate change, preserve

1


medicinal plants, preserve genes, local varieties, live with
floods in the Mekong Delta, change the weather of author
Warren (1995); Luise (1999); Hoang Xuan Ty and Le
Trong Cuc (1998); Mai Van Tung(2006); Hoang Thi
Hoang Ngan (2010), Van et al., (2011); Bui Quang Minh
(2013); Ngo Van Le et al., (2016), Le Thi Thanh Huong
and Nguyen TrungThanh (2016). However, the fact that
there has not had many systematical research indigenous
knowedge system and assessment of indigenous
knowledge in adapting to floods of farmer’s in study sites
in context climate change. . For these reasons, it is
necessary to carry out the study on “ Farmer’s indigenous
knowedge and their adative capacity to floods in An Giang
province”. This research was carried out to systematize
and assess the appropriateness of farmer’s indigenous
knowledge and their abilityadapt with the flood in An
Giang province, results of the research will provide a
scientific foundation for proposing solutions to conserve
and enhance the use of indigenous knowledge in reducing
the vulnerability of people living in flooding changes in
agricultural production in the study area in the scene of
climate change.

1.2 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
1.2.1 General objective
To provide information on farmer’s indigenous
knowedge and their adative capacity to floods in An Giang
province provide a scientific foundation for proposing
solutions and policies to conserve and enhance the use of
indigenous knowledge in reducing the vulnerability of
people living in flooded areas and livelihood strategies of
flood affected people are both effective and sustainable.

2


1.2.2 Specific objectives
(1) To systematize and assess the appropriateness
of farmer’s indigenous knowledge and their adaptive
capacity to floods of diffirent zone (upper zone, middle
zone, lower zone)
(2) To analyze the farmer’s vulnerability and their
adaptive capacity to floods of diffirent zone (upper zone,
middle zone, lower zone)
(3) To propose solutions to conserve and enhance
the use of indigenous knowledge in reducing the
vulnerability of people living in flooded areas.

1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
(i) What is farmer’s indigenous knowledge in
applying to floods of diffirent zone ?
(ii) What is farmer’s indigenous knowledge and
their adaptive capacity to floods of diffirent zone ?
(iii) How are vulnerable factors affect of farmer's
livelihood capacity to floods of diffirent zone ?
(iv) What are proposing solutions to conserve and
enhance the use of indigenous knowledge in reducing the
vulnerability of people living in flooding areas and
livelihood strategies of flood affected people are both
effective and sustainable?

3


1.4. REASEACH SUBJECT AND SCOPE OF STUDY
1.4.1 Reasearch subjects
Farmers are living in floodplains (upper zone,
middle zone,lower zone) in no dyke and high dyke in An
Phu, Chau Thanh, Tri Ton district in An Giang province.
1.4.2 Scope of study
This study was conducted from July 2015 to March
2016 in An Giang province.
1.5.
NEW
CONTRIBUTIONS
DISSERTATION

OF

THE

5.1.1 Scientific significance
- The thesis contributes to systematizing indigenous
knowledge of local peopleand operationalizes concepts
related to indigenous knowledge and adaptive capacity to
cope with flood events. These concepts include concepts
include indigenous knowledge, natural disasters and
climate change, vulnerability to floods and climate
change, method of determination qualitative vulnerability
to floods and climate change.
- The results of the thesis summarized the folk
experiences myths for flood prediction based on the
biological appearance and environmental changes. The
information is very important to implement scientific
research and translate folk stories into rural life.
- The folk expereince is very accurate to project
flood which can be dissimilated into the annual flooded
communities in order to observe, monitor, and predict
floods in the community.
- Effective flood adaptation measures could be
dissimilated in the community in order to reduce risk,
damage induced by climate changes.

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5.1.2 Practical sinificance
- The results contributed to the scientific baseline in
flood risk management in An Giang and the Mekong
Delta. The government should develop suitable polices to
ultilize the local folk knowledge in order to reduce the
vulnerability due to floods, to enhance adaptive capacity
by promoting livelihood strategies for adapting to climate
change.
- The thesis synthesizes lessons, experience and
scientific evidence in flood risk management. These
knowledge helps people and communities in An Giang
province and the Mekong Delta developing appropriate
measures in using indigenous knowledge for adapting to
floods in agricultural production and life. The thesis
proposes some basic solutions to preserve and promote
indigenous knowledge of people in adapting to floods in
agricultural production and life. This solution can be be
scaled out and scaled up in similar Asian and global deltas.
1.6 OUTLINE OF THE DISSERTATION
The dissertation includes 290 pages of introduction,
literature review, Research Methods, results and
discussion, conclusion and recommendation, references
and annexes, and also contains 36 tables, 42 figures, 14
information box and 148 references.

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Chapter 2: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

2.1 APPROACH RESARCH
In order to satisfy the research objectives, a
sustainable livelihood approach study (DFID, 1999) was
used to assess the vulnerability of flood-affected
livelihoods and the effects of floods that were considered
in the context of vulnerability. The framework of
sustainability. In this study, livelihood damage was
defined as the vulnerability to impact or disturbance
occurring in and outside of the household related to
household livelihoods. The vulnerability to change in the
study communes was calculated by applying the LVI
calculation method proposed by Hahn et al.,(2009). The
variables used to calculate the vulnerability index are the
vulnerability of communities when floods are impacted
and classified according to five different livelihood assets
in the sustainable livelihoods framework such as natural
capital, human capital, physical, social capital, financial
capital (Figure 2.1)

6


Figure 2.1 Sustainable livelihoods Framwork for research.
(Source: Adapted from DFID, 1999)

7


2.2 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
The information was collected by using a
combination of quantitative and qualitative research
methods. In particular, qualitative research methods
including carrying out the evaluation with the participation
of people and using the following tools such as Timeline;
Seasonal Calendar; Venn Diagram; Problem Ranking
Matrix; and detailed interviews of local leaders.
Quantitative research methods are included interview
local experienced households living with floods (around
360 households) and more than 50 years of living of study
sites such as: the upper zone (Phu Huu. Phuoc Hung
communes), middle zone (Vinh An, An Hoa communes)
and lower (Vinh Phuoc, Luong An Tra communes).
Therefore, these households have enough time to
experience and accumulate local living experiences while
gaining indigenous knowledge that has been applied to life
experiences. The study aimed to calculatevulnerability of
floodplain in study sites by Imitating Vulrerability Index
(LVI) raised by Hahn et al., (2009).The components that
are the indicators of vulnerability of community to flood
impacts are presented in (Table 2.1). These components
are classified under 5 different livelihood assets in SLF:
human, physical, social, natural, financial. The subcomponents have been developed as indicators under a
single component which are shown in (Table 2.2).

8


Table 2.1 Capitals, major components and subcomponents comprising the livelihood vulnerability index.
Capitals
Human

Major
component
Health

Knowledge
& skills

Livelihood
strategy

Natural

Land
Natural
resources

Natural
disasters and
climate
variability

Sub-component (Indicator)
Percent of HHs with family member
with illness
Percent of HHs with family member
get illness due to flood
Percent of HHs head unlettered
Percent of HHs head just passed
primary school
Percent of HHs head that no receive
any training to cope with flood
Average
agriculture
livelihood
diversity
Percent of HHs dependent on
agriculture as major source of income
Percent of HHs reported no non-farm
activities as affected by flood
Percent of HHs with no jobs (during
flood season)
Percent of HHs exploring natural
resources (during flood season)
Percent of HHs do fishing (during
flood season)
Percent of HHs with landless
Percent of HHs with small land (0- 1ha)
Percent of HHs that not cultivate the
3rd crop
Percent of HHs that depend on
(exploit) natural resources
Percent of HHs that depend on (do)
fishing during flood
Average number of most severe flood
in the past 15 years

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Capitals

Social

Major
component

Sociodemographic

Social
network

Physical

Financial

Housing &
prod. Means

Sub-component (Indicator)
Average of death/injury as result of
most severe flood in the past 15 years
Percent of HHs did not receive a
warning about flood
Mean standard deviation of monthly
average of average water level in Tan
Chau from 2000 to 2015
Mean
standard
deviation
of
precipitation by month (average 15
years)
Dependency ratio
Percent of female head HHs
Average family member in a HHs
Percent of poor HHs
Percent of HHs receive helps due to
flood
Percent of HHs that have not been
membering of any organizations
Percent of HHs that with housing
affected by flood (partially to totally
submerged)
Percent of HHs that with non-solid
house
Percent of HHs that report no access to
production means
Percent of HHs borrow money
Percent of HHs with net HHs income
lower 1000 USD
Percent of HHs with non – income
within flood season

Note: HHs=Household(s)

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Table 2.2 The causes of livelhood vulrerability in study
sites
Vulnerability(V)
V=e-s*a

The causes of contribuiting factor
livelihood vulrerability
(e)
(a)
(s)
Percent of
Percent of
Percent of
HHs
HHs head
HHs did not
dependent
unlettered
receive a
on
warning
agriculture
about flood
as major
source of
income
Percent of
Percent of
Natural
HHs
HHs head
disaters and
dependent
that no
climate
on nonreceive any
change
agriculture
training to
activities
cope with
flood
Percent of
Percent of
Number of
HHs that
HHs with no
death by
depend on
jobs (during
flood to
(do) fishing flood season) 2000 from
during
2015
flood
Percent of
Percent of
HHs with
HHs did not
no jobs
receive a
(during
warning
flood
about flood
season)
Percent of
Percent of
HHs with
HHs depend
landness
labor (3-4
and small
persons)
land (01ha)

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Vulnerability(V)

The causes of contribuiting factor
livelihood vulrerability
Percent of
Percent of
HHs with
HHs that with
medium
non-solid
land (1house
3ha)
Percent of
Percent of
HHs that
HHs with non
not
- income
cultivate the within flood
3rd crop
season
Percent of
HHs borrow
money

Ghi chú: (e): Expousse, (a): Adaptive capacity , (s):
Sensitivity
The information was collected by interviewing 360
households in upper zone (Phu Huu, Phuoc Hung
communes), middle zone (Vinh An, An Hoa communes)
and lower zone (Vinh Phuoc, Luong An Tra communes)
and Livelihood Vulnerability Index (LVI). According to
Hahn et al., (2009), LVI is applied to assess the impact of
flood damage to the livelihoods of people in flooding
areas. LVI index has two approaches: (1) LVI is
represented as a compound index including seven major
factors (household characteristics, livelihood strategies,
social networking, health, food, water, natural disasters
and climate change), each main factors including a few
indicators or additional factors; (2) seven key elements
combine into the three "contributing agents " including
exposure, sensitivity and adaptability (as defined by the
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change IPCC Intergovernment Panel on Climate Change). Each
additional factor measured in different system and should

12


be standardized as an index according to the following
equation:

Once standardized, additional factors are averaged
to calculate the value of each element by the following
equation:
Once values of the key elements are identified,
local livelihood vulnerability index (communal level) is
calculated according to the equation:

13


LVI is about [0,1], LVI the closer to 1, the higher vulnerable
rate.
LVI-IPCC: LVI of p commune is calculated by using IPCC.
LVI - IPCCp = (ep – ap) * Sp (value ranges from -1 to 1)
IPCC: CFP - is defined as the main components of the level
of exposure, sensitivity, adaptive capacity for each p commune.

CFp   i1WMiM pi /  i1WMi 
Mpi: main factors of p commune, index recorded as i
WMi: the degree of each component

Key components of the level of influence (e)
include climate change; capacity of adaptation (a) the
household characteristics, livelihood strategies and social
networks; sensitivity level (s), including the main
components of knowledge, skills and health care, natural
resources such as land and finance.

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Chapter III: RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
3.1 SYSTEMATING OF FARMER’S
INDIGENOUSKNOWLEDGE AND THEIR
ADAPTIVE CAPACITY TO FLOODS IN STUDY
SITES
3.1.1 The situation of using indigenous knowledge
of the local people in flood forecasting in study sites
Experiences have been used by people to forecast
floods including observations of flood events in previous
years; water color, wind direction; observing the
expression of some species of plants, animals, insects. The
results show that there is a difference in the proportion of
people using these signs as a basis for flood forecasting in
the three study areas. In upper zone, the percentage of
people using these signs for flood prediction is higher than
for the other two areas, the lowest is middle zone. In the
signs to observe flood forecasts, observe water colors,
plants and animals most used by the local people and at
least local people used method is water measure. Flood
monitoring methods (cycle or time) and water measure for
flood forecasting are used in upper zone.
For flood cycles or flood periods, local people rely
on the following characteristics (i) In May and July of the
Lunar year, the water rises quickly; In July and August,
flood starts; (ii) Every 3 year with small flood, 1 big flood
will take place or or every ten years with high flood (iii)
Big flood takes place during Year of Dragon.
Based on water color observations, more algae in
water (water ovum) or water ovum appears early (In May,
June of lunar year)

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Predict floods water color by to know the flood next
year large or smaller than the current year such as On
December 30 of lunar year, people weigh a bottle of river
water; On January 1, people get a different river water
bottle at the same position then weigh two bottles, big
flood are about to take place if the later bottle is heavier.
In the south wind, if the wind blows with rain, the
water will rise quickly and flow strongly, then the flood
will be high, vice versa if the wind blows back, then the
flood.
Observing the behavior of animals such as ants,
termites, nesting birds on tall trees; hammock on high;
chicks, storks follow the herd; spider web is more in July
lunar month, there will be heavy rain.
Observation of vegetation is based on (i) Reed
shoots have 4-5 segments during Lunar May (2 segments
indicate small flood); (ii) Reed leaf tip has more than 2
segments (1 segments indicate smallflood),; (iii) Reed has
50 cm long segments.; (iv) Grass leaf grows near the tip or
grows multiple segments. (v) Young bamboo shoot grows
higher than older ones; (vi) Elaeocarpus hygrophilus roots
grows more than usual.
However, household interview results showed
thatmost of the people in diffirent zone (upper zone,
middle zone, lower zone) can not predict floods, of which
the highest proportion of people without flood forecast
(middle zone) is 89.4%, next to middle zone (86,7%) and
upper zone (76,7%). The number of people predicted flood
in all of diffirent zone is very low. In addition, people also
believe that the signal to forecast the flood has changed
but not much. Signs of flood forecasting such as cyclical
and flood time observations, water color observations,

16


vegetation and water measure are no longer accurate.
Therefore, in order to forecast floods, people need to
combine more information together.
Local people also said that in recent years, due to
the unusual weather and complicated weather, the
accuracy of flood forecasting and weather is not as high as
before. Particularly in 2011, bamboo shoots are not taller
than bamboo shoots, but the water level is still high, or in
2015 there are many water eggs but no floods (PRA, 2016).
3.1.2 The situation of using indigenous knowledge
of the local people to adapt to floods in study sites
By living with the floods every year, local people
have accumulated many experiences to forecast and adapt
to floods in order to protect lives and property of people in
life and in agricultural production. By living experience
with the floods from the previous floods, the people
actively prevented and reduced flood damage. First of all,
local people in the flood area know how to build a house
on stilts with lifts; When there are signs of rising water,
people actively raise the floor.
For agricultural production, people actively change
the seasonal calendar, cultivating, fertilizing, tillage and
harvesting techniques. Local people also know how to
protect their livestock during the flood season by banana
rafts, straw and mud on the raft, cattle and poultry on the
raft. Organic fertilizer for plants. In catching aquatic
species in all three study areas based on water level,
observe fish caught to predict fish species will be present
in the next day.
Facing abnormal floods, people in three study areas
have changed the way floods are forecasted. Unlike in the
past, when floods were forecasted, people often paid

17


attention to the natural signs of prediction, but now they
know how to combine indigenous knowledge with flood
forecasting and the evolution of floods. the media to find
the appropriate response. This approach was chosen by
most people in all three regions (93,3%).
Setting up a mobile kindergarten (floating house)
means concentrating the children in a place to avoid floods
of adults replacing children sitting to help keep parents
safe during the flood season. However, in the three study
areas only the upper zone established the mobile
kindergarten, the remaining two did not at middle zone
and lower zone. The cause may be that in the upper zone,
floods are always flooded more deeply than the other
middle zone and lower zone, local people in this area often
use the flood season to exploit natural resources, in
addition due to the ability to flood often. The most
common cause of death in children is higher than in the
other two regions. Therefore, this mobile kindergarten
helps to reduce the loss of children's lives during the flood
season.
Living house on stilts, this is a method of
adaptation to floods that have been used by local people in
floods for a long time. In the past, local people in the flood
area have known to build houses in the style of stilts on the
lift; When there are signs of rising water, local people
actively raise the floor. However, for this adaptation
method, there was a difference in the proportion of people
using the three study areas, with 93,3% of the surveyed
households in the upper zone, while in the middle zone
and lower zone only 80% of households use this measure.
The results also showed that in the high flood area,
the majority of local people in the house on stilts have the

18


height of 1,6-2,9m, accounting for 53,3% and the floor on
3m is 6,7% higher. The remaining two areas are in lower
zone and middle zone flood areas. In contrast, people in
the middle zone and lower zone flood areas have houses
on stilts of 1,2-1.5 m, accounting for 46,7% and 33.3%
higher than flood . This showed that local people in high
flood areas have high water levels, so they have higher
house on stilt with lower floodplains and floods. In each
region, local people did not tend to change the height of
the floor in the future accounts for 50% because people
think they have taken the landmark of the two major floods
to rebuild the house in 2000, 2011. Beside 35,6% of people
in the study area wanted to raise the trend of raising houses
more because local people think that the weather is very
complicated, so in the following years the floods may be
high in 2000 and in 2011 and very few people have the
opposite trend.
3.1.3 The situation of using indigenous
knowledge of the local people to adapt to floods in
agricultural production
Based on the results of the survey, in agricultural
production, local people in three research areas still obtain
a lot of experience to adapt such as crop calendar change,
seed cultivation, fertilization, tillage and harvest
accordingly.
In addition, research results show that people need
to access information from the media quickly to adapt to
floods in agricultural production in climate change
because current information usually they give very delay
so they are unlikely to adapt. In addition, the average level
of education of the households is low, mainly illiterate or
primary education and secondary education , which in part

19


has affected the adoption of science and technology in
production to adapt to climate change. On the other hand,
the majority of farmers in general and cultivation of rice
in particular often follow the experience not recommended
by the scientists, so the farmers do not have the attitude
should certainly not follow advice and guidance of the
professional.
3.2 ASSESSING OF STABILITY FOR USING
FARMER’S INDIGENOUS KNOWEDGE AND
ADAPTIVE
CAPACITY TO FLOODS
IN
AGRICULTURE PRODUCTION
3.2.1 Assessing of stability for farmer’s
indigenous knowedge in flood forecasting
The results showed that people predicted floods by priority
rank one is wind direction, second comes based on
animals, third is based on cycle and flood time, fourth is
water color, fifth is vegetation. Local people priority based
on wind direction and animals still follow the laws of
nature should remain consistent and accurate should
preserve and promote this knowledge. Based on the cycle
and time of flood, water colors are not as accurate and
consistent as before due to human impact.
3.2.2 Assessing of stability for farmer’s
indigenous knowedge in agriculture production and
life activities
The study compiled 39 indigenous knowledge and
adaptability to floods and weather forecasts in agricultural
production and livelihoods of local people in the study
area. In which, there are 31/39 indigenous knowledge still
valuable in predicting and adapting to floods. However,
this knowledge has not been specifically recorded and

20


stored appropriately for transmission to the latter and
widely shared in the community. In addition, there are
8/39 indigenous knowledge that is no longer relevant and
misleading compared to the present. It should be
considered in the current context due to human impacts
and climate change. Therefore, the possibility of flood
forecast of the people also decreased, only a small number
of people can predict the flood, the weather. It is necessary
to increase knowledge and encourage people to combine
indigenous knowledge and scientific knowledge to
minimize the damage caused by floods.
3.3 ASSESSMENT ON VULNERABILITY TO
FLOOD CHANGES ON THE LIVELIHOODS OF
FARMERS IN NO DYKE AND HIGH DIKE IN
STUDY SITES
3.3.1 Assessment on vulnerability to flood changes
on the livelihoods of farmers in no dyke in study sites
Through the analysis of sources and livelihood
vulnerability index (LVI) of 10 key components, 30
subcomponents and 5 capital sources showed that the
upper zone is the most vulnerable in study sites. Within 5
capital sources such as: Natural capital, Human capital,
Financial capital and Social capital have high vulnerability
index in all three regions. On the contrary, physical capial
have the lowest vulnerability index (Figure 3.1).

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