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INTRODUCTION
1. Reason for choosing thesis topic
The implementation of the training program is the most important
and fundamental activity of a university. In order to improve the quality of
training, first of all, the management must be renewed. Recognizing that
role and meaning, the education management authorities have paid
attention to investment in both intellectual, effort and money to develop
training programs to ensure the scientific and logical, suitable to the needs
of the society, the development trend of the training industry and school
guarantee ability; management activities for implementing training
programs are also regularly updated, adjusted and supplemented.
However, there are also shortcomings and limitations in training
institutions in military universities.
Currently, there have been many scientific works of authors in the
country and abroad studying training program management. However,
there are no specific studies on the management of the implementation
of the current training program according to the career competence
approach of the commanding - advisory officer at the division level and
university level. For the above reasons, the author has chosen the topic
of “Management of the implementation of the commanding - advisory

officer training program in military universities according to
competency approach” as the research topic with the desire to
supplement the theoretical issues and propose management measures to
improve the quality of education and training at military universities.
2. Purposes and tasks of the research
2.1. Purposes of the research
Based on the practical and theoretical basis on management of
the implementation of the commanding - advisory officer training
program in military universities, the thesis proposes measures to
effectively manage the implementation of the commanding - advisory
officer training program in military universities according to
competency approach so as to improve the quality of education and
training at schools.
2.2. Tasks of the research
The dissertation builds the theoretical base on management of
the implementation of the commanding - advisory officer training
program in military universities according to competency approach.
The dissertation investigates analyses and evaluates the actual
situation of implementing training program and the actual situation of
management of the implementation of the commanding - advisory
officer training program at military schools at the present.


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The dissertation proposes some measures to manage the
implementation of the commanding - advisory officer training
program in military universities according to competency approach.
The dissertation tests and experiments the necessity and
feasibility of the research’s proposed measures.
3. Subject, object, scope and scientific hypothesis
3.1. Subject of the research
Management of training program at military universities.
3.2. Object of the research
Management of the implementation of the commanding advisory officer training program in military universities according to
competency approach.
3.3. Scope of the research
- In terms of content, the dissertation researches on the
implementation of training program and management of the
implementation of the commanding - advisory officer training
program in military universities according to the commanding advisory officers’ career competency approach at division level.
- In terms of subject, areas of investigation, subjects are
education managers and lecturers, cadets directly realizing training
activities; areas of investigation: The Army Officers-Training College
N1, The Army Officers-Training College of Commando; Air and Air
Defence Force Academy, Navy Academy.
- In terms of time, data used are from 2015 to 2018.
3.4. Scientific hypothesis
Management of the implementation of the commanding advisory officer training program in military universities today,
beside achievements, there exist certain limitations; especially
management of realizing training activities to form and develop
career competence for learners after their course. If the subjects of
realizing training activities identify the career competence frame of
the commanding - advisory officers; building the specific training
plans for training activities in the competence approach; establishing
the training cooperation within different units; nurturing the
capability for education managers and lecturers; directing the new
ways of testing, evaluating the result of realizing training activities
and ensuring the sources for realizing training activities in the
competence approach, then learners’ career competence will be
formed and promoted so as to improve the quality of training meeting
the requirements of the reality.
4. Methodology and research method


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The thesis is based on the thorough understanding of the
historical and materialist dialectics of Marxism-Leninism. At the
same time, it bases on research method of education management and
different ways of accessing, typically: the system-structure, history logics; approach to functions and approach to the standard outcome.
The thesis uses different methods: Theoretical methods, practical
methods and supportive methods.
5. New contributions of the research
The dissertation clarifies the theory on management of the
implementation of training program according to competency approach;
The dissertation finds out and evaluates the actual situation of
realizing training activities and management of realizing training
activities.
The dissertation analyses the subjective and objective causes of
factors affecting the management of the implementation of the commanding
- advisory officer training program in military universities today;
The dissertation proposes 6 measures to manage the
implementation of the commanding - advisory officer training
program in military universities according to competency approach.
6. Theoretical and practical significance of the research
- In terms of theory: The dissertation adds the theoretical basis
on management of the implementation of training program in military
universities according to competency approach for education
managers, lecturers to do research and apply into the reality so as to
improve the quality of the schools’ education, training.
- In terms of practice: The dissertation enables education
managers, lecturers at military universities to thoroughly understand
the contents of management of realizing training activities in the
direction of competence approach;
The proposed measures will be valuable materials for
education managers, lecturers at military universities to apply into the
realization of training activities;
The dissertation can be used as references in scientific research
at academies, schools in the army as well as civilian ones.
7. Structure of the thesis
The thesis includes: Introduction, 4 chapters, conclusions, list of
scientific works of the author related to the dissertation, list of
references and Appendices.
Chapter 1
OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH SITUATION
RELATED TO THESIS TOPIC
1.1. The works related to the training programmes


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Typical authors on the structure of training program: Kelley A.V
(1977) with the book “The curriculum: theory and practice”, Arther
Levine (1978) with “Handbook on Undergraduate Curriculum”. These
authors state that the structure of training program consists of the
following basis components: aim, content, method of training and ways of
evaluating the results of training.
Typical authors on building and developing training program:
William E. B. (1982) with “Handbook for developing competency-based
training programs, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall”; Robert
M.Diamond; Susan Tooshey; Nguyen Thi My Loc (2004) with “Some
issues on tertiary education”; Tran Khanh Duc (2014) with “Education and
development of human resources in the 21th century”; Pham Huu Loc;
Nguyen Thi Lan Phuong; Phung Xuan Nha and Vu Anh Dung, etc.
Basically, these authors claim that the procedure of building and developing
training program as follows: analysing the situation, identifying the aim;
designing the program, realizing and evaluating the program.
Typical authors on assessing training program: Sue Bloxham, Pete
Boyd (2007) with the book “Developing Assessment in Higher
Education: A Practical Guide”; Tran Khanh Duc with his research on
criteria assessing training program; Nguyen Duc Chinh and Vu Lan
Huong with their research on patterns of assessing training activities.
The typical works on training program according to competency
approach: The document Education renovation in Indonesia shows that
competency-based training program emphasizes on students’
competency; learning results (final results) and variety; knowledge
gained not only from teachers, but from different sources. Leesa
Wheelahan believes that practice competence training focuses on
students’ career fulfilling, not on getting specialized knowledge. In the
work “Developing training program in order to improve the training
quality, meeting the social needs”, Glenn M.Mary Jo Blahna presents the
pattern structure of workers’ personality based on competency.
1.2. The works on management of training program in the
direction of competence approach
In 2015, Phan Thi Hong Vinh touched upon the content of
managing the realization of teaching program in her book “Developing
and managing teaching program”. It consists of: building the plan for
teaching program and realizing teaching program.
Dang Duc Thang and his fellows state their views on the
content of managing training activities of military universities in the
course book “Management of military tertiary education”. It
includes: management of designing training activities and
management of realizing training program. Specifically:


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Management of designing training program is the management
of every part in the procedure of designing training program:
managing situation analysis, identifying training aim; management of
content design; management of implementing the training program;
management of assessing the training program. Assessing the training
program is conducted according to summarising evaluation or regular
evaluation, including internal and external evaluation.
Management of the implementation of training program is
carried out by managing the construction and implementing the legal
documents: building, implementing the courses’ training plan;
building, implementing the training timetable and ratifying the
system of education management.
In the book “Basic issues on program and teaching process”,
Nguyen Huu Chau presents the importance of learners-cantered in
developing training program and mutual relationship between training
program and learning process, emphasizing the importance of teaching
process in implementing training program. The success of training
program depends on teaching process; which affects the process of
managing training program at schools.
In the work “Management of basic training program ensuring
independence and quality of tertiary education”, Phan Huy Hung
clarifies the insufficiency and shortcomings of management of
training program today and proposes some solutions to improve the
effectiveness in managing training program.
In the work “Developing the training program of tertiary
education in the direction of the output standard”, Nguyen Thanh
Son (2015) analyses the implementation of management functions
in developing training program. They are: planning to develop
training program; organizing to develop training program;
directing the activity to develop training program and testing,
assessing the activity of developing training program.
In the thesis (2014) “Management of tertiary training
program of business administration at Hanoi National University in
the direction of ensuring the quality of the university network in
South-East Asia”, Sai Cong Hong proposes solutions to manage the
realization of training activities.
In her doctoral thesis entitles: “Management of the program of hiquality bachelors training at Hanoi national university in the direction of
comprehensive quality approach”, Bui Thi Thu Huong clarifies the main
theoretical points of management of training activities; aim
management; management of training contents; management of training
methods; management of assessing the training result.


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In conclusion, the above scientific works are textbooks, teaching
and learning materials, scientific articles, conference articles, doctoral thesis,
but none of them thoroughly and fully research on management of the
implementation of the commanding - advisory officer training program in
military universities according to competency approach.
1.3. Overview of the research results of published scientific
works and the issues that the thesis needs to continue to solve
1.3.1. Overview of the results of scientific
works related to the topic
Firstly, most scientific research projects clarify the structure of
the training program, the process of developing training programs,
evaluating training programs, the process of developing the current
general school education program according to the competency
approach, training program management for a training industry.
Secondly, the published scientific works only explain the basic
competencies that need to be formed and developed for high school
students; no scientific work has been studied in depth and standardized
into standards, criteria for professional capacity of commanding - advisory
officer at the level of the division, university level and they have not yet
shown the way, the method, the manner to reach that capacity system.
Thirdly, although many scientific works have deepened the
theoretical issues and proposed training program management measures.
However, there are no specialized studies on the management of the
implementation of the commanding - advisory officer training program
in military universities according to competency approach.
1.3.2. The issues that the thesis needs to continue to solve
Firstly, the continuation of clarifying theoretical issues about
implementing the training program for training program implementation.
Secondly, clarification of the status of implementing training
programs and management of the implementation of the
commanding - advisory officer training program in military
universities.
Thirdly, the proposal of a system of management measures to implement
the commanding - advisory officer training program in the military universities in
terms of approaching capacity in line with current practical needs.
Conclusion of chapter 1
Through an overview of scientific works related to published
thesis topics such as books, textbooks, scientific topics, doctoral thesis…,
the author has drawn some conclusions: scientific works related to training
program management topics have been mentioned by domestic and
foreign authors in many different aspects and approach in many ways to


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ensure scientific, comprehensive and intensive in both theoretical and
practical aspects. In general, these scientific works have indicated the
position and role of training programs and training program management
activities for improving the quality of education and training in school. It
has introduced the concepts of tools such as: management, university
training programs, training program management, action capabilities, and
management of training programs according to different approaches. At
the same time, it also analysed and clarified the basic contents of training
program management and pointed out the factors affecting the
management of current training programs.
On the basis of inheriting the achievements of scientific works
related to the topic, the thesis continues to clarify the concepts: university
training program, professional competence framework, management
training program according to competency approach; at the same time, it
determines the content of implementing the training program, managing
the implementation of the training program according to the competency
approach. Finally, it evaluates honestly and objectively the status of
management implementation of the commanding - advisory officer
training program at military universities, thereby proposing management
measures to implement the commanding - advisory officer training
program in military universities according to competency approach.
Chapter 2
THEORETICAL BASIS FOR MANAGING THE
IMPLEMENTATION OF THE COMMANDING - ADVISORY
OFFICER TRAINING PROGRAM IN MILITARY
UNIVERSITIES ACCORDING TO COMPETENCY APPROACH
2.1. University training program
2.1.1. Concept
In terms of terminology, the documents on Education and
Training often appear similar to the training program like:
“educational program”, “training program”, “and teaching program”.
In English, this term is considered equivalent to “curriculum” or
“program”. According to the Vietnamese Dictionary (re-edition
2018), the training program is “items, problems, tasks set and
arranged in a sequence to perform in a given time”.
In terms of the perspective of scientists, author Kieran Egan said
that curriculum derived from the Latin word meaning "racetrack", "race",
author Franklin Bobbit conceived the educational program as “a series of
things that young people and teens have to do and experience by
implementing the skills to solve problems they will face in life. In this
regard, the author Wentling T. as well as the authors Nguyen Duc Chinh and
Vu Lan Huong said that the educational program is the overall plan, the
system of all educational activities at the school.


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From the above statements, the author has conceived that
university training program is a blueprint that shows the overall
components of the training process, conditions, ways, and processes to
organize training activities to achieve the training objectives set out.
2.1.2. Types of university training programs
Derived from the approach in developing training programs,
corresponding to it is a training program that approaches the content
and training programs according to the target approach, the training
program according to the development approach (competency
approach). Each approach is associated with a certain phase of the
development of educational science.
2.1.3. Commanding - advisory officer training program at
division under university level
The commanding - advisory officer training program at division
under the military university is structured with 2 knowledge part:
knowledge of general education and knowledge of professional education.
- Knowledge of general education: from 23% to 25% of the
knowledge volume of the entire course.
- Knowledge of professional education: from 75% to 77% of
the knowledge volume of the entire course.
2.2. Competence and access to capacity and scientific basis to
determine the professional competence framework of the
Commanding - advisory officer at division under university level
2.2.1. Competence, access to capacity and
professional competence framework
In term of terminology, there are words of “competence” in
English, they are: Competency - capacity or ability, sometimes it can
also be understood to mean a competent; Ability - Ability to allow
individuals to perform activities both physically and mentally; Capacity
- the ability to create something, do anything, learn something in difficult
conditions; Competence - ability to perform work. In the Education
Dictionary, competency is the ability to be formed and developed, allowing
people to achieve success in a physical, intellectual or occupational activity.
In the Vietnamese dictionary, approach means step by step, with certain
methods to understand a certain object of research.
The views of scientists about competence: According to the
concept of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and
Development (OECD): “ Competence is an individual ability to meet
complex requirements and successfully perform tasks in a specific
context” [105], F.E.Weiner author said that: “Competence is the skills
learned or available of the individual to solve defined situations, as
well as the readiness of social motivation... and the ability to use


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ways to solve problems responsibly and effectively in flexible
situations”. The authors Nguyen Thu Ha, author Hoang Thi Tuyet
and author Nguyen Cong Khanh all said that "Competence is a
combination of knowledge, skills, attitudes that combine together
into a system with close relations with each other”.
From the above concepts, the author has conceived that:
Competence is a combination of knowledge, skills, qualities and
attitudes of people, ensuring people to effectively complete the work
and activities that individuals are conducting.
The views of scientists on competence access: R.E Norton (1987)
presented a view of competency approach in training organization. That
is: the capabilities to be equipped are clearly defined, appraised and
announced to learners before organizing training; the training program is
designed based on capacity development, assessing learners'
competencies based on work performance results and sufficient evidence
to confirm the level of achievement.
From this point of view, the author conceived that Access to
competencies in education management is to determine the
competencies required, organize competency-based training and
capacity development for learners.
The views of scientists on the professional competence
framework: According to Mc.Clelland (1973), the competence
framework is a job description through behaviour determined by
occupational functions in each specific job.
From the above concepts, the author has determined the
professional competence framework of the commanding - advisory
officer is a description of moral qualities, knowledge, and attitudes
and necessary skills to help the commanding - advisory officer to
effectively implement professional activities according to the
assigned responsibilities and tasks.
2.2.2. Scientific basis for determining the
professional
competence
framework
of
the
commanding - advisory officer at division under
university level
- Based on the policy of reforming education and training of the
Party, State and Army:
- Based on Vietnam's national qualification framework:
- Based on professional activities of the Chief of advisory officer:
2.3. Implementation of the commanding advisory officer training program in military
universities according to competency approach
2.3.1. The concept of implementing the training program


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In term of terminology: According to the Vietnamese
Dictionary, "implementation" means the following:
Implementation is "by doing things to become true", to "follow
certain order and rules" [64, p.973].
From the above terms, the author conceived that implementation of
training program according to competency approach; it is to implement
activities according to the training program developed to make the training
program a reality to create training products according to the output standard the future professional competence system that the school has determined.
2.3.2. Content of implementing the training program
2.3.2.1. The construction of documents specifying the training program
- Develop logical diagrams of subjects in the whole course:
name of knowledge block, subject name, subject symbol, time and
form of training of each subject; relationship of knowledge blocks,
subjects, headings. The logical diagram of the courses in the course is
the core to build the training program
- Develop training plan for the course:
Determining training objectives and requirements: Based on the
issued training programs, directives and resolutions of higher levels on
education and training tasks of the course, the school conducts analysis of
social needs of the learner and the actual status of the results of the current
training program to determine in detail, the training objectives of the course
that the learners should aim for, thereby selecting the training content,
methods and forms of training organization accordingly;
Divide time for knowledge blocks and for subjects according to
logical diagrams of subjects in the course. Non-training time: reserve
holidays, holidays, Test for each semester, school year and course.
- Develop a semester training plan: name of the unit (class,
company, battalion, system ...), specialized training; time (pairs of
lesson, hours, days, months, semesters ...); title, subject name (coded
or specified); training forms (theory, practice, seminars, exams ...);
location (lecture halls, practice yards ...). In addition, semester training
plan also shows other factors such as material guarantee, teacher's name
2.3.2.2. The construction of secured resources
- Build a human resource guarantee plan: in order to achieve
the training objectives set out, educational managers, lecturers and
service staff are the most important and direct forces for students to
be able to achieve defined professional competency standards.
Therefore, education management staff, lecturers and service staff, in
addition to having professional knowledge, must also have skills and


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capacity to act in the field they undertake to guide and help students
achieve those skills and abilities.
- Develop plans to ensure facilities: material facilities for
education and training tasks are teaching equipment, curriculum,
libraries, application of information technology in teaching, simulation
software, practice ground, practice training school… These factors play
an important role in the training process, especially in practical training,
experiments, and internships… In addition to the theoretical training
contents in the lecture hall, the lessons, the contents of practice and
experiment are met a requirement of the capacity that students need to
achieve after completing the course. Therefore, the Director/Principal
should direct the authorities to develop plans to ensure that resources
meet the requirements of the capacity-based training program
implementation. The identification of these resources helps educational
managers, active lecturers in planning the use as well as determining the
methods and forms of teaching organization
2.3.2.3. Enforcement of teaching activities
Open the course; relevant functional agencies organize the
implementation of the plan to serve teaching activities; Faculty of
teachers conducts teaching activities according to the training
schedule, the student management units implement the learning
activities according to the plan and strictly abide by the regulations.
2.3.2.4. The examination and evaluation of teaching activities
Education and Training Examination and Quality Assurance
Agency will lead and coordinate with the Training Department to
check teaching and learning activities of lecturers and trainees
according to regulations discover report and propose to correct errors
in the teaching process.
Faculty of teachers shall directly monitor, check, urge, adjust errors
in the teaching process and grasp the situation, register and report
according to the report system of each day, week, month, quarter, semester
and school year according to the instructions of agencies.
2.4. Management of the implementation of the commanding advisory officer training program in military universities according to
competency approach
2.4.1. The concept
2.4.1.1. Management concept
In term of terminology: According to the Vietnamese
Dictionary, "management is looking after and preserving under
certain requirements" [64, p.540].


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From the perspective of scientists: Henry Fayol said: "Management
means planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating and inspecting".
Nguyen Thi My Loc, Dang Quoc Bao, Nguyen Trong Hau and Nguyen
Quoc Chi emphasized: “Management activity is a purposeful, intentional
impact of the management entity (manager) to the managed entity
(managed person) in an organization to make the organization operate and
achieve its purpose”. Tran Kiem conceived that: “Management is the impact
of the management entity in mobilizing, promoting, combining, using,
coordinating internal and external resources (human, material, financial)
(mainly internal forces) in an optimal way to achieve the purpose of the
organization with the highest efficiency”.
From the above studies, the author conceived: Management is a
purposeful, purpose-driven process of management through planning; personnel
organization; leadership, direction and examination and evaluation affect
management objects to achieve the defined management objectives.
2.4.1.2.Management
concept
of
training
program
implementation
The management of training program implementation is the process
of realizing the entire purpose and objectives of the training program
through teaching activities, on a specific audience, is the work of the
participation of educational managers, lecturers and students.
As the result, the management of the implementation of the
commanding - advisory officer training program in military
universities according to competency approach is the process of
purposeful and purposeful impact of educational managers at all
levels in the school to implement training programs through planning;
organization; leadership and direction; the examination and evaluation of
the results of the implementation of the capacity-based training program
are aimed at forming learners in the necessary professional capabilities
of the commanding - advisory officer.
2.4.2. Contents of management of the implementation of the
commanding - advisory officer training program in military
universities according to competency approach
2.4.2.1. The development of the master plan for implementing the
training program
Build a plan to help managers to work out the tasks to be done
in a systematic way; at the same time proactively respond to
situations arising in the process of organizing the implementation of
the training program.
2.4.2.2. The organization of implementing the training program


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Firstly, the organization of the training program implementation
apparatus: Military universities are training institutions which are directly
under the direction of the upper management agency (School
Department/General Staff Department); directly organize the
implementation of the Law on higher education, the charter of the school
of the Vietnam People's Army and the guidelines and policies of the Party
and the State on Education and Training…; have an organizational
structure suitable to the characteristics, functions and tasks of a university.
The management of training programs at military universities is
decentralized according to the responsibilities and tasks of organizations
and individuals in the school's organizational system. In particular, it is
necessary to specify the tasks of each organization and individual from the
Director/Principal to the educational managers, lecturers directly
participating in the management of the training program.
Secondly, organization of implementing training plans:
(1) Logical diagram of subjects in the whole course: Managing
logic diagrams of the subjects in the whole course for education
managers, lecturers and students to understand which subjects are
studied first and organize that subject at which semester in the course,
but it is also necessary to know which subjects to learn in the previous
subjects; as well as helping agencies, teachers' departments and units to
take initiative in preparing resources to serve teaching tasks.
(2) Course training plan, management course training plan for
managers to understand the contents of the course, training industry,
objectives, training requirements, training time calculation, nontraining time of all courses, logic diagrams of courses in the whole
course, time and form of internship, rehearsal, graduation exam, time
and content of extra-curricular training (if any).
(3) The plan of semester training, the management of semester
training plan so that managers can know information about classes,
majors, subject names (can be coded or named), training time, training
form (theory or practice, discussion, experiment...), training locations
(lecture halls or practice sites, battlefields), lecturers' names and material
guarantees. In particular, attention should be paid to the content of the
work, the host, the coordinator, the timeline for starting and ending; as
well as specific tasks of each agency, faculty and unit for that job.
2.4.2.3. The direction of implementing the training program
In order to successfully implement the training program, the
managing subjects at all levels must guide and assign specific tasks to
departments and individuals in their management apparatus through
management decisions. These decisions can be in writing, can also be verbal
or can be directly or indirectly through intermediate management.


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2.4.2.4. The examination and evaluation of the results of the training
program implementation
Inspection and evaluation is the final function in management
activities and also the starting point as a premise for decision making,
planning, organizing implementation; inspection and evaluation in the
following cycle. The process of organizing the inspection and evaluation
must be conducted in accordance with the Higher Education Law,
regulations and guiding documents of superior management agencies.
In order for the examination and evaluation of the results of the
training program implementation to be highly effective, it must be conducted
in many forms: check, evaluate regularly, periodically, and unexpectedly and
must be consistent with the atmosphere of the organization without
obstructing the work of the parts of the system. It means that the inspection
and evaluation activities are conducted regularly during the implementation of
the training program with the purpose of collecting and processing
information to promptly adjust and supplement management effects.
2.5. Factors affecting the management of the
implementation of the commanding - advisory
officer training program in military universities
according to competency approach
2.5.1. Objective factors
- The task of building the army and protecting the country in
new conditions
- Require education and training innovation in universities
- System of legal documents on training program
management
2.5.2. Subjective factors
- Coordination activities between schools and units in training
organizations
- Awareness and qualification of educational managers, lecturers
and students
Conclusion of chapter 2
Chapter 2 of the thesis reflects the main research results on the
theoretical basis of management to implement the commanding advisory officer training program at universities in the military
according to competency approach through analysis to clarify the
implications of the basic concepts of the topic: university training
program, professional competence framework, university training
program according to competency approach. At the same time, it
also clearly identifies the content of implementing the training


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program and managing the implementation of the training program
according to competency.
Chapter 2 of the thesis also points out the factors affecting
(both objective and subjective) to the management activities to
implement the commanding - advisory officer training program in
military universities according to competency approach. These are
the basic arguments, which are the basis for the author to consider the
status of managing the implementation of the commanding - advisory
officer training program in military universities in chapter 3.
Chapter 3
PRACTICAL BASIS FOR MANAGING THE
IMPLEMENTATION OF THE COMMANDING - ADVISORY
OFFICER TRAINING PROGRAM IN MILITARY
UNIVERSITIES
3.1. Universities in the army organize commanding to train
commanding - advisory officer training program
3.1.1. Functions, duties, staffing of schools in the army to
implement commanding - advisory officer training program at
division of university level
The organizational structure of the schools is implemented
according to the functional structure:
Directorate (director).
Functional agencies: Politics, Training, Logistics, Engineering,
Office, Military Science, Examination and Quality Assurance of
Education and Training. Each agency is staffed into board (teams).
Faculties of teachers: each department is staffed into
disciplines (teams).
Student management units;
Practical training centres and service and guarantee units.
3.1.2. Characteristics of commanding - advisory officer
training program at division of university level
- Characteristics of input selection activities
- Characteristics of training activities
+ Characteristics of lecturers and education managers
+ Characteristics of training content
+ Operation characteristics to ensure facilities
- Characteristics of assessment and appraisal of training quality
3.2. The organization of surveying the situation
3.2.1. Purpose of investigation and survey of the situation
3.2.2. Contents of surveying the situation
- Survey the status of implementing the commanding -


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advisory officer training program
- Survey the status of management implementation of
commanding - advisory officer training program
- Survey the status of factors affecting the management of
training program implementation
3.2.3. Object and location of the status survey
Objects of the survey: The author conducted surveys for 200
educational managers, 320 lecturers in addition to interviewing
leaders and commanders in a number of units and experts, who have
extensive experience in training program management, fourth year
training students in a number of schools.
Survey of the survey: The Army officer College No1, Officer of
the Vietnamese Special Forces, Vietnam Academy of Air Force – Air
Defense Force, Vietnam Academy of Navy.
3.2.4. Methods of investigation and survey
- Methods of investigation by votes
- Interview method
- Product research method
3.2.5. Data processing method
After collecting data from the questionnaires according to
different levels of each criterion, using mathematical statistics
method and Microsoft Office Excel software to calculate the
average number:
The questionnaire was sent to the survey subjects from April of 2018 to
May of 2018 and revoked the comments and survey forms in June of 2018.
3.2.6. Criteria and rating scale
3.2.6.1. Evaluation criteria and how to give points
Use the scale for points as follows: Good: 4, Fair: 3, Average: 2, Weak: 1.
The level of factors affecting the management of the
implementation of the training program, using the scale as follows:
Very influential: 4, Influence: 3, Less impact: 2, No effect: 1.
3.2.6.2. Rating scale
The survey criteria by questionnaires are scored according to a
scale of 4.
3.3. Status of implementing the commanding - advisory officer
training program in military universities
3.3.1. Current situation of developing
documents to specify training programs
Through the survey results, the development of documents to
concretize the regular training program is paid attention to research and
guidance documents of higher authorities. It is applied to the specific
conditions of the school to develop training plans in accordance with the
process, tight and scientific and convenient progress to facilitate the


17
implementation and easily modify, supplement and update new knowledge.
However, there are still teachers and passive units waiting for them, relying on
the above to build security plans for education and training tasks.
3.3.2. Current situation of resources that ensure the
implementation of the training program
- Actual guarantee of human resources
Human resources guaranteed for the implementation of training
programs are educational managers, lecturers, students, professional
military personnel, service workers.... However, the core force directly
implementing the training program is the specialized educational
managers from the Board of Directors/Board of Administrators,
officers in the Departments and functional departments in the Faculty
and Department of the school. They are not only people directly
equipped with knowledge and skills for learners but also centres for
coordination and synergies to implement training programs and plans
so that the training program can become a reality of training products.
- Actual guarantee of facilities
In recent years, military universities have actively exploited
funding and investment sources with a focus on each task, so far
basically ensuring facilities for the tasks of education and training.
3.3.3 Current status of implementing training
programs (teaching)
- Current status of implementing teaching content
- Current status of implementing teaching methods
- The reality of implementing the form of teaching organization
3.3.4. Current situation of checking and evaluating teaching
activities according to the training program
For information on the status of conducting testing and
evaluating teaching activities according to the training program, the
author has exchanged and investigated the actual inspection and
evaluation activities in some military universities and learned that The
inspection and assessment of teaching activities at military universities
are carried out synchronously and uniformly at all levels from the
school board of directors/administrators, specialized agencies to
faculties, departments and practitioners' management units.
3.4.
Current
status
of
management
implementation of the commanding - advisory officer
training program in military universities
- Current situation of developing the overall plan to implement
the commanding - advisory officer training program:
From the survey results of general assessment of the survey
subjects on the level of implementation activities to build the overall
plan to implement the training program at a quite good level, with the


18
general GPA of 3.0; That result is also objective. (GPA of educational
managers is 3.16; lecturers are 2.90).
- Current status of implementing the training program of
commanding - advisory officer training program:
From the survey results, the process of implementing the
commanding - advisory officer training program in universities in the
military today, the subject of education management mainly impacts on the
management object through management tools is the semester training plan
and the main guiding plans, The logical diagram of the courses in the whole
course and the course of training courses are less interested in organized by
management levels. These are limitations in the process of implementing
training plans, is the reason for reducing the effectiveness of organizing the
training program implementation in most military universities. It is
necessary to have solutions to overcome and adjust in the coming time
- Current situation of directing the implementation of the
commanding - advisory officer training program:
In the survey contents, the direction of the decision to implement the
training program is assessed at the highest level, the content is assessed at a
lower level is that encouragement of educational managers and lecturers to
implement the training program are assessed as "average". This result is
consistent with the current situation, the schools, despite having
mechanisms and policies as well as creating a favourable pedagogical
environment for educational managers and lecturers to be assured of
working and sticking to the profession. However, the encouragement of
this team is assured that the work has not been properly concerned by
the management levels, especially in the family rear, in terms of the
military rank compared to the working position (assistants of training
and examination agencies at military universities currently have the
highest rank of lieutenant colonel); this level is not commensurate with
the responsibility assigned. Thus, it will not be able to keep qualified
people, have much experience in the management of training programs
while requiring the training program to have high stability. Therefore, in
the coming time, it is necessary to build appropriate mechanisms,
policies and regimes in all fields, helping educational managers and
lecturers have the best conditions to devote and develop.
- Current status of inspection and evaluation of the
implementation of the commanding - advisory officer training program:
Through analysis of the survey results, the level of implementing
inspection and evaluation of training program implementation is still
limited. The cause of this problem, as suggested by the staff of the
Training Department/The Army officer College No1 is “Commanding -


19
advisory officer training program is built on the basis of the Higher
Education Framework Program and the Military Science Division
issued by the Ministry of Defense in 2011. The school is tasked with
concretizing the objectives of training, arranging, restructure training
programs and selecting subjects in the specialized knowledge section to
suit the training industry and the specific conditions of the school and the
school have not yet developed the training program output standards and
the criteria for assessing the level of training program implementation”.
3.5. Actual status of factors to manage the implementation of
the commanding - advisory officer training program in military
universities
- Require education and training innovation in military
universities
- Qualifications of educational managers, lecturers and students
- Coordination activities between schools and units in training
organizations
- The task of building and defending the Fatherland in new conditions
- System of legal documents on training program management
3.6. General assessment of the status of management
implementation of the commanding - advisory officer training
program at military universities
- Advantages
- Limitation
Conclusion of chapter 3
Through the survey results, it can be affirmed that management
activities implementing the commanding - advisory officer training
program in military universities have been conducted closely and
uniformly, thereby contributing to improving comprehensive education
and training quality in schools. However, certain limitations still exist in
each of the survey contents in chapter 3. This has reduced the quality
and efficiency of management activities to implement the commanding advisory officer training program of schools.
The above-mentioned issues are an important basis for the
author to propose management measures to implement the
commanding - advisory officer training program in military universities
according to competency approach in Chapter 4.
Chapter 4
MEASURES AND TESTS, TESTING MANAGEMENT
MEASURES TO IMPLEMENT THE COMMANDING ADVISORY OFFICER TRAINING PROGRAM IN MILITARY
UNIVERSITIES ACCORDING TO COMPETENCY APPROACH


20
4.1. Management measures to implement commanding advisory officer training program in military universities
according to competency approach
4.1.1. The building of the professional competence
framework of the commanding - advisory officer at division under
university level
This is the most important measure in managing the
implementation of the commanding - advisory officer training program
on competency approach. Because firstly, it is necessary to determine the
professional competence framework of the commanding - advisory
officer in the management of the implementation of the training program
and on that basis to build and organize the implementation of training
plans according to the defined professional competence framework to
meet the demands of practice.
4.1.2. the development of training plans
according
to
the
professional
competence
framework of the commanding - advisory officer
Develop competency-based training plans is an important and
essential job to help managers manage levels of work planning that must
be associated with a specific time and attached to the capacity needed by
the commanding - advisory officer in the future;
Develop capacity-based training plans is a legal basis for subjects
to manage examination levels and assess the level of achieving the
training objectives.
4.1.3. The establishment of a mechanism for training
coordination between functional units in managing the
implementation of training programs according to competency
This is a key measure to ensure the management of the
implementation of the training program is conducted synchronously,
in the right order, based on rules to ensure uniformity of goals and
smooth rhythm in coordination, best serve the organization of
implementing training programs according to competency; but it also
ensures implementation of management rules and standards.
4.1.4. The organization of training to improve the qualifications of
educational managers and lecturers directly participating in the management
of training programs
This measure aims to improve the professional level of
management of training programs for educational managers and
lecturers at military universities to help them have enough knowledge
and professional capacity to meet the task requirements.


21
4.1.5. The direction of innovation in inspection and
evaluation of management of implementation of training programs
according to competency approach
Renovating methods of inspection and evaluation of management
of training program implementation in association with specific standards and
criteria is a scientific basis to help managers evaluate, classify accurately and
objectively the activities in each stage as well as in the process of
implementing the training program, step by step replacing the way of
checking and evaluating according to the current feelings and forms.
4.1.6. The assurance of material foundations, teaching
equipment and the enhancement of information technology
application in managing the implementation of training programs
according to competency approach
This measure helps the Director/Principal become more active in
the process of implementing the training program; helps educational
managers, lecturers and students have favourable conditions and
environment to implement the training program according to
competency approach to ensure the plan and achieve the set purpose.
* The relationship between proposed management measures
Each proposed management measure has relative independence and
specificity with its own meaning; at the same time, these management
measures interact with each other to form a unified body to promote each
other's development. Therefore, in the management activity to implement
the commanding - advisory officer training program in military universities
according to competency approach cannot implement each discrete
measure. It is necessary to implement in a synchronous way to promote the
effect of measures, each of which has a basis for implementation, this
measure is the condition of the other.
4.2. Survey of the necessity and feasibility of
management measures
4.2.1. Purpose of survey
It aims to consult the opinions of experts, educational managers
and lecturers to test the necessity, feasibility, science and effectiveness of
the proposed measures on managing the implementation of the
commanding - advisory officer training program in military universities
according to the competency approach.
4.2.2. Content and survey methods
- Survey content: How are the necessary of proposed measures
for managing the implementation of commanding - advisory officer
training program at military universities today?


22
Secondly: How is the feasibility of proposed measures for
managing the implementation of commanding - advisory officer
training program at military universities today?
- Survey method: Discuss with questionnaires about the necessity and
feasibility of each proposed management measure. For the questionnaire
about the necessity/feasibility of measures, give 4 levels of response:
"Very necessary/very feasible" corresponding to 4 points;
"Necessary/feasible" corresponding to 3 points; "Less necessary/less
feasible" corresponding to 2 points; "Unnecessary/not feasible"
corresponding to 1 point.
4.2.3. Survey results on the necessity and feasibility of
proposed management measures
- The necessity of the proposed measures
- The feasibility of the proposed measures
- Compare correlated results of surveying the necessity and
feasibility of measures
4.3. Test
4.3.1. Test purpose
In order to confirm the feasibility and effectiveness of
management measures to implement commanding - advisory officer
training program in military universities according to competency
approach, through measures of Adjusting, supplementing and
completing training plans according to competency approach; and at
the same time verifying the scientific hypothesis of the thesis.
4.3.2. Test content
The author conducts the test of “Development of training plans
according to competency approach”.
4.3.3. Test results
Based on the results obtained through the test content, it is
possible to confirm the management measures to implement the
commanding - advisory officer training program in military universities
in approaching the capacity proposed by the author is necessary and
highly feasible; it meets the objectives and tasks of the thesis research.
Conclusion of chapter 4
The thesis has proposed six management measures to implement
the commanding - advisory officer training program in military
universities according to competency approach: determine the core
competence framework of commanding - advisory officer, team level,
university level; develop training plans according to competency;
organize training to improve professional capacity for educational
managers and lecturers who directly participate in managing the
implementation of training programs according to competency; direct


23
the renewal of activities of examining and evaluating the process of
implementing the training program according to capability; establish
training coordination mechanism between functional units in
management of training program implementation according to
competency approach; ensure facilities, equipment and enhance the
application of information technology in managing the implementation
of training programs according to competency approach. Through
testing and testing results, the proposed management measures have a
high degree of necessity and feasibility; there is a positive correlation
between necessity and feasibility. Thus, the scientific hypothesis has
been proved. Since then, management subjects at military universities
can apply these management measures to management activities to
implement a commanding - advisory officer training program according
to competency approach.
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
1. Conclusions
1.1. The thesis has reviewed the scientific works of the authors
at home and abroad on the training program and the management of
training programs, thereby generalizing the results of these scientific
works and identify new issues that require further research and
clarification. Since then, the author has developed the theoretical
framework of the thesis through internal analysis of central concepts;
analysis to clarify the difference between the components of the
training program according to the approaches; determine the content
of implementing the training program and manage the
implementation of the training program according to competency and
point out the factors affecting management practices in training
programs in military universities according to competency approach.
1.2. The thesis has investigated and assessed objectively and
honestly the status of implementing training programs and managing
the implementation of training programs; examined the factors
affecting the management of the commanding - advisory officer
training program at military universities today.
1.3. Based on the results of the research on the theory and practice
of managing the implementation of the training program, the author has
proposed six management measures to implement the commanding advisory officer training program in military universities according to


24
competency approach. Through testing, the proposed management
measures have a high degree of necessity and high feasibility.
2. Recommendations
- For the Ministry of Education and Training
- For the Ministry of Defense
- For military universities



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