Tải bản đầy đủ

Tổ chức dạy học tìm tòi khám phá chủ đề nước trong cuộc sống nhằm bồi dưỡng năng lực khoa học của học sinh trung học cơ sở tt tiếng anh

MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING

HANOI NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF EDUCATION

NGUYEN THI THUAN

TEACHING ORGANIZATION TO EXPLORE THE TOPIC “WATER IN LIFE”
IN ORDER TO FOSTER SCIENTIFIC LITERACY
FOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS
Major: Theory and Methods of Teaching Physics
Code: 9.14.01.11

SUMMARY OF DOCTORAL DISSERTATION
ON SCIENTIFIC EDUCATION

HANOI - 2019


The work was completed at:
Faculty of Physics, Hanoi National University of Education


Research advisor : Prof. Dr. Do Huong Tra

Reviewer 1: Assoc. Prof - Ph.D. Pham Kim Chung
University of Education - Vietnam National University, Hanoi
Reviewer 2: Assoc. Prof - Ph.D. Nguyen Quang Lac
Vinh University
Reviewer 3: Assoc. Prof - Ph.D. Pham Xuan Que
Hanoi National University of Education

The dissertation is defended before the Board of Assessment
of University level held at Hanoi National University of Education
at…………. on………………….

The dissertation can be found at:
- National Library, Hanoi
- Library of Hanoi National University of Education


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INTRODUCTION
1. Motivations
MOET is creating programs of general education in order to develop competency of
learners. These programs not only based on the system, the logics of the corresponding
science when determining the learning content but also associated with practical situations,
paid attention to the ability to study, learning demand and learning style for each individual.
These require the program to be developed in an integrated fashion in order to facilitate
active learners, to mobilize knowledge and skills in a variety of subject areas and in
different educational activities to carry out the learning tasks.
Water plays an important role in human life, and water knowledge is closely related
to daily phenomena and today’s real-world issues. Water knowledge is crucial in secondary
curriculum, showing students the significance of water for life, production, expressing the
general picture of the material world and most changes in nature.
Therefore, we chose the research topic: " The teaching organization to explore the
topic "Water for life" in order to foster scientific competency for secondary school
students"
2. Aims of the study
Organizing teaching and studying activities for the integrated topic "Water for life" to
foster and develop the scientific competency for secondary school students.
3. Research Subjects and Study Scope
3.1. Research Subjects
- Topic "Water for life"
- Activities of teachers and students in the process of teaching and studying
- Scientific competency
3.2. Scope of the study
- Teaching the topic "Water for life"
- Scale: Students in Hanoi
4. Scientific Hypothesis for the topic
Based on the theoretical foundations of exploring education and scientific competence
along with the content analysis of the topic "Water in Life" in secondary school, we can design
teaching activities that stimulate students explore the topic and foster their scientific literacy.
5. Research Tasks
- Research on the theoretical foundation of exploring education and scientific
competency development.
- Practical survey on teaching knowledge about water in secondary school.


2

- Practical survey on difficulties in teaching and studying the topic.
- Analyze the knowledge about water in secondary school then build the topic “Water for life”
- Create assessment tool for scientific competency and specify the detailed content of the topic
“Water for life”
- Design the teaching and studying process of the topic “Water for life” in secondary school.
- Apply to reality in accordance with planned process in order to assess the effectiveness of
the process in developing the learners’ scientific competency.
6. Research Methodology
6.1. Research methodology for theory
- Study materials on psychology, modern teaching theory, physics teaching theory,
documents of the Party congress on education reform, articles and special magazines in teaching
and learning the topic.
- Study the current secondary curriculum, the new general education program focusing
on Physics, Chemistry, Biology and related science materials in the Natural Sciences.
6.2. Research methodology for practical survey
Attending, observing and investigating the current state of teaching knowledge in some
natural sciences.
6.3. Empirical Research methodology.
Conducting experiments for secondary school students.
Use statistics to analyze pedagogical experiment results and test statistical hypotheses.
After that, assess the effectiveness of the planned teaching process in developing the learners'
scientific literacy.
7. New contributions of the thesis
- Systemize the basis of theory of teaching and studying.
- Propose tools for assessing scientific competency, identifying component
competencies, levels of behavioral expression of scientific competencies in teaching the topic
"Water for Life".
- The teaching process has been analyzed through empirical data to enrich the reference
materials for teaching and learning in order to foster students’ scientific literacy.
- Specify the practical basis of applying teaching and studying in the teaching
organization topics in secondary school.
- Design the topic "Water for Life" in Natural Science in Secondary School

CHAPTER 1. OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH PROBLEMS


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1.1. Researches on competency, scientific literacy
1.1.1. Researches on competency and competency structure
Nowadays, the concept of competency has been mentioned in many documents with
different approaches and terms such as competency, ability, literacy.etc with different
definitions. They all can be translated into Vietnamese as "năng lực". We can divide them
into two groups. The first group emphasizes on the ability to effectively perform actions.
The second group emphasizes competence as a category of qualities, psychology and
personal attributes.
The definition tendencies above do not fully describe fundamental characteristics of
competency. Other studies show that that it is impossible to separate competency from
psychological attributes. Therefore, many studies and educational institutions such as
SOCCOM, Quebec…defined competency with the two characteristics. So far, the concept
of comptency has been widely used especially in general education.
To sum up, competency is defined as the ability to perform actions and attitudes in
performing such actions.
* Literacy has been used by many authors and educational organizations to include
knowledge, skills and cognitive processes. PISA also emphasizes the use of knowledge and
skills accumulated in schools in the context of real life situations in order to contribute to
changing attitudes of learners.
However, according to LA, literacy refers to understanding in general and applying
the knowledge into real-world contexts to emphasize the responsibility of future citizens for
problems of society, community. When it comes to translating into Vietnamese, different
terminologies describing the concept of competency would lead to different
interpretations, different structures. Therefore, having the need to use the root word to
express competency, we chose to use the term literacy in this dissertation.
1.1.2. Studies of scientific competency and scientific competency structures

The term "scientific competency" emphasizes the refinement of the scientific
research process. This approach becomes central to educational reform in some countries
such as USA, France, Canada.
PISA and new general education gives another approach to describe “scientific
literacy”. In our study, we use scientific literacy as scientific research capacity. This way is
suitable for students in secondary schools without having to put too much emphasis on
scientific research process.
Structure of scientific literacy:

Some studies such as Wenning (2005, CTGD

Singapore, Rutgets University (USA) ...). combine scientific literacy with

scientific


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research process whereas others focus on behavioral expressions of competency. Unlike
French education programs, these expressions might not necessarily be expressed in
rigorous scientific process. According to other studies conducted by University of Victoria
(Australia), the German education program and PISA assessment framework, scientific
literacy is described with four interrelated elements: knowledge, competencies, contexts and
attitudes.
The new general education natural science curriculum considers scientific literacy as
capability to learn natural sciences so their structure followed this approach.
In this thesis, based on the PISA assessment framework of scientific literacy and
the natural science compentency structure in the new general education, we derive a new
structure of scientific literacy in teaching and learning natural sciences at secondary
level.
c. Measures to cultivate scientific literacy
So far, there are many studies mentioned the following measures:
1. enhancing scientific literacy must be implemented through the learner's own activities.
2. teaching should put learners in a practical context so that problem solving can change the
attitude and responsibility of learners to society.
3. attention should be paid to the role of social interaction in enhancing scientific literacy.
4. the study deals with the role of the learner's conception and science teaching with
changing student perceptions in explaining phenomena in a scientific way.
5. Putting students into activities, organizing group interaction, accessing the process of
exploring science coming from life issues, linked to individuals, local, national and global
issues

are

of

interest

to

researchers

worldwide.

Research will mention discovery activities in the process of building knowledge as well as
applying the knowledge to solve issues that are linked to the real context of society to change
attitudes and responsibilities of the learner.
1.2. Research studies on discovery
The idea of inquiry-based and exploring teaching has appeared many times in history
as part of the educational philosophy of many great philosophers such as Johann Heinrich
Pestalozzi and John Deway JComenxki, JJ Rousseau (18th century) Jerome Bruner,
Saymour Paper, Roger Cosiner, Dixtervec, Education Science, J.Schwab 1960, Theather
Banchi and Randy Bell (2008), Freire [14], Hakins, Dewey, Bruner, Kath Murdoch and
David Hornsby (1997). Although different authors used different terms such as discovery
education, discovery-based education, exploration based ... but they all united in
emphasizing discovery activities in learners.


5

In general, the authors share the same viewpoints on the nature of discovery teaching
as well as emphasize the self-discovery of new knowledge through inquiry and exploration,
conducting experiments under the teacher’s guidance and supervision. The dissertation will
address exploration activities in the knowledge building process as well as the use of
knowledge to solve problems associated with the real context in society to change attitudes
and responsibilities of the learner.
In conclusion, the learning process is explored in close proximity to the scientific
research process. Thus, it has many opportunities to develop students' scientific literacy.
From the analysis above, some thesis issues need to be solved are:
- How is scientific literacy defined?
- What is structure of scientific literacy?
- How to organize suitable teaching and studying activities to foster the scientific
literacy for secondary school students?
Chapter 2. THEORY AND REALITY
2.1. Scientific literacy in studying of secondary school students
- Literacy is the ability to mobilize knowledge for successful implementation of
activities in certain contexts - especially contexts linked to practice - through the pooling of
knowledge, skills and other personal attributes such as excitement, belief, will, attitude, etc. to
train future citizens responsible for the problems of life and society.
- Scientific literacy is the ability of individuals to effectively use knowledge, skills
and psychological attributes such as beliefs, attitudes ... to explain scientific phenomena,
present scientific theories and apply the scientific process to solve real life problems as
socially responsible citizens.
Based on the concept of scientific literacy proposed above, the psychological
characteristics of students in secondary school, PISA assessment framework and the
characteristics of natural science subjects in secondary curriculum, the thesis proposed the
scientific literacy elements of students in teaching natural sciences as follows: The below is
the behavioral indices and quality criteria in the structure of thesis proposed and
built:
Table 2.1. Index of behavior and quality criteria of scientific competency
Element

Behavioral
index
BI 1.1. Recall
and apply

Quality criteria
L1.1. 1. Recall and apply knowledge from various sources to explain
scientific phenomena


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1. Explain
the
phenomenon
in a
scientific
way

2. Evaluate,

design and
perform the
task of
exploring
scientific
research

scientific
knowledge
appropriately
BI1.2.
Identify, use
and
create
appropriate
explanatory
models
BI 1.3. Present
and prove
appropriate
hypotheses

BI 1.4.
Explain the
meaning of
scientific
knowledge to
social life
BI2.1.
Ask
questions
to
explore
a
scientific task
and
to
distinguish
questions that
can
be
investigated by
scientific
discovery
BI2.2.
Propose
solution
to
explore
scientific
question and
choose
solution

L1.1.2. Recall and apply relevant knowledge involving two or more
steps to explain the scientific phenomena.
L1.1.3. Recall steps and apply appropriate knowledge to explain the
scientific phenomena
L1.2.1. Identify, use and create models that explain the scientific
phenomena in a synthesized way
L1.2.2. Combine two or more steps in identifying, using, and creating
models that explain the appropriate scientific phenomena
L1.2.3. Identify, use and create models that explain the appropriate
scientific phenomena step by step.
L1.3.1. Quickly present and prove hypotheses relevant to the scientific
phenomena.
L1.3.2. Combine two or more steps in presenting and proving
appropriate hypotheses.
L1.3.3. Step by step present and prove hypotheses consistent with
scientific phenomena
L1.4.1. Explain the meaning of scientific knowledge to life and society
in a rational and decision-making manner around individual, social
and global situations.
L1.4.2. Explaining the meaning of scientific knowledge to life, social
decision-making around the individual situation
L1.4.3. Explain the meaning of scientific knowledge to life and society
and have not made decisions around the personal situation.
L2.1.1. Can analyze complex information or data or develop a plan to
identify questions that explore scientific disciplines and distinguish
scientific inquiry from scientific exploration.
L2.1.2. Identify exploring questions and differentiate exploring
questions from exploring scientific tasks after analyzing existing
practical situations.
L2.1.3 Come up with exploring tasks without having to base on
pertaining data and information analysis. This case, we cannot
distinguish survey questions by using exploring tasks.

L2.2.1. Propose how to carry out the task of exploring and researching
rational, reasonable basis and choose the optimal solution.
L2.2.2. Figure out various ways to carry out the task of exploring and
explaining the proposed basis without having to select the optimal
solution.

L2.2.3. Determine how to carry out the research task and find
unreasonable proposed basis without having to select the optimal
solution.
BI2.3. Make L2.3.1. Make a detailed plan , elaborate intermediate steps.
a plan on L2.3.2. Make a plan, but do not point out intermediate steps.
exploring
L2.3.3. Make a plan with guidance.
L2.4.1. Gathering lots of information involving exploring missions
from a variety of channels, updating, high reliability, and developing a
BI2.4.
number of sequential issues, including issues that arise in the process
Perform
itself do research.
exploring task L2.4.2. Gathering a lot of information is related to research topics
from a variety of up-to-date and highly reliable channels, but so far,


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difficulties with the discovery process have not arised yet.
L2.4.3. Gathering information related to the research topic but
updating and reliability are insufficient.
BI3.1. Data L3.1.1. It is possible to convert data into many different data in a
3. Present
conversion, complex, integrated, accurate and explicit way.
and explain
data
analysis L3.1.2. It is possible to combine two or three steps in accurate,
scientific
interpretation explicit data conversion.
data
and
and
L3.1.3. Step by step data conversion must be accurate but not
evidence
conclusion
complete.
L3.2.1.Make full use of hypothesis-related results; Generalize analysis
to explain data and draw conclusions thoroughly, accurately and
explicitly.
BI 3.2.
L3.2.2 Use results related to the hypothesis but not fully analyzed;
Process results Synthesized, generalized to draw conclusions.
and draw
L3.32.3.Use hypothesis-related results in simple form and have not
conclusions
come to a conclusion.
L3.3.1. Evaluate the solution, the final result, provide the optimal
solution to improve the results.
BI3.3.
L3.3.2. Evaluate each step and adjust each solution
Evaluate and
Evaluate the final result and show the cause of the results
adjust the
L3.3.3.Compare the results obtained with other reliable scientific
solution
results and draw conclusions (true or false) and do not have the
orientation for adjustment and evaluation.
L3.4.1.Describe the research results, identify the value of the
BI
3.4. knowledge acquired through the process of exploring scientific
Present
research and posing questions, responding to questions, answers from
research
teachers and the other members.
results
L3.4.2.Describe the research results, identify the value of knowledge
acquired through the process of exploring scientific research but not
ask questions and respond to questions of teachers and other members.
L3.4.3.Describe the final results and compare the obtained results with
the previous ones. At this stage, students might not be able to find the
orientation to adjust and evaluate the knowledge.

Based on the components, we come up with the following quality criteria for
building Rubric as a tool for assessing the students’ scientific literacy. After the first round
experiment, we revised and consulted experts on the scientific competency structures and
competency levels. We combine performance evaluation and peer evaluation, peer review
on the principle of ensuring value, reliability, flexibility, equity, system, and especially for
evaluation in the real world.
2.4. Exploratory teaching in secondary school
In our opinion, exploratory teaching is a situational context, based on the needs of
learners and the needs of society, to engage them in choosing the way of action, explore to
find answers to the rising problems, thereby changing attitudes and responsibilities of
learners.


8

Generally, learners' exploration activities can be mapped through stages as shown
below. Depending on the teaching objective, the teacher may use all or some of these steps
and turn it into exploration tasks.

Student interest

Real
demand in
life

Background

The behavioral
expression of
scientific literacy

Starting situation

Local interest

Community interest

Phase I:
Activation

Problem (Student Question)

Suggest hypotheses, solutions, and
optimum solutions

Phase II
Exploration to
solve problems

Carry out the solution and collect
the data

Data nalysis

Presentation, discussion

Conclusion, generalization
(Knowledge of Science + Attitude,
Participation)

Phase III:
Assessment and
reflection on
solutions.


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2.5. Practical investigation
In order to understand the reality of teaching with the general capacity and scientific
literacy in particular, we have conducted surveys and investigations related to thesis in some
secondary schools in Hanoi.
We explore the need to foster the elemental capacities of scientific literacy; find out
difficulties of teachers in fostering elemental capacities of scientific competence; the
readiness of teachers in fostering students’ scientific literacy; the degree of attainment of the
elemental capacities of scientific capacity and Assess student interest in natural sciences.
This gives an overview of the basic causes, pros and cons of teaching to foster students’
competence in general and scientific literacy in particular and feasible solutions.
The survey results indicate that exploratory teaching to build water theme learning
activities is relevant to fostering of science literacy for secondary students, integrating
scientific knowledge with the issues of individuals, localities and communities to increase
the attractiveness of learning and the responsibility of future citizens.
Chapter 3
INQUIRY-BASED EXPLORARY TEACHING PROCESS OF "WATER IN LIFE"
TO DEVELOP SCIENCE LITERACY FOR SECONDARY STUDENTS.
3.1. The teaching objectives
Our teaching objectives are concretized from the behavioral indices of the scientific
literacy so that the planned learning activities in the subject are geared to develop the elemental
capacities of the scientific literacy.
3.2. Organizing teaching activities
After analyzing Water Knowledge in the Current Secondary School Program (Water
knowledge is in different subjects at different levels such as Chemistry, Physics, Biology,
Geography, Technology, Civil Education, etc.) and the new general education curriculum,
the thesis has defined the topic of water including 3 contents (water, water use, water
conservation) and also points out the basic issues needed to resolve and knowledge needed
to solve the problem.
Each academic activity in the topic is based on the objective of fostering scientific
literacy.
Description

Opportunity to foster behavioral
indicators of scientific competence
1.1.1. Starting situation
HV1.1: Analyze, explain the images
(View images of water states, name the states, related to the state of existence of
and ask questions.)
water.
The process of exploring, discovering


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1.1. States
of water

1.1.2. Problem to be solved (research
question): What are the characteristics of
water when it exists in different states? Are
they different? How do you know that?
1.1.3.1.
Experiment
to
understand the characteristics
1.1.3.
(shape and volume) of the three
Suggest
states of existence of water
hypothesis 1.1.3.2. Experiment to identify
/ solution the presence of water vapor in
and
the gas state
implement 1.1.3.3. Experiment to observe
solutions
the surface of water

1.1.4. Validation, conclusions about the state of existence of
water
2. Use of
water

Project

3. Water
conservation

Project:

2.1. Project: How to use water at
home
2.2.
Project:
Water
in
agriculture
2.3. Project: The role of water in
human life
3.1. Project: Distribution of
water resources
3.2. Project: Water Pollution

3.3. Project: Measures to
create clean water

- Recognizes the water existence state
by observing some images.
BI2.1. Ask questions about existing
states of water (What characteristics?
How do you know when water
changes state?)
HV2.1. Ask exploring questions:
- How do we know the characteristics
of the volume and shape of water in
different states?
- How to identify water in gas state?
HV2.2. Suggest research plans to
characterize the shape and volume of
water in different states.
HV2.4 Conduct experiments to draw
conclusions about the shape and
volume of the three states of water
HV2.2
Proposed
options
for
recognizing water in the gas state
HV2.3; HV2.4 Select a feasible
experiment, perform an experiment to
identify water that exists in the gas
state and draw conclusions.
HV1.1. Overcome the misconception
of visible steam.
HV3.2; HV3.3. Show the results; Assess
the research results on the state of
existence of water


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3.3. Teaching process of the topic "Water in Life"
The content structure of water topics in life is presented in the following diagram
What is
water?

The state of existence of water
and state change
Structure and chemical
properties of water
Water existence state

Water
in life

How is water used at home?
The role of
water

Water in production
Humans
Water source distribution

Water
conservation

Water pollution
Measures to create clean water

We designed the teaching process of the specific contents of the topic according to the
exploratory learning process designed in chapter 2. The following only summarizes a
diagram of content teaching process. The process of teaching water conservation content
and the rest is presented in the thesis.


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Analyze, explain the use of water in life.
Create a model of transporting water to households, a
smart and economical irrigation model.
Ask explatorary questions; Propose solutions, select and
implement research solutions to find out how to use water
at home? The role of water in agriculture, with human life,
proposed water-saving use.
Analyze and interpret the data to draw proper conclusions
about the amount of water used in the studied families.
Presenting the results of research on the role of water for
people and plants. Evaluate and adjust solutions to design
water-saving devices

The dissolution of the substances in the
water is extremely important to human
life (mixing soft drinks, taking medicine
...), plants (dissolving watering plants ...)
... From there, raises the need to
understand the use of Water.

Observe images, videos of water use in daily life (bathing, washing, cleaning ...), in
agriculture (watering plants, irrigating fields ...) ... and ask questions about the use of
water

What are the uses of water in life? The role of water in daily life? For plants? For
human body? What should be done to save water?

Stage
1:
Organizing
practical
situations to raise
problems

NV1. Act as a propagandist to help people understand the role of domestic water sources
in the family, propose measures to save water for daily life.
NV2. Act as a doctor, help people understand that the role of water is important for the
human body and how to supplement it to stay healthy.
NV3. Act as an agricultural engineer, how do people understand the role of water in
plants?

- Investigate the amount of
water used in some families
by reading monthly water
bills, reading water meters.
Analyze and assess the
amount of water used by
families
- Investigate the causes of
water waste in families
(pumping water, washing
vegetables, showering, etc.)
and propose remedies
- Design anti-spill tool in
the family

Find information about the
role of water, daily water
needs in the human body
(internet, books, scientific
newspapers, ask doctors ..)
Water with sports activities,
swimming,
swimming
strokes.
Learn about avoiding water
drowning ...
Design poster to call for
people to stay healthy from
the daily addition of water,
exercise ....

The experiment proves that
plants need water. If there is no
water, the plants will not survive
(seeding of bean seeds ...)
Experiment with the transport
of water and mineral salts in trees
(dip two branches of white
flowers into one cup of water and
purple ink and drink)
Experiment with water on the
tree trunk (tie plastic bags into the
leaves, observe condensation in
the bag)
Design an economical tree
irrigation tool

Discuss and discuss around the results
+ The results obtained from the tasks: the cause of wasting domestic water, tools to prevent water
and water spills with human health, measures to prevent drowning accidents ..+ Evaluate and adjust
implemented solutions such as spill prevention tools, economical tree irrigation tools
+ Evaluating the advantages and disadvantages of each step and the whole process of implementing
solutions

Stage
2:
Organizing
exploratory
activities to
solve
problems

Stage
III:
Evaluation
and
reflection
activities on
solutions.

+ Water plays an important role for human life (Water is an important component in the human
body, in daily life, human life) ... We need to supplement enough water for the body, exercise
(swimming ..) to maintain health and prevent drowning accidents. + All plants need water, water and
mineral salts to be transported from the roots to the stem thanks to the vein, most of the water
absorbed by the roots is discharged into the environment by the phenomenon of evapotranspiration
through the leaf air holes. + With enough water, the tree can grow and develop properly. + Clean
water is an important component of life and is also an important component of maintaining the lives
of people and other living organisms on earth. Saving water is protecting our own lives.

Diagram of the exploration process of the state of existence of water and the
change of water states.


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2. Specific progress.
Preparation: Pictures of water use.
Activity 1. Starting situation
Prepare. Images and videos of water use in daily life, agriculture and industry
Flashcard No. 1
USE OF WATER
Observe these images and complete the following requirements:

1. . What are the uses of water in life? Let's draw a mind map with the central word
"water use" to show the role of water in life.

2. Please categorize the use of water in agriculture, industry and daily life?
Next, teachers give students a film about "When we waste water". After watching it,
ask students to present their thoughts with clean water, then think and choose the project
theme.
1. Act as a propagandist to help people understand the use of domestic water sources in
the family, work out measures to save domestic water.
2. Act as a doctor, help people understand that the role of water is important for the


14

human body and how to supplement it to stay healthy.
3. Act as an agricultural engineer, how do people understand the role of water in plants?
4. Select your favorite sub-topic, thereby determine your team's goals and research
tasks
Activity 2. Proposing questions to explore and select the exploratory task of the topic
Flashcard No.2
Discuss groups about their research tasks
Mission

Materials needed

Procedure

Assignment(s) Adjustment(s)

4. Evaluate scientific literacy through lessons
In order to ensure an accurate assessment of the capacity of students, it is necessary
to use different methods of data collection such as questioning, class dialogue, feedback and
reflection, self-assessment and peer assessment and evaluation. situations, tests, reviews
through projects, records, tests,…In the dissertation, we use three main tools: rubric table to
assess scientific literacy in the learning process, scientific literacy assessment tools in the
project and the quiz after completing the topic.
With Rubric board tools, we monitor the behavior of students during the lesson and
use the students’ Rubric table is evaluated through the experts’ opinions. Most experts agree
with this Rubric board method. As for the assessment test, after finishing the course, we use
Conques software to test the tool
4.1. Use Rubric for assessing the scientific literacy
The following table illustrates the rubric for assessing the scientific literacy,
collecting, and processing information skills during problem solving process in teaching
topic “What is water?”
Table 3.2: Scientific literacy assessment checklist in the topic “What is water?”
0
1. Explain
the
phenomeno
n in a
scientific
way

Specific expression of the behavioral index
- Recognize (recall) knowledge of water states and apply that knowledge to
explain related images.
Apply knowledge of the state of existence of water to explain the water cycle.
Create a model to explain the composition of water
Explain the shape and volume of water by practical example.
Explain whether steam is observable using practical examples.
- What are the characteristics of the state of existence of water? How do you
know?
- When water changes state?
- What are the characteristics of the transition state of water? (characteristics
of mass, volume, temperature ...)
Propose how to perform the task:
- The shape and volume of the three states of water.


15

2.
Assessment
and
implementa
tion
of
scientific
discovery

3. Present
the data and
evidence in
a scientific
way

- Characteristics of temperature, volume, mass of water during the transition
state of water.
- Study of water boiling
Analyze, evaluate, select the optimal solution to perform the task:
- The shape and volume of water in the states
- Characteristics of temperature, volume, mass of water during melting,
solidification.
- Study of water boiling
Establish a plan for studying the shape and volume of water in the states
+ Assignment of specific tasks in the group
+ Choice of tools
+ Describe the steps
+ Make a data collection table
Successfully follow the steps of the plan
Establish a plan to study the change in temperature, volume, mass of water
during melting, solidification.
+ Assignment of specific tasks in the group
+ Choice of tools
+ Describe the steps
+ Make a data collection table
Successfully follow the steps of the plan
- Establish a study plan for water boiling
+ Assignment of specific tasks in the group
+ Choice of tools
+ Describe the steps
+ Make a data collection table
Successfully follow the steps of the plan
Convert the results of the experiment to change the temperature over time
when boiling water.
Comment on the volume and shape of water states through the results of the
experiments
The graph shows that the temperature of water increases with time and does
not change during the change of state
Comment on the changing state of water from solid to liquid: its mass remains
unchanged and it volume decreases. Changing from liquid to solid, at first, the
volume decreases to 40C, then the volume increases.
State
Shape
Volume
Solid
Identified
Identified
Liquid
Unidentified
Identified
Air
Unidentified
Unidentified
The volume of water changes, the volume of water does not change during the
change of state.

How to calculate students 'scientific literacy points: Based on the number of occurrences
of students' expressions corresponding to the above criteria and the expression levels, we
give students scores in a scale of 10.
4.2
Assessment test students’ scientific literacy
In order to build the assessment of scientific literacy, we must determine: the
evaluation objectives, the audience; identify measurable variables, conditions and methods;


16

matrix quiz; draft and finally test to evaluate.
The following are the results of the scientific literacy assessment test after learning.
The Cronbach Alpha coefficient considers the correlation of the performance of a
question with the whole test. Calculation of the coefficient Cronbach alpha using SPSS
software gives:
Cronbach's Alpha
N of Items
.790
16
In the table above, the Cronbach alpha coefficient is 0.79. This coefficient is at average
(from 0.7 to 0.8). So the test used to measure the scientific literacy is relatively good.
• Information curve of the test subject
For this test, the information curve is given by the following figure:

Figure 4.13. The information curve of the test
For this test, the curve is shown as in the figure
Look at the curve, we can see that this is a moderate test for student and this test
obtained the most information in the capability range from -1.2 to 0.8
Table 4.1. Indicators for measuring test literacy after experiment
Symbolize
Level of difficult
Questions
when
in test
Level of difficult
Error
analyzing
1
1
-0.523
0.086
2
2
-1.8
0.125
3
3
1.144
0.115
4
4
0.617
0.109
5
5a
-0.634
0.102
6
5b
0.596
0.102
7
6a
0.069
0.087
8
6b
-1.127
0.079
9
7
-0.31
0.093
10
8
0.248
0.104
11
9
0.81
0.112
12
10
1.896
0.133
13
11a
-0.767
0.071
14
11b
-0.53
0.119

Suitable for the model IRT
MNSQ

Variable range

T

1.03
0.99
0.92
1.13
1.05
1.37
1.23
1.22
0.97
0.88
0.9
0.76
1.05
0.99

( 0.71, 1.29)
( 0.71, 1.29)
( 0.71, 1.29)
( 0.71, 1.29)
( 0.71, 1.29)
( 0.71, 1.29)
( 0.71, 1.29)
( 0.71, 1.29)
( 0.71, 1.29)
( 0.71, 1.29)
( 0.71, 1.29)
( 0.71, 1.29)
( 0.71, 1.29)
( 0.71, 1.29)

0.3
0
-0.5
0.9
0.3
2.3
1.5
1.4
-0.1
-0.8
-0.7
-1.7
0.4
0


17
Symbolize
Level of difficult
Questions
when
in test
Level of difficult
Error
analyzing
15
11c
0.15
0.091
16
12
0.162*
0.4

Suitable for the model IRT
MNSQ

Variable range

T

0.84
0.87

( 0.71, 1.29)
( 0.71, 1.29)

-1.1
-0.9

The map balances the difficulty of the task and the literacy of the learner
- From the figure 4.2 shows the balance between the difficulty of the task and the
capacity of learners, we see that the balance between the difficulty of the 16 questions and
the capacity of 90 students in the same logitogram, with “0” being the average value.

Figure 4.2. Difficulty balance map of 16 questions and student’s competencies
The outer left of the map is Log scale. Next is the distribution of students' competency along
the log scale, for every 0.3 children denoted by an 'x'. The right side of the map is the
difficulty level of 16 questions. Students in the same position as the question, the probability
of answering the question correctly is 0.5. When the student is in higher or lower position,
the probability of answering the question correctly will be higher or lower than 0.5.
The map shows that the test has a degree of difficulty that is distributed fairly to the
student's competency (spread evenly over the scale). Some questions are easy such as the
2nd, 5th question (most students are able to answer correctly), and some difficult questions
like the 3rd, 10th, 16th question (few students have the correct answer). However, there are
some students who has competency with the same difficulty level of questions in the
subject.
4.3. Evaluation through the project


18

To evaluate the scientific literacy of students through the project, we coordinate the
evaluation through the observation board of teachers, peer assessment and cooperation of
students.
Step 1: Exchange and agree with students on the contents of the assessment;
Step 2: Provide specific evaluation contents. In the process of implementing
projects, the content of the scientific capacity assessment of students is built in the thesis.
Chapter 4
PEDAGOGICAL EXPERIMENT
4.1. Subjects and experimental duration
Pedagogical experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis: Based on the
theoretical foundations of exploration, the analysis of the components of scientific literacy
along with the analysis of the teaching content of the topic "water in life" in secondary
school. The experiments were conducted in two stages with students at grade 6 in some
secondary schools in Hanoi: For each school, we take the results of the first semester test
to examine how the grade is distributed. After selecting a class with standard distribution,
we divided them into two groups in equal proportion of good, average as experimental and
control class in the period from January 23rd 2017 to March 3rd 2017.
4.2 Experiment results
The quantitative analysis of data allows the research to draw initial conclusions as
follows:
4.2.1. Assess the development of students’ Scientific literacy through lessons
+ The development of Scientific literacy components
Based on the checklist demonstrating the quality criteria for Scientific literacy given
in Chapter 3, we obtained the assessment results of the 3 components

Figure 4.3: Element capacity scores: Explain the

Figure 4.4: Graphs showing the development of


19
phenomenon in a scientific way

capacity for assessment and design of scientific
research solutions

Figure 4.5. Element capacity: Presenting data and evidence in a planned way

4.2.2. Results of assessing the level of development students’ Scientific literacy
Result of the assessment of the level of capacity development of students before the
experiment
Table 4.2 provides the estimated capability of the surveyed students. The results of 5
lowest score students and 5 highest score student (from low to high) are shown in the table below.
Table 4.2. Students’ estimated capacity
Student
code

231
234
117
129
147
225
114
148
236
139

Full-name

Nguyen The Dung
….
Nguyen Phuong Anh
Ta Tuong Linh
Nguyen Minh Chau
Le Nguyen Hoang Minh
Nguyen Phuong Thanh
Pham Thanh Đat
Đang Quoc Khanh
Nguyen Duy Thai

Raw score
achieved

9
9
10
10
10
33
34
34
34
36

Total score

49
49
49
49
49
49
49
49
49
49

Capacity (logit
point)

Tolerance

-1.21
-1.21
-1.15
-1.15
-1.15
0.38
0.47
0.47
0.47
0.65

0.28
0.28
0.27
0.27
0.27
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.31

Table 4.3. Results of control and experimental classes before experimentation

Class
Experiment

Mean
-0.45

SD
0.4

Control

- 0.35

0.42

-0.4

0.41

Total

We see that the average score of the capacity assessment of the experimental class is


20

lower than the control class.
To reaffirm this, we rely on the results of the T test - test the mean value between the
experimental and control groups:
Independent Samples Test

Levene's Test for
Equality of Variances

t-test for Equality of
Means

F
Sig.
t
df
Sig. (2-tailed)
Mean Difference
Std. Error Difference
95% Confidence
Interval of the
Difference

Equal variances
assumed
.696
.406
-1.221
95
.225
-.10163
.08327
Lower
-.26694
Upper

NL
Equal variances not
assumed

-1.218
93.420
.226
-.10163
.08344
-.26732

.06368

.06406

Value Sig. In t> 0.05 test, we can conclude that there is NO significant difference in
average between experimental and control classes. This ensures the capacity of students in
two experimental and control classes before the same experiment.
Table 4.4 provides estimated capacity of students participating in the survey, the
results of the lowest 5 students and the highest 5 students (ranked from low to high) are
shown in the following table:
Table 4.4. Estimated capacity of students
Student
code
204
121
141
122
229

Full-name
Nguyen Tung Linh
Nguyen Minh Nhi
Le Minh Ngoc
Bui Truc Anh
Dang Quoc Khanh

Raw score
achieved
2
6
27
29
30

Total
score
39
39
39
39
39

Capacity (logit
point)
-2.21
-1.43
0.64
0.85
0.97

Tolerance
0.59
0.36
0.33
0.34
0.35

Results of control and experimental classes after experimentation

Class
Experiment
Control
Total

Mean
-0.31
- 0.71
-0.5

SD
0.5
0.55
0.56

We can see that the average score of experiment class is significantly higher than that
of the control class. To confirm this, we rely on the test results of average value (T-test)
between the experimental and control groups:


21

The value Sig. in T-test with t<0.05, we can conclude that there is a significant
difference in mean scores between the experimental and control classes (the average score
of students in experimental group is significantly higher than that of the control group).
Independent Samples Test
NL
Equal variances assumed
Levene's Test for
Equality of Variances

t-test for Equality of
Means

F
Sig.
t
df
Sig. (2-tailed)
Mean Difference
Std. Error
Difference
95% Confidence Lower
Interval of the
Upper
Difference

Equal variances not
assumed

.001
.978
3.513
87
.001
.39333

3.501
84.702
.001
.39333

.11197

.11234

.17078

.16996

.61587

.61669

Thus, with the use of scientific literacy assessment tools, it can be seen that the
design process has fostered the scientific literacy of students.
4.3. Opinion of students about awareness, benefits and changes of self-responsibility
with society and community
After conducting experiments, we proceeded to ask students about awareness, benefits
and changes in self-responsibility with society and community.
Specifically, when asked how to live responsibly to society, most of them understand that
they should have high self-esteem, respect others, respect the laws and regulations of the
group and should not bother anyone.
Table 4.5. The results ask students how to be responsible for society
1. High self-esteem
3/49
2. Know to respect others
4/49
3. Respect the laws and regulations of the collective
3/49
4. Don't let anyone bother, remind, criticize
4/49
5. All comments above
35/49
Once you understand how to live responsibly to society, you understand the benefits
of being socially responsible (Table 4.8). It is very interesting that they realize the change of
their social responsibility through studying the theme "Water in life" (Table 4.9).
Table 4.6. The results ask students about the benefits from being responsible for society
1. Will find joy in learning and life

10/29

2. Gathering with families and collectives

6/29

3. Building a social relationship means getting better and better

4/29

4. All comments above

29/49


22

Table 4.7. The results of asking students about the causes of changing social responsibility
of students
1. Educated by parents
2. Through the activity of studying the subject Water in life
3. From the propaganda of social organizations
4. From the media

5/49
19/49
13/49
12/49

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
1. The results of the thesis
For the purpose and task of the research, the thesis has achieved the following results:
1) Theoretically:
Research the theoretical foundation of teaching on the exploratory and inquirybased approach: theoretical foundations approach to explore discoveries, benefits of
teaching and exploring process.
2) In terms of practicality:
- Building up the suitable teaching process of water topics in life according to the
process of teaching to explore and foster scientific literacy to the subjects in secondary
school. Therefore, the teacher and student activities are clearly indicated at each stage of the
process.
Practical investigation of the need to foster elemental capabilities of scientific
literacy; teachers’ difficulties in fostering the elements of scientific capacity; the readiness
of teachers in fostering students’ scientific literacy; the degree of achievement of the
elemental powers of scientific literacy.
Analyzing the characteristics of the study activities in the curriculum and the
characteristics of the natural science teaching subjects, then proposing the measures to
develop scientific literacy in the teaching of natural science subjects.
Analyzing the content characteristics of scientific knowledge about the properties of
water.
Designing the organization of teaching process of the topic “Water in life”
Creating an assessment tool for student’s scientific literacy and specify the specific
contents of the topic "Water in life".
Conducting pedagogical experiments in some secondary schools in Hanoi.
Analyzing pedagogical experiment results with the software Conques to confirm the
scientific hypothesis is correct.
2. The limitations of the thesis
We still encounter the following difficulties:
The scope of pedagogical experiment is still limited.
The coordination between social forces in the teaching process such as: lacking of
experts, departments, unions that voluntarily support students to implement the project as
well as home study activities.


23

The levels and development lines of scientific literacy have not been given.
The above limitations of the topic may be suggestions for the authors to conduct
further study. In particular,
It is necessary to expand the scope of pedagogical experiment of planned teaching
processes in other schools and more localities.
It is necessary to design teaching systems with many different levels in order to
create flexibly in the teaching process, and at the same time organize students among classes
and schools to work together.
It is necessary to implement the socialization of education in terms of assistance,
information counseling for students from prestigious experts in society as well as agencies
and departments in the school area in the process of teaching
3. General conclusions
From the analysis of theoretical and practical basis of inquiry-based, explatorary
teaching and the pedagogical experiment results, we see that:
Designing activities of teaching water topics in the inquirty-based, explatorary
approach can foster scientific literacy for students.
Teaching topics according to the teaching process meet the requirements of
innovating teaching methods and the teaching objectives as well as create conditions for
students to practice self-study, self-investigate and develop necessary life skills in general
and scientific literacy in particular.
The structure of scientific literacy, the expression of scientific literacy is in
accordance with the secondary school students.
4. Recommendations
Research results show that planned teaching process for the topic "Water in life"
creates a great opportunity for learners to explore discoveries and apply learned techniques
to solve practice problems, thereby deepening and expanding their knowledge and
developing their scientific literacy i.e. the capacity to explain phenomena in a scientific
way. Assessing capacity and designing a scientific investigation and the data interpretation
competency are the crucial skills that contribute to the success of students when they go to
college, university or later work. Therefore, we recommend:
It is necessary to continue to widely implement inquiry-based, exploratory teaching
methods to teach natural science topics at secondary level.
It is necessary to enhance the use of research results of master students and PhD
students in organizing inquiry-based, exploratory teaching so that they can be applied
appropriately in general schools.
To assess the students’ scientific literacy, teachers need to observe in many different
ways, the checklist itself does not have sufficient evaluation information.


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