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Thực hiện chính sách đào tạo nghề cho lao động nông thôn ở vùng đồng bằng sông cửu long tt tiếng anh

MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING

MINISTRY OF HOME AFFAIRS

NATIONAL ACADEMY OF PUBLIC
ADMINISTRATION

TRAN THI VANH KHUYEN

IMPLEMENTATION OF VOCATIONAL
TRAINING POLICIES FOR RURAL
WORKERS IN THE MEKONG RIVER
DELTA

Specialty: Public Management
Code: 9 34 04 03

SUMMARY OF DOCTORAL THESIS IN PUBLIC
MANAGEMENT

HANOI, 2019



The project has been completed at
NATIONAL ACADEMY OF PUBLIC
ADMINISTRATION

Scientific instructors:
1. Assoc.Prof.Dr Le Chi Mai
2. Dr. Ha Quang Thanh

Reviewer 1:

Reviewer 2:

Reviewer 3:
The thesis is defended at the Academy-level thesis
evaluation council.
Location: Doctoral thesis defense hall – Hall at Building ,
National Academy of Public Administration. No: 77 –
Nguyen Chi Thanh Street – Dong Da District – Hanoi
Time: At:

Date:

/

/2019

The thesis can be found out at National Library of Vietnam
or the library of National Academy of Public Administration.


LIST OF THE AUTHOR’S STUDY
PROJECTS
1. Participation of THE people in the implementation of
the national target program on new rural construction,
International Proceedings "Grassroots democracy initiatives and
people's participation in the public policy making process in the
Central Region ”, 2017.
2. Participation of people in implementation of
vocational training policies for rural workers in the Mekong
River Delta Region, State Management Magazine No. 258,
2017.
3. Vocational training for rural workers in the Mekong
River Delta , Special Education Journal in the third issue dated
3/8/2017.
4. Factors affecting the implementation of vocational
training policies for rural workers in the Mekong River Delta
region, Magazine of research and development, No. 21, 2017.
5. Vocational training for rural workers in the
Southwestern provinces - Real situation and solutions, Youth
Magazine, No. 25, 2018.



INTRODUCTION
1. Rationale of the topic
Vietnam is still a developing country with a largely
agricultural-based economy. However, the quality of labor in general
and rural labor in particular is very low. In order to meet the demand
of human resources of an industrialized country in the modernization
direction, it is necessary to improve the labor quality and strongly
shift the labor structure in rural areas. Therefore, vocational training
is a great mission.
Recognizing this, our Party and State have long paid deep
attention

to not only human resource development but also

vocational training for rural workers.
In the Mekong River Delta region, which is considered a
"depression region" of human resources quality compared to the
whole country, the vocational training policies for rural workers is
more necessary than anywhere else. Many positive results have been
recently achieved during the process of policies implementation in
the localities in the Region. However, there have been many
limitations and obstacles arise in the process of policies
implementation due to many different reasons, which makes the
policy implementation still not as successful as expected.
Therefore, the thesis "Implementation of vocational training
policies for rural workers in the Mekong River Delta " is
implemented to clarify theoretical and practical issues about the
implementation of such policies in the provinces in the Mekong
River Delta and then propose solutions to improve the results and
efficiency of policy implementation in the coming time.
2. Purposes and tasks of the Study


2.1. Purposes of the Study
To propose scientific solutions to improve the implementation
of vocational training policies for rural laborers in the Mekong River
Delta (MRD), contributing to improving the quality of rural laborers
to meet public requirements of agricultural and rural industrialization
and modernization in Vietnam today.
2.2. Tasks of the Study
Firstly, to give an overview of the study situation of domestic
and foreign authors on issues related to the thesis; Secondly, to study
the scientific basis for implementation of vocational training policies
for rural laborers; Thirdly, to analyze the real situation of policies
implementation organization in the Mekong River Delta and then to
evaluate the advantages and limitations and identify the causes of
limitations; Fourthly, to develop scientific solutions to improve the
results and efficiency of implementation of vocational training
policies for rural laborers in the Mekong River Delta in the coming
time.
3. Objects and scope of the Study
3.1. Objects of the Study
The study objects of the thesis is the implementation of the
vocational training policy for rural laborers in the Mekong River
Delta localities.
3.2. Scope of the Study
Space scope: 13 provinces and cities in the Mekong River
Delta .
Time scope: From 2009 up to now (Decision No.:1956/QDTTg with validity of enforcement).


Content scope: The thesis focuses on studying the policies
implementation process based on the following basic steps:
Developing documents and plans for policies implementation;
Popularizing and propagating policies; Organizing the apparatus and
assigning, coordinating for the policies implementation; Mobilizing
and using resources for policies implementation; Inspecting,
supervising and making preliminary sum-up , summary of policies
implementation.
4. Methodology and study methods
4.1. Methodology
4.2. Research Methods
Methods of analysis of secondary documents
Method of investigation by questionnaires
The writer conducted surveys for two groups of officials, civil
servants and rural workers in 4 provinces: Tien Giang, Ben Tre, Soc
Trang and Ca Mau.
Total number of issued questionnaire forms: Forms for civil
servants: 400; Forms for rural workers: 760. Total forms: Civil
servants: 374; Rural workers: 714.
Sampling method: random sampling.
Survey results are processed by SPSS data processing
software.
Other methods
In the thesis, some other methods such as comparison and
modelling methods are used.
5. Study questions and hypotheses
5.1. Questions


Why

hasn't

the

expected

targets

achieved

in

the

implementation of the vocational training policies for rural workers
in the Mekong River Delta ?
What should be done to improve the results and efficiency of
implementation of vocational training policies for rural workers in
the Mekong River Delta in the coming time?
5.2. Hypotheses
Hypothesis 1: The implementation of the vocational training
policies for rural workers in the Mekong River Delta has not achieved
the expected results.
Hypothesis 2: Good implementation of steps in the implementation
of vocational training polices for rural workers will contribute to
improving the results and efficiency of the policies in the Mekong River
Delta .
6. New contributions of the thesis
Firstly, the thesis clarifies the rationale for policies implementation,
including the focus on the process of implementation of vocational
training policies for rural workers in the localities where there are many
jobs and many different activities.
Secondly, the thesis developed criteria for assessment of inputs,
implementation process and outputs of implementation of vocational
training policies for rural workers.
Thirdly, the thesis identifies the factors affecting the
implementation of vocational training policies for rural workers.
Fourthly, on the basis of understanding international
experiences and localities where the vocational training policies for


rural laborers have been successfully implemented, some lessons are
given to be applied for the Mekong River Delta provinces in this
thesis.
Fifthly, the thesis shows the limitations of the implementation
of vocational training policies for rural rivers in the Mekong River
Delta localities and identifies the causes of such restrictions.
Sixthly, based on the rationale, the reality of policies
implementation as well as the Party's views and orientations for the
policy implementation process, the thesis proposes scientific
solutions to improve this task.
7. Scientific and practical meanings of the topic
7.1. Scientific meaning
The study contributes to summarizing and developing the
theory of implementing the vocational training policies for rural
workers.
7.2. Practical meaning
The thesis evaluates the real situation of organizing the
implementation of vocational training policies for rural workers in a
objective and comprehensive way; analyzes the advantages and
limitations based on scientific bases and then propose solutions to
strengthen policy implementation in line with the characteristics of
the Mekong River Delta region.
The study results of the thesis may become one of the
reference sources for teachers, researcher on public policy, decision
makers, management agencies, and civil servants. The thesis can also
be applied in practice to implement the vocational training policy for
rural workers not only in the Mekong River Delta but also other
localities across the country.


8. Structure of the thesis
In addition to the introduction, conclusion, list of references,
appendices, the thesis is structured into 4 chapters.
CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1: STUDY OVERVIEW
1.1. The study projects related to implementation of public
policy
1.1.1. International projects
1.1.2. Domestic projects
1.2. The projects related to the implementation of
vocational training policies for rural workers
1.2.1. International projects
1.2.2. Domestic projects
1.3. Comments
1.3.1. Findings
The study projects on public policy implementation have
been approached in many different aspects, however, generally, it
has formed a fundamental reasoning system to create favorable
conditions for the writer to develop a theoretical framework for the
implementation of vocational training policies for rural workers.
In the domestic study projects, the issue of vocational training
for rural workers is presented by the authors in a relatively adequate
way, including basic concepts, orientations and solutions.
The overseas study projects have provided the important
scientific premises as a basis for developing solutions for vocational
training Vietnamese rural workers.
1.3.2. Unclarified contents


The theory of policy implementation is a general theory in
which no author has studied in depth on the theoretical basis for
implementation of vocational training policies for rural workers.
The vocational training for rural workers is studied by many
authors in many different approaches, however, this issue is mainly
viewed from an economic perspective and but rarely analyzed in
terms of public policy.
The study projects in the world on the implementation of the
vocational training for rural workers account for a limited number,
which affects the study of experiences of other countries for
application in our country.
1.3.3. Issues to be further studied
Firstly, It is necessary to develop a theoretical framework for
implementation of vocational training policies for rural workers.
Secondly, the thesis evaluates the real situation of organizing
the implementation of vocational training policies for rural workers
in a objective and comprehensive way; analyzes the advantages,
limitations and causes of limitations based on the scientific bases and
then proposes solutions to implement this policy in accordance with
the characteristics of the Mekong River Delta .
CHAPTER

2:

IMPLEMENTATION

SCIENTIFIC
OF

VOCATIONAL

BASIS

ON

TRAINING

POLICIES FOR RURAL WORKERS
2.1. Rural workers and vocational training policies for
rural workers
2.1.1. Rural worker
2.1.1.1. Concept of rural worker


The term "rural worker" is approached in different ways. In
this thesis, the author thinks that: Rural workers are a part of the
population living and working in rural areas at the working age
according to the provisions of law and having capability of working.
2.1.1.2. Characteristics of rural workers
2.1.2. Vocational training
In this study, the author approaches the term "vocational
training" as follows: The vocational training is the process of
equipping certain knowledge about professional qualifications for
employees so that they can undertake a certain job.
2.1.3. Vocational training for rural workers
2.1.3.1. Concept of vocational training for rural workers
Vocational training for rural workers is understood as the
process of equipping certain knowledge about professional
qualifications so that rural workers get a certain vocational
qualification, skill and proficiency meeting the requirements of rural
socio-economic development.
2.1.3.2. Characteristics of vocational training for rural
workers
Trained subject
Trainer
Training characteristic
Targets of vocational training for rural workers
1.1.3.4. The role of vocational training for rural workers
Firstly, to improve the quality of qualification and professional
skills for rural workers


Secondly, to improve income and household economic
development
Thirdly, to create jobs for rural workers and social stability
Fourthly, to contribute to rural economic restructuring
Fifthly, to meet the development trend
2.1.4. Vocational training policy for rural workers
2.1.4.1. Concept
The vocational training policy for rural workers is a collection
of decisions of competent state agencies for improvement of the
quality of rural workers to meet the agricultural and rural
industrialization and modernization.
2.1.4.2. Component policies
The vocational training policies for rural workers include
many component policies. In the thesis, the author focuses on
studying 3 component policies including: Policies for rural workers
to participate in vocational training; Policies for vocational education
institutions; Policies for teachers and professional education
managers.
2.2. Implementation of vocational training policies for
rural workers
2.2.1. The concept of implementation of vocational training
policies for rural workers
Implementation of the vocational training policies for rural
workers is the whole process of the training subjects in different
ways to realize the contents of vocational training policies for rural
workers based on the established objectives.


2.2.2.

The

role

of

vocational

training

policies

implementation for rural workers
Firstly, policies implementation helps to gradually realize the
targets of vocational training policies for rural workers.
Secondly, policies implementation affirms the correctness of
the vocational training policies for rural workers.
Thirdly, implementation of the vocational training policies for
rural workers makes this policy more and more complete.
2.2.3. Procedures of policy implementation
Within the scope of the thesis's study, the implementation of
vocational training policies for rural workers in localities including:
developing documents and plans for policies implementation;
organizing

apparatus

and

assigning,

coordinating

for

implementation; disseminating and propagating policies; mobilizing
and using resources and inspecting, monitoring and preliminary
reviewing and summarizing the implementation. These steps are the
tasks to be performed and they are intertwined, not necessarily in a
constant fixed order.
2.2.4. Criteria for evaluation of policy implementation
Policy review will focus on inputs, policy implementation and
results of policy implementation or policy direct outcomes. The
inputs and processes will be described and analyzed in the part "the
real situation of vocational training policies for rural workers based
on the steps of policies implementation. Criteria for assessment of
the implementation of vocational training policies for rural workers
in vocational training, policies for establishments participating in
vocational training for rural workers, policies for teachers and
professional education managers.


2.3. Factors affecting policy implementation
Firstly, it is the current policy;
Secondly, the capacity of policy implementation team;
Thirdly, the coordination of implementation agencies;
Fourthly, the people's participation;
Fifthly, material resources.
2.4.

Domestic

and

international

experiences

in

implementation of vocational training policies for rural workers
To get attention and participation of sectors and units from
central to local levels in the process of policies implementation.
To clearly define the responsibilities of participating agencies;
Giving clear and consistent regulations on coordination mechanisms
among agencies.
To promote decentralization of management for local
authorities and vocational training institutions.
To strengthen policy propaganda, create the attraction for
vocational training, combining vocational training and job
introduction, ensuring stable jobs for vocational learners.
Mobilizing the participation of the people and organizations,
especially businesses in vocational training.
CHAPTER
IMPLEMENTATION

3:

REAL
OF

SITUATION

VOCATIONAL

OF

TRAINING

POLICIES FOR RURAL WORKERS IN MEKONG RIVER
DELTA
3.1. Overview of the Mekong River Delta
3.1.1. Overview of natural, economic and social conditions


3.1.2. Overview of rural labor force in the Mekong River
Delta
The Mekong River Delta region has a high population, an
abundant labor force, which has created advantages in labor
resources and great pressures on labor and employment for the
locality.
3.2. Organizing the implementation of vocational training
policies for rural workers
3.3.1. Development of documents and implementation
plans
The Provincial People's Committees have issued many
documents to guide localities to implement vocational training
activities. The authorities at all levels plan to organize the
implementation of vocational training for rural workers every year in
the area.
3.3.2.

Organizing

the

apparatus

and

assigning,

coordinating
Organization of policy implementation apparatus
Organization of the apparatus for policies implementation is
performed based on the relatively unified organizational structure
from central to local levels under the control of steering committees
at all levels.
Assignment and coordination for policy implementation
The provinces in the Region follow regulations on the
responsibilities of local agencies in implementation of vocational
training policies for rural workers. The reality shows that there has
been coordination among State agencies in implementation of
policies.


3.3.3. Dissemination and propagation of the policies
The information, propaganda and consultancy on vocational
training for people are also regularly paid attention. Localities have
actively built and implemented the plans of propaganda, vocational
training advice, employment and directed the development of
programs, specialized pages, column on radio, television, local
media.
3.3.4. Mobilization and usage of resources
Management of funding sources: Department of Labor, War
Invalids and Social Affairs (LISA) manages the non-agricultural
funds; Department of Agriculture and Rural Development manages
the source of agricultural vocational training funds. Such funding
sources are directly allocated to the vocational training institutions
to organize vocational training for rural workers in localities based
on the decision for approving the annual implementation plan of the
provincial People's Committee.
The allocation and use of funds
Central budget: In 5 years (2011-2015), the central budget for
investment support for vocational training in the Mekong River Delta
is VND 1,175,367 billion, accounting for 17% of the total funding of
projects allocated to localities all over the country. Local budgets: In
the past 5 years, the provinces have allocated 307 billion dong from
local budgets to invest in building facilities, vocational training
equipment, training vocational teachers and supporting rural workers
during vocational learning process.
In 2016, the vocational training budget for rural workers is
arranged in the National Program for New Rural Construction.
Currently, the provinces in the Region have allocated VND 92,735


million to support the vocational training for 75,522 rural workers,
equal to 69.7% of the funds for vocational training for rural workers
in 2015.
Many other policies, programs, projects and projects in which
the State budget are used for vocational training for rural workers are
directly managed and steered by ministries, sectors, therefore, there
is a dispersion of resources, overlap in beneficiaries and difficulties
in monitoring, making statistics and summarizing results.
Mobilization of resources
The policy of socialization of vocational training activities of
localities has initially been effective, mobilizing resources from
investment organizations and individuals to establish the vocational
training institutions. The ODA projects over the last 5 years have
supported investments for vocational training institutions in the
Mekong River Delta at 3,470,000 EURO and 13,153,144 USD.
However, the proportion of investment capital to establish
vocational institutions of non-public sector is still low compared to
the potential and requirements. Socialization of vocational training is
mainly concentrated in urban areas, while this rate is only 7% in Soc
Trang and Bac Lieu provinces.
3.3.5.

Inspection,

supervision

and

evaluation

of

performance
The localities have actively developed plans to inspect and
supervise the implementation of policies in the province. The
inspection and supervision of the Steering Committee is regularly
implemented. In addition, the localities held a annual preliminary
meeting to implement and extend the plan for the next year;


Preliminary meeting of 2 years and 3 years on the implementation of
Decision 1956/QD-TTg.
3.3. Results of implementation of component policies
3.3.1. Results of policy implementation for rural workers
participating in vocational training
The vocational training policy for rural workers has been
implemented for nearly 10 years and has achieved many positive
results. Vocational training in the region has developed, contributing
to a positive change in economic structure, labor structure, job
creation and poverty reduction in the region.
The number of participants in vocational training has
significantly increased over the years. In particular, the quantity of
rural workers who has new jobs or continue to do the old jobs but
with higher quality productivity after vocational training accounts for
about 80%.
The results and efficiency of vocational training for rural
workers are uneven among localities in the Region.
3.3.2. Results of policies implementation for vocational
education institutions
The network of vocational training institutions is quite diverse,
however, this quantity is quite limited in comparison with the
population and total administrative units of the Region.
Most vocational training institutions are supported to invest in
facilities and vocational training equipment to participate in
vocational training for rural workers. However, the facilities are
invested from the first year of implementation of the project, it is
difficult to avoid confusion and spreading in investment in facilities
and procurement of equipment for vocational training.


3.3.3. Results of policy implementation for teachers and
professional education managers
The quality of vocational teachers for rural workers has been
gradually improved in terms of professional qualifications and
pedagogical capacity, better meeting the training requirements.
However, these teachers have not yet met new tasks. The number of
full-time teachers, especially teachers of agricultural techniques is
not much, so vocational training institutions are very passive when
opening classes.
3.4. Evaluation
3.4.1. Achieved results
In the Mekong Delta provinces, the committees, authorities,
officials and party members have made positive changes in
awareness of the importance of vocational training policies for rural
workers with the local socio-economic development.
The apparatus for implementing vocational training policies
for rural workers has been increasingly consolidated and completed
in the direction of lightness and few clues. The clearly assigned
functions and tasks have created favorable conditions for
coordination among agencies in implementing policies.
The contingent of cadres and civil servants in general, cadres
and civil servants implementing vocational training policies in
particular are increasingly enhanced in quantity and improved in
quality.
The dissemination and propagation of policies has been carried
out relatively synchronously, social and political organizations have
had quite good entry.


Although 2016 is the first year that the funds for vocational
training support for rural workers is arranged in the National Target
Program for new rural construction, however many localities in the
region have actively developed plans, allocated funds from the
central support and local funds to support vocational training for
workers.
The inspection and monitoring of the policy implementation
process is conducted regularly with the participation of many
agencies, in which the role of the Steering Committee is clearly
reflected.
3.4.2. Shortcomings, restrictions
The work of planning is only strictly implemented at the
central and provincial levels, the closer to the base, the work has not
been done well. In fact, there is very little participation between state
agencies and socio-political organizations.
For a long time, the focal point of management of vocational
training facilities is scattered, specialized vocational training
institutions are managed by the General Department of Vocational
Education and the Department of Labor - Invalids and Social Affairs,
meanwhile, the system of facilities participating in vocational
training is scattered according to the organizations of the state
management system.
The organizational structure is still incomplete, and there are
many scattered clues. Up to now, the whole region still has 34/131
districts which have not been able to arrange full-time staff for
vocational training at the District Department of Labor - Invalids and
Social Affairs.


The policy of merging and adding functions to public centers
in the area into the Center for Vocational Education - Continuing
Education is only implemented in some localities, other localities are
slow to implement and wait for the guidance of their superiors.
Propaganda and advocacy activities in the area still exist many
problems: Form of propaganda in many localities is still simple and
tedious, so many people, and even cadres and civil servants are not
fully aware of vocational training policies; The quality of
propaganda is not high; The propagandists have not convinced
people when propagating and campaigning; Method of propaganda
in some places are not suitable, so the propaganda effect is not high.
The budget supported by the Central Government for
vocational training in 5 years 2010 - 2014 is lower than the demand
for vocational training registration of the people as well as the
approved Scheme (equal to 29.3% of the demand). Financial
resources have not met, have been fragmented, scattered and not
focused priority for training advantage and key occupations.
Checking and supervising the implementation of vocational
training tasks for rural workers has not been conducted regularly,
mainly combined with annual vocational training inspection. The
monitoring and evaluation of the program have been concerned with
quantity, not yet concerned with the results or policy’s impacts.
3.4.3. Causes
Firstly, the vocational training policy for rural workers is not
complete
In fact, the vocational training policy for rural workers is still
inadequate, causing difficulties for localities in implementing
policies, resulting in low efficiency.


Secondly, the awareness of society, officials and civil servants
is still not comprehensive
The perception of vocational training by the majority of local
officials is still in a narrow sense (developing skills to create jobs)
not in a broad sense (vocational training is part of a sustainable
livelihood development strategy).
Thirdly, the capacity of policy implementation team is limited
In the early days of implementing the policy, the personnel
managing vocational training at the district level have not been
assigned as a full-time job but assigned one officer of the
Department of Labor - Invalids and Social Affairs to work multiple
jobs, therefore, this work is sometimes loose.
Qualifications and professional skills of cadres and civil
servants in the main implementation are still limited, reducing the
effectiveness of policy implementation. Most officials in charge of
vocational training have not passed professional training courses.
Fourth, the coordination is not tight
There is no coordination in planning, checking, monitoring
and evaluating the performance of the tasks and even there is
overlapping in the management of training classes. The coordination
between the agency in charge of the Program and the agency in
charge of component content at all levels is still inadequate.
Fifth, financial resources are not guaranteed
Local resources for vocational training are very limited. The
funds for vocational training approved for vocational training
institutions is still low compared to market fluctuations, so it is not
guaranteed to carry out training tasks.
Sixth, people have not yet actively participated


Participation of the people has not been proactive. People are
still not fully aware of their rights and benefits when participating in
the process of implementing vocational training policies.
The participation of enterprises in vocational training is still
very limited.
Many skilled craftsman are not really enthusiastic about the
vocational training.
CHAPTER 4: SOLUTIONS TO STRENGTHENING THE
VOCATIONAL

TRAINING

POLICY

FOR

RURAL

WORKERS IN THE MEKONG DELTA REGION
4.1. Orientation of vocational training for rural workers
4.1.1. The Party's view on vocational training for rural
workers
Firstly, improving the quality of vocational training,
developing the scale corresponding to the quality assurance
conditions; building an open and flexible vocational training system
to create favorable conditions for all learners.
Secondly, renovating vocational training in the close direction
associating with the labor and social markets, shifting strongly
training associated with employment and sustainable job creation,
labor export and social security.
Thirdly, innovation must be synchronized, inheriting previous
experiences

and

standardization,

achievements;
modernization,

ensuring

the

socialization,

principle

of

democratization,

international integration and having a suitable roadmap in each
period.
Fourth, creating conditions to attract all social resources to
innovate and improve the quality of vocational training, in which the


State plays a key role; strengthening autonomy of public vocational
education institutions.
4.1.2. Requirements for policy implementation
Firstly, ensure the objectives of the policy
Secondly, associate with local and regional characteristics
Thirdly, need the determination of the whole political system
Fourth, ensure the participation of people and society
Fifth, ensure efficiency
Sixth, ensure transparency and accountability
4.2. Solutions
4.2.1. Completing vocational training policies for rural
workers
In the short term, it is necessary to amend the irrational,
irrelevant points of the policy to support rural workers, policy for
vocational training institutions and policy for vocational teachers. In
the long term, the state needs to reconsider its role in policy
intervention.
4.2.2. Renovating the plan of policy implementation
Provinces must focus on developing plans or action programs
on vocational training to 2020, in which vocational training must be
associated with socio-economic development programs and plans
and new rural construction planning, meeting the task of economic
restructuring and sustainable poverty reduction.
This work is not only carried out "internally" but also required
mechanisms for other training subject to participate.
Localities should not underestimate the investigation and
survey of workers' needs.


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