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Advances in agronomy volume 74


Agronomy

DVANCES I N

VOLUME

74


Advisory Board
Martin Alexander

Ronald Phillips

Cornell University

University of Minnesota

Kenneth J. Frey


Kate M. Scow

Iowa State University

University of California, Davis

Larry P. Wilding
Texas A&M University

Prepared in cooperation with the
American Society of Agronomy Monographs Committee
Jerry M. Bigham
Jerry L. Hatfield
David M. Kral
Linda S. Lee

Diane E. Stott, Chairman
David Miller
Matthew J. Morra
John E. Rechcigl
Donald C. Reicosky

Wayne F. Robarge
Dennis E. Rolston
Richard Shibles
Jeffrey Volenec


Agronomy

DVANCES IN

VOLUME

74

Edited by

Donald L. Sparks
Department of Plant and Soil Sciences
University of Delaware
Newark, Delaware

San Diego San Francisco

New York

Boston

London

Sydney

Tokyo


This book is printed on acid-free paper.
Copyright

C



2001 by ACADEMIC PRESS

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5

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Contents
CONTRIBUTORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PREFACE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

ix
xi

SOIL QUALITY: CURRENT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS
D. L. Karlen, S. S. Andrews, and J. W. Doran
I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
VI.
VII.
VIII.
IX.

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Response to Reservations Regarding the Soil Quality Concept . . . . . . .
Evolution of the Soil Quality Concept. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Soil Quality as an Educational Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Soil Quality as an Assessment Tool. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Indexing Soil Quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Current Soil Quality Applications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other Soil Quality Research and Outreach Programs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Summary and Conclusions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2
5
6
10
12
14
21
26
34
35

FRONTIERS IN METAL SORPTION/PRECIPITATION
MECHANISMS ON SOIL MINERAL SURFACES
Robert G. Ford, Andreas C. Scheinost, and
Donald L. Sparks
I. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
II. From Adsorption to Precipitation: An Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
III. Macroscopic Evidence for Surface Precipitation:
Utility and Pitfalls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IV. Approaches to Modeling Surface Precipitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
V. The Role of the Mineral Surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VI. Environmental Implications: Mechanisms for Metal Stabilization . . . .
VII. Conclusions and Future Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

v

42
43
46
49
52
54
56
59


vi

CONTENTS

ORGANIC ACIDS EXUDED FROM ROOTS IN PHOSPHORUS
UPTAKE AND ALUMINUM TOLERANCE OF
PLANTS IN ACID SOILS
Peter J. Hocking
I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
VI.

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Phosphorus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Organic Acids and Phosphorus Solubilization in the Rhizosphere . . . .
Organic Acids and Soil Organic Phosphorus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Aluminum Tolerance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Genetic Engineering Approaches to Increase Organic
Acid Exudation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VII. Concluding Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

64
65
68
80
82
86
87
89

ASPECTS OF BAMBOO AGRONOMY
Volker Kleinhenz and David J. Midmore
I.
II.
III.
IV.

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Manipulating Growth and Development in Bamboo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Managing the Environment for Bamboo Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

100
101
125
139
142

MANAGING WORLD SOILS FOR FOOD SECURITY AND
ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY
R. Lal
I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
VI.
VII.
VIII.

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Historical Development of Agriculture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Green Revolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Relation Between Extensive Agriculture, Soil Degradation,
and the Greenhouse Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Challenges of Soil and Water Management for the 21st Century . . . . .
Toward Sustainable Management of Soil Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Respecting “The Dirt” for Feedin1–25.
Van Noordwijk, M., Schoonderbeek, D., and Kooistra, M. J. (1992). Root-soil contact of field-grown
winter wheat. Geoderma 56, 277–286.


246

S. P. HOAD ET AL.

Van Noordwijk, M., Brouwer, G., Harmony, K. (1993). Concepts and methods for studying interactions
of roots and soil structure. Geoderma 56, 351–375.
Van Noordwijk, M., Brouwer, G., Koning, H., Meijboom, F. W., and Grzebisz, W. (1994). Production
and decay of structural root material of winter-wheat and sugar-beet in conventional and integrated
cropping systems. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 51, 99–113.
Van Vuuren, M. M. I., Robinson, D., and Griffiths, B. S. (1996). Nutrient inflow and root proliferation
during the exploitation of a temporally and spatially discrete source of nitrogen in soil. Plant Soil
178, 185–192.
Van Vuuren, M. M. I., Robinson, D., Fitter, A.H., Chasalow, S.D., Williamson, L., and Raven, J. A.
(1997). Effects of elevated CO2 and soil water availability on root biomass and root length, and
N, P, and K uptake by wheat. New Phytol. 135, 455–465.
Vetter, H., and Scharafat, S. (1964). Die Wurzelverbreitung Landwirtschaftlicher Kulturpflanzen im
Unterboden. Z. Acker Pflanzenbau 120, 275–298.
Vetterlein, D., Marschner, H., and Horn, R. (1993). Microtensiometer technique for in situ measurement
of soil matric potential and root water extraction from a sandy soil. Plant Soil 149, 263–273.
Wahbi, A., and Gregory, P. J. (1995). Growth and development of young roots of barley (Hordeum
vulgare L.) genotypes. Ann. Bot. 75, 533–539.
Weaver, J. E. (1926). “Root Development of Field Crops.” McGraw-Hill, New York.
Weibel, R. O., and Pendleton, J. W. (1964). Effect of artificial lodging on winter wheat grain yield and
quality. Agron. J. 56, 487–488.
Welbank, P. J., and Williams, E. D. (1968). Root growth of a barley crop estimated by sampling with
portable powered soil-coring equipment. J. Appl. Ecol. 5, 477–481.
Welbank, P. J., Gibb, M. J., Taylor, P. J., and Williams, E. D. (1974). Root growth of cereal crops.
Rothamsted Exp. Stat. Rep. 1973 Part 2, 26–66.
Wulfsohn, D., Gu, Y., Wulfsohn, A., and Mojlaj, E. G. (1996). Statistical analysis of wheat root growth
patterns under conventional and no-till systems. Soil Till. Res. 38, 1–16.
Young, I. M. (1995). Variation in moisture contents between bulk soil and the rhizosheath of wheat
(Triticum aestivum L. cv. Wembley). New Phytol. 130, 135–139.
Zenisceva, L. (1990). The importance of the root-system in adaptation of spring barley genotypes to
the conditions of environment. Rostlinna Vyroba 36, 937–945.


Index
A
Aeration, effect on cereal roots, 211–212
Age
bamboo culm, 106–108, 117–125
bamboo rhizomes, 104
roots, and nutrient uptake, 217
Aging effects
bamboo leaves on photosynthesis, 105–106
on surface precipitate stability, 54–56
Agricultural soil
acid P-fixing, management, 64–65
degradation, 7
Agriculture
historical development, 160–166
intensification, 179–183
Alternation, monopodial bamboos, 107–108
Aluminum
Co–Al layered double hydroxide, 51
Ni–Al layered double hydroxide, 55
solubilization, 64
Aluminum tolerance
citrate role, 84–85
malate role, 83–84
oxalate role, 85–86
plant chelating ability, 82–83
Assessment tools
documenting soil properties
changes, 2
soil quality role, 12–13, 21–22
Australia
changes in land use, 33
Oxisol P levels, 66–67
soil organic carbon, 33–34
B
Bamboo
biomass accumulation and partitioning,
110–114
photosynthesis, 104–108
products, annual use in Asia, 100
root systems, water uptake, 139–140

storage and translocation of photosynthates,
108–110
water and nutrient uptake, 102–104
Bamboo growth
fast, 101
management, 114, 117–125
surface soil depth correlated with, 104
Bamboo production
soil chemical properties, 130–139
soil physical properties, 126–130
water management for, 125–126
Barley
climate effects, 204–205
crop yield limited by rooting, 235
farming practices
appropriate, 232–235
and rooting, 228–231
genetic variations, root attributes, 201–203
root extension rate and distribution, 200–201
rooting depth, 197–200
root:shoot allocation, 220–228
root systems, 196–197
biological factors affecting, 218–220
soil heterogeneity and rooting, 205–206
soil structure and root growth, 206–210
soil types for, 203–204
water and nutrient availability, 210–217
yield improved by root manipulation, 236–237
Biodegradation, citrate, 78
Biomass
accumulation and partitioning in bamboo,
110–114
litter, nutrient supply from, 130–131
microbial, 27–28
root, small-grained cereals, 197, 219
Brick manufacture, soil extraction for, 171
Buckwheat, Al tolerance, 85–86
C
Canada, tillage systems comparison, 32
Canopy, bamboo, photosynthetic capacity,
104–108

247


248

INDEX

Carbon, see also Soil organic carbon
microbial biomass, 27
sequestration in soil, 184–185
transported by wind and water, 175–176
Central Park, soil compaction, 22–23
Cereals, see also specific types
biological factors affecting, 218–220
roots, waterlogging and aeration effects,
211–212
small-grained
root systems, 196–197
soil structure and root growth, 206–210
use of fertilizers for, 165
world average yields, 167
Chemical properties, native soil, in bamboo
stands, 130–131
Chickpea
root organic acid exudation, 71
sorghum following, 79–80
Chromium, sorption to hydrous ferric oxide, 48
Citrate
biodegradation, 78
exudation from P-deprived plants, 75
exuded by proteoid roots, P uptake and,
68–69, 73–74
role in Al tolerance, 84–85
Citrate synthase gene, bacterial and plant, 86
Climate
change, effect on nutrient uptake from soil,
222–223
effects on soils for small-grained cereals,
204–205
Cobalt
Co–Al layered double hydroxide, 51
hydroxide-like precipitates at rutile surface,
53–54
Compaction
effect on root:shoot allocation, 223–224
and penetration resistance, 207–210
reduction of, 233–235
yield reduction induced by, 172
Congestion, bamboo stands, 119
Contaminants
bonding environment of, 59
phosphate, 168
Continuum model, surface precipitate formation,
51–52
Coprecipitation
surface, 50–51
weathering and, 53

Cropland, rainfed, and crop yields, 183
Cropping systems
interrow, 234
optimal, for Great Plains, 28–29
Crop residue management, 27
Crop rotation
effect on rooting, 228–229
sunflower in, 28
Crop yield
improved by root manipulation, 236–237
limited by rooting, 235
Culm, bamboo
age, effect on photosynthesis, 106–108
growth, 101–102
management, 114, 117–125
storage of nutrients, 108–110
D
Data set, soil quality indices, 18–20
Deforestation
Mediterranean Basin, 169
tropical rainforests, 160–161
Density
bulk, and cereal root growth, 206–207
cereal plant population, 231
planting, bamboo species, 127–128
standing-culm, bamboo, 117–119
Desertification
control, 179
historical, 169–170
Developing countries
food security, 177
population increase, 157
soil productivity, 32
Diagnosis Recommendation Integrated
System, 138
Direct drilling, effects on cereal rooting,
229
Drought, effect on cereal root system size,
212–213
Droughtiness, effect on cereal fields, 205
Dynamic soil quality, 12–13, 35
E
Earliness, soils for small-grained cereals,
204
Earthworms, no-till effect on, 31


249

INDEX
Ecosystems
natural-to-agricultural conversion, 160–161,
173–176
sustainability, 4
Educational tools
focus on increasing awareness, 2
soil quality role, 10–12, 22
Electrophoretic mobility, sorbent, change in, 47
Environmental management, for bamboo
production, 125–139
Erosion
control, terracing and, 162
and desertification, 169–170
urbanization induced, 171–173
Erosion productivity impact calculator, 17–18
Expert opinion, for selection of minimum data
set, 18–19
F
Farmers, partnerships with researchers, 24
Farming
appropriate, selection for cereal crops,
232–235
effects on rooting, 195, 228–231
mechanized, 161–162
Felling cycle, bamboo, 119, 124–125
Fertility management, soil, 163–165
Fertilizer
effects on bamboo productivity, 131–132
inorganic or organic, differential effects,
136–138
nitrates and phosphates, 230–231
nutrient application rates, 132–135
P, plant-available, 66–67
placement near younger plant parts, 138
Food-grain production, global increase, 167
Food insecurity
human rights and, 180
world population with, 158–159
G
Gases, greenhouse, 173–174
effect on nutrient uptake from soil, 222–223
Genetically modified crops, 184
Genetic engineering, organic acid exudation
and, 86–87
Genetic variations, cereals, root attributes,
201–203

German Federal Soil Protection Act, 29–30
Governing principles, sustainable soil
management, 180–181
Great Plains
optimal cropping systems for, 28–29
sunflower production, 28
Greenhouse effect
atmospheric gases increase, 173–174
mitigation by
soil restoration, 178–179
technology, 183–185
role of ecosystem conversion, 173–176
Green revolution, 166–168
H
Harvesting, bamboo stands, 131
Honduras, soil performance, 33
Hydrous ferric oxide, chromium sorption
to, 48
I
Inclusion, structural, delayed, 45
Indexing
soil quality, 5–6, 13, 17–21
VSA for New Zealand, 14–15
Indicator
interpretation, 3–4, 23–24
response to no-till, 31
soil quality indexing and, 17–21
Inherent soil quality, 12, 35
Intercropping
bamboo with leguminous crops, 129
sorghum following chickpea, 79–80
white lupin with wheat, 77–79
Internode expansion, bamboo, 101
Interpretation, scientific indicators, 3–4, 23–24
Ions
activities at mineral–water interface, 44–45
mobile and immoble, uptake, 217
partitioning
from bulk solution, 43
and mineral structural transformations, 57
plant-available, 103–104
Iron
clusters, hematite-like, 45
Mn–Fe carbonate solid solution, 50–51
uptake, rhizodeposition and, 219–220


250

INDEX

Irrigation
for bamboo production, 125–126
historical development, 163
and salinization, 170
K

Mixed component phases, solubility, 57–58
Modeling, surface precipitation, 49–52
Morphology criteria, utilized by VSA
procedure, 15
Mulches, bamboo stands, 128–129
Mycorrhizal symbiosis, 218
N

Kitab al-Felhah, 166
L
Land area
arable, 158
global, erosion-induced SOC losses, 175–176
soil degradation affecting, 171
Land capability classes, 6
Land use
and landform, Honduras, 33
New Zealand, intensification, 34
Layered double hydroxide
Co–Al, 51
Ni–Al, 55
Leaching, nutrients, in bamboo stands, 103–104
Leaf area index
bamboo canopy, 105
cereals, 226
Leaves, bamboo species, life-span, 105–108, 140
Litter fall, bamboo biomass, 114, 130–131
Living mulch, in bamboo stands, 129
Lodging
losses of cereal yield caused by, 226–227
reduction of damage from, 232–233
M
Malate, role in Al tolerance, 83–84
Manganese
Mn–Fe carbonate solid solution, 50–51
solubilization, 64
Manure, soil fertility management with, 163–165
Metal, stabilization mechanisms, 54–56
Methane, oxidation rate, 31
Microbial biomass carbon, 27
Microorganisms, affecting cereal root
systems, 218
Minerals
P-containing, organic acid dissolution of, 70
structural modification rates, 57
Mineral surface, role in directing sorption end
point, 52–54

Natural Resources Conservation Service, 9, 17,
22–23
New Zealand
land use intensification, 34
VSA developed for, 14–15
Nickel, Ni–Al layered double hydroxide, 55
Nigeria, western
crop yield declines, 172–173
SOC content differences, 174–175
Nitrogen
accumulation and partitioning in bamboo, 114
application rates, 132–135, 141
availability
increasing, 213
and rooting depth, 216
export from bamboo rhizomes, 109
uptake rate per unit root length, 206
No-till practices
for conversion, 34
Scandinavia, 31
United States, 27
Nutrients
accumulation and partitioning in bamboo,
110–114
availability
seasonal cycle, 230–231
water and, 210–217
depletion, soil degradation by, 171
management, for bamboo production,
131–139
storage and translocation in bamboo, 108–110
uptake by bamboo, 102–104
O
Oats
climate effects, 204–205
crop yield limited by rooting, 235
farming practices
appropriate, 231–235
and rooting, 228–231


INDEX
genetic variations, root attributes, 201–203
root extension rate and distribution, 200–201
rooting depth, 197–200
root:shoot allocation, 220–228
root systems, 196–197
biological factors affecting, 218–220
soil heterogeneity and rooting, 205–206
soil structure and root growth, 206–210
soil types for, 203–204
water and nutrient availability, 210–217
yield improved by root manipulation, 236–237
Ohio, northern, crop yield declines, 172–173
Organic acids
exuded from roots
genetic engineering approach, 86–87
P supply and, 74–76
quantities, 72–74
phosphatases and, 81–82
species secreting, intercropping, 77–80
and uptake of P, 68–72, 80
Overharvesting, young culms, 124
Oxalate, role in Al tolerance, 85–86
Oxide surfaces, metal sorption to, 46–47
P
Partitioning
biomass and nutrients, bamboo, 110–114
ions
from bulk solution, 43
and mineral structural transformations,
57
Pathogens, soilborne, affecting rooting, 218–219
Penetration resistance
compaction and, 207–210
small-grained cereal roots, 203
Peru, stone terraces, 162
Phosphatases, organic acids and, 81–82
Phosphorus
accumulation and partitioning in bamboo,
114
application rates, 132–135, 141
availability, increasing, 213–214
forms, in soils, 65–67
32
P, translocation to bamboo culms, 109
soil bank, 88
soil organic, major forms, 80–81
soil pools, plant access to, 76–77
supply, and control of organic acid exudation,
74–76

251

uptake
improved, 80
organic acids and, 68–72
by plants, 67
Photosynthates, storage and translocation in
bamboo, 108–110
Photosynthesis, bamboo stands, 104–108
Phyllosilicate precursor, Ni–Al, 55
Pigeon pea
intercropped with wheat, 79
P uptake, 76
root organic acid exudation, 71
Placement, fertilizer, 138
Plant analysis, fertilization based on, 138–139
Plants
access to different pools of soil P, 76–77
deprived of P, citrate exudation from, 75
growth regulators, 233
P uptake, 67
Plowing
deep, 234
historical development, 161–162
Plow pan, 204, 207, 223–224
Pollutants, threshold values, 30
Polymerization, surface, and coprecipitation,
51–52
Population increase, geographically unequal,
157
Potassium
accumulation and partitioning in bamboo, 114
application rates, 132–135, 141
K+ ion and malate efflux, 76
Potassium nitrate, historical usage, 164
Poultry litter, application on winter squash, 28
Precipitates
Co(OH)2, 49–50
ill-defined, structure of, 58
metal hydroxide, on SiO2 and TiO2, 46–47
surface
formation, 43
stability: aging effect, 54–56
Precipitation, see also Surface precipitation
and compaction effects on crop yield,
208–209
effect on bamboo growth, 125
Principal component analysis, 19–20
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, citrate synthase gene,
86
Public awareness, educational tools geared
toward, 10–11


252

INDEX
R

Rapeseed
organic acid exudation, 72
P uptake, 76
Recommended agricultural practices, 167,
181–183
Reference values, for soil quality index, 21
Remobilized reserves, nutrients for bamboo,
109–110, 114
Resource management, short-term focus, 4
Restoration, mitigation of greenhouse effect by,
178–179
Revised universal soil loss equation, 17–18
Rhizodeposition, 219–220
Rhizomes, bamboo
age, 104
new, 127
storage and translocation of nutrients,
108–110
systems, 101
Rhizosphere, P solubilization in, 68–80
Rice, increase in P uptake, 71
Root hairs
bamboo, 103
small-grained cereals, 202–203
Rooting
biological factors affecting, 218–220
depth, 197–200, 215
effect on soil structure, 210
farming practice effects, 195
shoot growth effects, 227–228
soil attributes affecting, 205–206
yield limited by, 235
Root mat, bamboo, 103, 129
Roots
diameter, 217
distribution, 200–201
drought effects, 212–213
effects on shoot growth and yield, 224–227
extension rate, 200
growth, soil structure and, 206–210
lodging, 232–233
manipulation, yield improved by, 236–237
organic acid exudates
P acquisition and, 70–72
quantities, 72–74
phytase activity in response to P deficiency, 81
proteoid, citrate exudation, 68–69, 75
waterlogging and aeration effects, 211–212

Root:shoot allocation, cereals, 220–228
response to climate change, 222–223
root effect on shoot growth and yield,
224–227
shoot growth effect on rooting, 227–228
water use response to, 223–224
Rutile, Co hydroxide-like precipitates at surface
of, 53–54
S
Salinization, irrigated land, 170
Scandinavia, no-till production, 31
Scheduling, nutrient application to bamboo,
135–136
Scotland, methane oxidation rate, 31
Shoots
bamboo species, 107, 118–119
N dressing, 136
growth, rooting effects, 224–227
and roots: interdependence, 196
Silicon, role in bamboo nutrition, 135
Slovakia, soil quality assessment, 29
Soil
agricultural
acid P-fixing, management, 64–65
degradation, 7
for bamboo growth
chemical properties, 130–139
physical properties, 126–130
fertility management, 163–165
heterogeneity, soil attributes affecting,
205–206
resources, sustainable management, 177–183
strength, 234
structure, and root growth, 206–210
transport of water and solutes through,
214–215
types, for small-grained cereals, 203–204
Soil band, P, 88
Soil degradation
associated population explosion, 158
erosion and desertification, 169–170
by nutrient depletion, 171
salinization, 170
urbanization effects, 171–173
Soil organic carbon
Australia, 33–34
ecosystem conversion effects, 174–176
pool, enhancement, 178–179


253

INDEX
Soil organic phosphorus, major forms, 80–81
Soil quality
agricultural intensification and, 182–183
assessment tools, 12–13, 21–22
concept
evolution of, 6–10
reservations about, 5–6
support for, 3
educational tools, 10–12, 22
improvement, 165–166
indexing, 14–21
research and outreach programs
international, 29–34
U.S., 26–29
Soil Quality Institute, 9
Soil/sediment material, surface precipitates in,
58–59
Solid–solution interface, precipitation enhanced
near, 49
Solubility, mixed component phases, 57–58
Solubilization, P, in rhizosphere, 68–80
Sorbate, surface concentration, increase, 47–48
Sorbent surface, role in directing sorption end
point, 52–54
Sorption
end point, role of mineral surface, 52–54
irreversible, 42
transition metal, reversibility, 46
Sowing, date and depth, 231
Spatial heterogeneity, crop root response,
205–206
Spatiotemporal scales
affecting choice of indicators, 16
indexing process and, 18
soil quality indicators, 3
Stability, surface precipitate, aging effect, 54–56
Stakeholder groups, 7–8, 12
Standing culms, bamboo
age structure, 119, 124–125
density, 117–119
Storage, photosynthates and nutrients, in
bamboo, 108–110
Strength
root systems of cereals, 202
soil, 234
Sunflower, in crop rotations, 28
Surface complexation model, 42, 58
Surface precipitation
coprecipitation, 50–51, 53
enhanced, 49–50, 53–54

macroscopic evidence, 46–49
scenarios leading to, 44–46
and surface polymerization, 51–52
Sustainability
assessment, interpretation criteria for, 3–4
various land uses, 17
Sustainable management, soil resources,
177–183
T
Take-all
effects on cereals, 218–219
reduction in yield caused by, 225
Terracing, and soil erosion control, 162
Test kit
data interpretation, soil quality indices for, 16
as educational tool, 22–23
scoring functions, 23–24
Texture, soil, in bamboo-growing sites, 128
Tillage systems
Australia, 33
bamboo stands, 128
Canada, 32
effects on cereal rooting, 229–230
Germany, 31
zero, 208–209
Toxic waste materials, disposal, 7
Translocation, photosynthates and nutrients, in
bamboo, 108–110
Tricarboxylic acid cycle, 65
Tropical rainforest, deforestation, 160–161
U
United States, soil quality research and outreach,
26–29
Urbanization, soil degradation by, 171–173
V
Vertisols, tillage practices, 33
Visual soil assessment (VSA), for New Zealand,
14–15
W
Water
erosion, SOC losses due to, 175–176
flood irrigation, 170


254

INDEX

Water (continued)
management
for bamboo production, 125–126
challenges, 176–177
and nutrient availability, 210–217
transport through soil, 214–215
uptake by bamboo, 102–104, 139–140
Waterlogging, effect on cereal roots, 211–212
Water-use efficiency, cereal cultivars,
223
Weathering, surfaces undergoing, 53
Wheat
climate effects, 204–205
crop yield limited by rooting, 235
farming practices
appropriate, 231–235
and rooting, 228–231
genetic variations, root attributes, 201–203

green revolution, 166–167
root extension rate and distribution, 200–201
rooting depth, 197–200
root:shoot allocation, 220–228
root systems, 196–197
biological factors affecting, 218–220
soil heterogeneity and rooting, 205–206
soil structure and root growth, 206–210
soil types for, 203–204
water and nutrient availability, 210–217
yield improved by root manipulation, 236–237
White lupin
intercropped with wheat, 77–79
organic acids exuded by, 72
P-deficient, 71
proteoid roots
citrate exudation, 68–69
life span, 74



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