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MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING

MINISTRY OF CONSTRUCTION

UNIVERSITY OF ARCHITECTURE HO CHI MINH CITY
----------------------

TRUONG QUOC SU

SPATIAL FORMING OF URBAN AGRICULTURE
BASING ON SUSTAINABLE URBAN PLANNING
HARMONIZING WITH LOCAL IDENTITIES IN
MEKONG DELTA

DEPARMENT: REGIONAL AND URBAN PLANNING
CODE
: 9580105

SUMMARY OF THE REGIONAL AND URBAN PLANNING THESIS

Ho Chi Minh City – 2019



The thesis is completed at:
UNIVERSITY OF ARCHITECTURE HO CHI MINH CITY

Scientific instructor: 1. Assoc.Prof.PhD. PHAM TU
2. PhD. DO PHU HUNG

First reviewer: Prof.PhD. NGUYEN TO LANG

Second reviewer: Assoc.Prof.PhD. DAM THU TRANG

Third reviewer: Assoc.Prof.PhD. PHAM ANH DUNG

The thesis will be defended before the School-level Committee at:
UNIVERSITY OF ARCHITECTURE HO CHI MINH CITY
At

hour

day

month

year 2019.

The thesis can be found at the library:
LIBRARY OF UNIVERSITY OF ARCHITECTURE HCMC
GENERAL SCIENCES LIBRARY OF HOCHIMINH CITY


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INTRODUCTION
1. Reason to choose the topic.
The rise of agricultural activity in urban space, also known as
urban agriculture (UA), is taking place strongly in the context of
urbanization appearing everywhere. UA is emerging as a trend which
has been researched and practiced increasingly and widely in
developed countries as well as developing countries. Experimental
cases show that UA has coined many opportunities for urban
planning toward sustainable trend on a global scale. The Mekong
Delta (MD) which is considered one of the long traditional cradles of
Vietnamese agriculture has been positively contributing to the
development of the country. Currently the MD is planned to be one
of four key economic regions, one of six urbanized regions of the
country, in which the urban system plays a role of driving force for
economic - cultural and social development. However, urban areas in
the MD are currently facing challenges in the urbanization process
that exceeds the municipality’s management and undergoing great
impacts of climate change and sea level rise which posing a risk of
directly affects to urban and living environment of urbanite.
The development orientation of MD region is determined that the
urban system to play the role as regional center for socio-economic
development, in which agricultural factors contribute to most areas
of life. However, in the existing urban space, unfortunately the trend
of ecological agriculture, high-tech agriculture and agricultural
ecotourism has not been formalized to be UA. Therefore, it is
necessary to recognize and have scientific thinking about UA, UA
must become a new driving force to contribute to urban construction
planning toward sustainable development in the MD. Therefore, the


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issue of organizing agricultural space in urban spatial structure to
increase new values for urban areas in the MD is very urgent in
current context. For the above reasons, the topic “Spatial forming of
UA basing on sustainable urban planning harmonizing with local
identities in the MD”, which is in the faculty of region and urban
planning, has been choosen for research thesis.
2. Research objectives.
- General objective: The objective of the thesis is to study the spatial
organizing of UA in the existing urban environment for urban
planning toward sustainable urban development harmonizing with
agricultural ecological trend and local identity in the MD.
- Specific objectives: To achieve the general goal, the specific
objectives need to be clarified: Identify appropriate spaces for UA
activities in the MD; Proposing general-oriented solutions for UA in
aspects of master planning – spatial organizing and forming in MD;
Proposing appropriate models of UA in the MD. Application of
research results to specific urban cases in the MD.
3. Research content. The thesis has 5 main contents:
- First, overview of UA space in the world, in Vietnam, and the
status quo of UA in the MD from the perspective of urban
development;
- Second, research methodology and scientific foundations on spatial
organizing of UA in urban areas in accordance with urban
development planning in the MD;
- Third, studying the general orientations of solutions for master
planning, spatial organizing and forming solutions of UA towards
sustainable urban development harmonzing with local identities in
the MD;


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- Forth, study application of thesis results in the case of urban areas
namely Cao Lanh city, Dong Thap province;
- Fifth, Discuss the research results and expand the following
research issues.
4. Research subjects and scope
- Subject of study: With the objectives and content of the research,
the subject of research are identified as urban space and existing
agricultural models in the MD urban area. In addition, issues related
to UA are also research subjects.
- Scope of study: The thesis refers to the research space as the urban
space in the MD. The study timeline was determined from 1990
(when the initial concepts, arguments about UA in the world were
discussed) to 2050.
5. Research methodology: The object of research with the main
subject is urban planning in the context of UA appearing, so from the
systematic and multidisciplinary approach, the author identifies
scientific research methods appropriate to the objectives and content
research of the thesis.
6. The scientific and practical meanings of the research topic
- Scientific significance: The scientific foundations for asserting UA
which appears in urban environment towards sustainable urban
development model with local identity in MD.
- Practical significance: Bringing UA becomes a new driving force
for urban development. Especially UA is renovating the existing
urban space and increasing the efficiency of using urban land
resources. In addition, it aims to recognize the role of UA in urban
development planning.
7. Concepts and terms related to research subjects


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- Group of urban concept and others related concepts: including
urban; urbanization; urban space; urban spatial organizing; and some
concepts of sustainable urban development such as ecological urban
and agro-eco urban.
- Group of UA concept and related concepts: including urban
agriculture; space of urban agriculture; Spatial organizing of urban
agriculture; Landscape of urban agriculture production; multifunctional urban agriculture; urban agriculture green infrastructure;
Some concepts related to agriculture and agriculture in urban areas.
- Group of identity concept and urban with local identity: including
identity; urban identity; place-based urban and urban bearing local
identity.
8. Relevant studies and existing problems:
- Research related to UA: Most researches on UA and issues related
to UA are present in the form of scientific articles or case study. A
small number of in-depth research thesis on UA is mainly in fields
such as agriculture, economy, environment, geography.
- Existing problems: Up to now, there has been almost no research
on UA from urban planning and design field. In which, the use of
urban planning and design tools to diversify urban functional spaces
is still a “gap” for urban systems in Vietnam in general and in the
MD in particular.
9. The thesis structure: In addition to the introduction and
conclusion, the main content of the thesis consists of 3 chapters:
Overview of UA in the world, in Vietnam and in the MD; Research
methodology and scientific basis for space organization of UA in
urban system in MD; Research results and discussion.


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CHAPTER I: OVERVIEW OF URBAN AGRICULTURAL
SPACE IN THE WORLD, IN VIETNAM AND IN THE MD
URBAN AREAS
1.1. Overview of UA space in urban areas in the world
1.1.1. Brief history of formation and development process of UA
space: The urban agricultural space is formed from the early urban
period to the difficult and crisis urban period and is now more and
more popular in the period of urban development. In the context of
the agricultural revolution, the impact of the environmental crisis as
well as the dryness of modern urban have framed the important role
of UA today.
1.1.2. Some typical spatial models of UA: For each stage of
formation and development, there are typical urban agricultural
models. These are horizontal spatial models of UA such as
community garden models, urban farm space models. The vertical
spatial model of UA such as the model of agricultural specialized
high-rise space and the model of high-rise space combining the urban
agricultural activites with other functional spaces of the urban.
1.1.3. Trends in spatial development of UA. So far there are 3
basic trends as follows: (1) Trend of urban agricultural spatial
development is an organic component in urban: Organic in urban
spatial structure and organic in urban social activities. (2) The trend
of space development of UA increases new values for urban areas:
The integration of UA space in the direction of multi-function
diversifies functional space and increases the value of urban land use.
In addition, it brings value of environmental benefits, landscape
values and urban greening, and humanistic value to urban space. (3)
Trend of UA space development contributes to sustainable urban


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development: Contributing to sustainable development in the
environmental, economic, and social fields of urban areas.
1.2. General situation of agricultural space in Vietnamese cities
1.2.1. Agricultural models in urban areas
- Formal agricultural models: Today, urban areas in Vietnam have
some agricultural models planned such as traditional agricultural
farming models, high quality agricultural models and organic
ecological agricultural models. These models are considered formal
agricultural activities in urban areas.
- Informal agricultural models in urban areas: Some agricultural
models which are not included in urban planning are called informal
models such as agricultural crops and animal husbandry in
households or combining with urban functional spaces. These models
are usually small and impulsive.
1.2.2. General situation of agricultural land in urban areas:
Agricultural land in urban areas is considered as reserve land in
urban development planning and land fund for construction projects
in the process of urbanization. Therefore, the phenomenon of illegal
construction on agricultural land and the phenomenon of agricultural
land fund “disappearing” is quite common in urban areas in Vietnam
in the process of urbanization.
1.3. Status quo of agriculture in urban area of MD
1.3.1. Some agricultural models in urban areas: The agriculture
in urban areas of MD also has the same situation as other cities.
Actual survey of some typical models has the following results:
- Model of orchards intermingling with tourism activities: Model of
orchards in My Khanh (Can Tho) has not only organized
entertainment activities but it also creates a relaxing space in the


7
form of a gardening house. Orchards in the Vinh Long city has
organized countryside cuisine in combination with entertainment of
amateur music. In the MD, the agricultural model of orchards mixed
with tourism activities is currently quite popular
- Model of traditional agricultural village: In most current urban
areas, there are traditional agricultural activities of various industries
such as weaving in Vinh Long, Ben Tre with handicrafts, agricultural
products processing as confectionery village in Soc Trang, dried
seafood in Chau Doc, My Tho with ricepaper and ornamental flower
in Cho Lach, Sa Dec. However, the ability to develop in the direction
of agricultural tourism is still limited because the models of
traditional agricultural villages are often minor and dispersed.
- Model of high-rise farm in urban areas: Today, there is a kind of
farm in the form of “high-rise architecture”, attracting and breeding
salanganes as in Rach Gia and Go Cong cities. Most models exist
informally in the form of intensive farming or combined with
housing functions in urban areas that have set the issues of
development policy.
- Model of high-tech agricultural zone: In Can Tho, Vi Thanh and
Tan An, a quantity of high-tech agricultural areas are being planned
although most of them are still in the early stages of development.
This model has created many challenges, mainly in the conclusion of
technical infrastructure and the high-tech application on centralized
production and towards planning as an urban functional area.
- Model of nature-based agriculture: Considered as a sustainable
farming model by promoting the circulation of natural and
complementary elements in a farming area to reinstate, maintain and
promote the harmony of nature. There are some examples of these


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models such as traditional rice production in Nga Nam (Soc Trang);
shrimp farming - planting forests in Nam Can (Ca Mau); growing
lotus in Sadec, Lap Vo (Dong Thap).
1.3.2. Impact of urbanization: The urbanization process in the MD
significantly impacts the expansion of urban boundaries to the periurban areas and the increases of agricultural land use conversion, as
well as almost every aspect of social life. In general, urbanization in
MD has a direct impact on agricultural activities in urban areas,
affecting urban space where UA is happening as well as on economic
cultural society and life of urbanite.
1.3.3. Current status of agricultural space in urban areas Looking from the perspective of urban planning: From the
perspective of spatial aspect of agriculture in urban spatial structure,
agricultural models in the existing urban areas are formed mainly
spontaneously, with small and medium scales, dispersed in urban
areas. From the perspective of agricultural activities in urban spatial
functions, agricultural models in the existing urban areas have
specialized functions in agricultural production, which is often
singular function, so agricultural activities mainly take place in the
planned space as agricultural land in urban areas. From the
perspective of agricultural image in urban spatial morphology,
agricultural activities in urban area are now mainly in the field of
cultivation such as rice, fruit trees, flower and clean vegetables bring
countryside images in urban landscape.
1.4. Some scientific works and theses, dissertations study the
same direction of the topic
1.4.1. Scientific study on UA: In the world, UA is becoming a
phenomenon that has been studied in many fields, especially in


9
urban planning and architecture. However, in Vietnam, research on
UA is still little in quantity and limited in term of research field and
mainly focused on the agricultural sector. There are no studies of
UA related to urban development planning.
1.4.2. Thesis, dissertation: Until now, there have been a number
of thesis and dissertations studying UA in the field of ecoagricultural development, geography and environment. The research
on UA in Vietnam which directly related to urban development
planning, especially in the aspect of urban space, is not available.
1.5. The need to study spatial forming of UA in MD
The problem for urban areas in the MD in the current context is that
with the emergence of UA, first of all, it is necessary to recognize
that UA activities taking place in urban space, then consider UA as a
new motivation factor in urban development. On the other hand, the
urban area of MD has many different conditions that need to be
researched to develop UA in accordance with the context of the MD
as well as the characteristics of each city. With such approach, the
space where UA activities take place must be studied and organized
together with the urban space developing orientation or urban
development planning strategies, through urban planning tools,
aimed at the common goal of sustainable urban development and
harmonizing local identity. Therefore, the need to study spatial
forming of UA is to set specific goals and contents. It is the
awareness of the role and position of UA activities in urban area. It is
to build multidimensional approach for UA in the context of
urbanization and climate change in the MD. Finally, it is to build
scientific bases to orient general solutions on spatial organizing of
UA appropriate in urban environment.


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Chapter II RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND SCIENTIFIC
FOUNDATIONS OF SPATIAL FORMING OF UA IN THE MD
2.1. Research methodology
2.1.1. Approach
- System approach: A synchronous approach of several research
methods related to spatial objects of urban and UA. On which
propose appropriate research methods for the research content.
- Multidisciplinary approach: Urban and UA issues are interrelated
to many sectors and areas therefore in thesis, a multi-disciplinary
approach is selected in order to obtaining an overall view when
proposing appropriate research methods.
2.1.2. Scientific research method: Based on the above approach,
scientific research methods are suitable for each content and the
research results are determined respectively. They are: field-work
method;

logic-historical

method;

synthetic

analysis

method;

statistical method; modeling method and forecasting method.
2.2. Theoretical foundations of spatial forming of UA in the MD:
Spatial forming of UA towards sustainable urban development and
harmonizing with local identities are the two main contents
mentioned in the scientific basis.
2.2.1. Viewpoints- arguments and theories about spatial organizing
of UA towards sustainable urban development planning
- Some oriented viewpoints of author: There are two scientific
viewpoints which had been identified as the foundation for the
research process. Firstly, the urban agricultural spatial organizing is
based on the outlook of sustainable urban development towards
ecology. This viewpoint will be throughout the process of building
scientific foundations on the multidimensional relationship between


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urban agriculture and the urban environment. Secondly, spatial
organizing of UA is carried out according to the viewpoint of
renewing urban space. With this viewpoint, the author assumes that
agricultural activities will maodify the basic characteristics of urban
space in terms of structural, functional and morphological. To a
greater extent, it can be said that the concept of urban space
replenishment will increase the value of urban areas in areas such as
land use, economy, culture and society arising from these activities.
- Basic arguments about urban agricultural space: The thesis
summarizes four basic arguments about urban agricultural space
from the above scientific perspectives. Firstly, the theory of new
urbanism contributes to optimizing land use and diversifying urban
spatial functions. Secondly, the theory of continuous productive
urban landscape contributes to effective greening and adapting to
climate change. Thirdly, the green space connection system in urban
areas is built on the theory of urban agricultural space with the
concept of productive green infrastructure to promote ecological
services. Fourthly, the theory of urban agricultural space along with
the agricultural phenomenon of improving the quality of living space
contributes to creating a local identity for the urban areas. All of the
above arguments are practical for the applicability of spatial
organizing for urban agricultural activities in urban planning.
- The theory of sustainable urban development with urban
agricultural factors: Some theories directly related to urban space
and environment with urban agricultural elements in the perception
of sustainable urban development are summarized as follows:
+ Theory of agricultural ecological urban: This theory utilizes the
value of urban greenery derived from local agriculture. It not only


12
brings ecological value to urban space but also increases economic
value for urban areas where agricultural land accounts for a high
proportion and plays an important role in the current urban economy.
+ Theory of sustainable farming urban: This theory emphasizes the
role of friendly-environmental farming method in the above urban
areas. It is built on a multi-tiered producing organization that creates
wide-extention production efficiency of urban space.
+ Theory of natural symbiosis urban: This theory purposes to a
harmonious combination of all aspects of the urban area which are
primarily about space when there is an integration of agricultural
activity. It is the symbiosis of function, structure, spatial image,
bringing multidimensional effect to the city.
+ Theory of smart urban: In order to increase the efficiency of using
urban resources and improve the productivity of integration in urban
space, this theory is applied to urban agricultural cultivation. It meets
the conditions of simultaneous service of different objects and needs.
2.2.2. The arguments and theories of urban agricultural spatial
forming to create a local identity for the urban area
- Arguments of urban development with local identity: The content of
the topic is directly related to this argument. Consequently, urban
agricultural activities are considered to create a specific identity of
the place for space according to the concept that urban space is a
unified whole between the environmental background and material
context for activities of human. Through activities such as
discovering the specificity of places and using, an understanding of
“a sense of place” or experience, exploring human space and “social
interactions”, “the sense of community” of the place, the peculiar


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impression of the space will be summarized, enhanced and
contributed to create an identity for the urban space.
- Theory of urban development with local identity: The locationbased urban theory associated with the concepts of “soul of place”,
“place creation” and urban image theory associated with the physical
image of the urban area. The image of urban agricultural activities
reflects the local factors very clearly through the specific elements of
culture, history and farming practices related to agriculture.
Therefore, applying these theories to create urban space for the local
agricultural appearance brings the value of urban identity.
2.3. Practical foundation for spatial forming of UA in the MD
2.3.1. Practical context of the MD
- Natural conditions: The fertile soil, mild climate and a dense
network of rivers and canals are favorable conditions for agricultural
and urban development according to green and ecological trends.
- Economic and cultural-social conditions: The MD is one of the key
economic regions of the country, with an agricultural and fishery
economy developing and having great potential in applying
technologies to agricultural production and social life.
- Agricultural economic conditions: With largest area of granary and
orchids in the country, agriculture plays an important role in the
regional economy. Therefore, it also has great potential to renovate
towards green agriculture and green economic development.
- Climate change issues in the Mekong River Delta region: Social
life as well as agricultural economic development in most urban
areas are affected by impact of climate change. In particular, the
phenomenon of sea level rise has narrowed the land for cultivations
as well as for urban development in most localities in the MD.


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2.3.2. Practical context of urban areas in the MD
- Urban system and urban development planning orientation: The
urban system of MD has 166 urban areas (2016), which are classified
as: 02 of type 1, 07 of type 2, 9 of type 3, 23 of type 4 and 125 of
type 5. Thus, the orientations for developing urban systems has
modified recently basing on a multi-polarized model combined with
economic corridors, and promoting role of the natural landscape
harmonizing with sub-regional characteristics in urban zoning.
- Impact of urbanization and urban development policy: The swift
urbanization process has caused many impacts in the suburbs. For
instance, traditional agricultural crops tend to accumulate and move
away from concentrated urbanization zones. On the other hand, the
recently approved regional urban development policy has moved to
the perspective of natural rules and the actual conditions of each
urban area to put forward specialization, modernization and
diversification of agriculture in accordance with characteristics and
advantages of each agricultural ecological region.
2.4. Foundation on space & spatial organizing of UA in the MD
2.4.1. The foundation of space: Agricultural activities in urban
spaces tend to diversify in planting and mix with other functions.
Specifically, in terms of urban structure, participating UA will
complete the agricultural specialized space and other functional
spaces, both towards harmonious structures in each region and in the
whole urban space. In term of urban image, agricultural spaces are
landscape diversification, increasing greening, softening, flexibility,
and aesthetic value towards ecology. However, the existing
agricultural space needs some conditions to become urban
agricultural space in accordance with some viewpoints on space.


15
Those are the conditions of urban technical infrastructure and the
conditions of urban space properties such as flexibility in different
using, harmoniousness of spaces, consistency reflecting the nature of
context and interactivity to boost use value.
2.4.2. The foundation for spatial organizing of UA in the MD:
Physical elements which constitute UA space consist of cubic spatial
and active spatial elements. Base on these factors, there are 3 key
method of spatial forming of UA such as spatial structure; organized
according to the landscape and spatial organizing according to
“redistribution technology”. Therein, “redistribution technology” is
one of the most appropriate planning methods for the current
agricultural space, which has many small, weak individual and is
lack of technical infrastructure of the urban area in the MD.
2.5. Lessons about spatial organizing of UA
2.5.1. In the world: Spatial organizing of UA has plenty of practical
lessons. It is the integration of UA in urban functional space with
case studies from the Netherlands and the United States. It is the
integration of UA into the production landscape in the cases in
Germany and Maroc. Or as the revision of regulations and guidelines
on urban planning and design integrated with UA in the Israel and
Cuba. Especially the lesson group on exploiting urban open space at
different scales as is the case in Taiwan and China.
2.5.2. In Viet Nam: In domestic cities, the lesson of spatial
organizing of high-tech agricultural zones in Ho Chi Minh City and
Hanoi, spatial forming of urban farm combined with agricultural
tourism in Da Lat city as well as spatial planinng of traditional craft
village combined with agricultural tourism in Hoi An are valuable
study for the spatial forming of UA in the MD.


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CHAPTER III:

RESEARCH RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

3.1. Proposing general viewpoints, objectives and principles for
master planning - spatial organizing and forming of UA in MD
3.1.1. General viewpoint: In order to organize urban agricultural
space in the MD, it is necessary to consider

the following

viewpoints: urban space is a limited urban resource, urban
agricultural space is an organic component of the urban spatial
structure, and UA works towards urban interaction.
3.1.2. General objectives: Firstly, by means of the effective
exploitation of urban space and the harmonious organization of urban
space, the spatial organizing of UA should aim toward sustainable
urban development. Secondly, the spatial forming of UA should
generate a local identity through the designing of agricultural
landscapes and the exploiting of local agricultural colours.
3.1.3. General principles: Spatial organizing of UA should optimize
the use of urban space, thereby adding new values for urban space,
and harmonizing spatial functions in urban structure.
3.2. Proposing appropriate spaces for UA activities towards
sustainable urban development with the local identity in the MD:
From the scientific foundations and the status quo of existing urban
spaces, suitable spaces for UA are identified as the followings:
- For overall urban space: These are open spaces in form of
corridors following the waterway and road traffic axes, greenery and
water surface in most urban areas.
- For residential space: Upon the size and property of the space
appropriate forms of UA are private housing space; public space;
square, green trees, water surface space; urban administrative offices
space at district level; and other social infrastructure spaces.


17
- For urban central space: The most appropriate spaces consist of
the space of square, the center park, and high-rise building such as
administrative buildings, or works on culture and sport.
- For industrial park space: The spaces are suitable with UA such
as: flower garden, green trees and the overall space of factories and
enterprises to create a merged urban agricultural landscape.
- For green space: The public park and greenery space on two sides
of the river system and on the roads are appropriate for UA.
- For existing farmland space in urban structure: Farmland in
urban areas is the most convenient space for large-scale intensive
activities and assure sustainable urban agricultural development.
3.3. Proposing general orientation on resolutions of master
planning - spatial organizing and forming of UA in MD
3.3.1. General orientation on solutions for master planning of
agricultural space in urban structure
- The master spatial planning of UA should be guaranteed in
accordance with the development strategy of urban planning in the
MD: It is in accordance with the regional socio-economic
development context and with regional urban development
requirements in the future.
- The master spatial planning of UA should ensure the systemic
characteristic which contributes to sustainable urban planning
towards agricultural ecology: It is systematic and strict spatial
organizing of UA in urban spatial structure. This planning of
agricultural-related activities contributes to the developing of urban
economy, improving of environment and creating of “place of soul”.
3.3.2. General orientation on solutions for spatial organizing of UA
in urban functional zones


18
- Renovating and upgrading the existing agricultural land space in
urban structure: The orientation of urban agricultural spatial
organizing is appropriate for sub-urban and peri-urban areas, creating
a threshold for the process of urbanization, consistent with the
topographical landscape of the sub-region and the region.
- Renovating and integrating of urban agricultural functions in
urban functional spaces: This solution is implemented in residential
space, central space, industrial space and greenery space.
3.3.3. General orientation on solutions for spatial forming of UA
with local identity: Based on the spatial aesthetics and spatial
function elements in order to form spaces of which UA activities
bearing the specific local identity in the city as follows:
- Solution to create spatial axis of UA - landscape of city gateway:
Because its function of landscape axis and gateway position of the
city, spatial forming of UA is to establish a large-scale, horizontally
spreading landscape adding suitable aesthetic value for open space.
- Solution to create urban agricultural fields on both sides of rivers
and canals - open space: Spatial forming on the basic of natural
landscapes with existing water surfaces and greenery has made urban
agriculture image on the two shores become a very typical spatial
morphology for urban areas in the MD.
- Solution to create urban agricultural gardens in residential areas:
Spatial forming of urban agricultural garden is based on public space
in the residential area with meeting and entertaining function.
Therefore, the image of the urban agricultural activity space is
bearing agricultural culture for the residential area.
- Solution to create urban agricultural squares and parks: Spatial
forming of urban agricultural activities space is in harmony with the


19
overall square or park in the urban central space and with functional
activities in order to create attractiveness, uniqueness when urban
agricultural elements appear as an agricultural ecological landscape.
- Solution of forming high-rise urban agricultural buildings: Spatial
forming of UA in high-rise buildings is to exploit spatial layers
towards impressive symbolic value of modern agricultural culture.
3.4. Proposing appropriate spatial models of UA in the MD
3.4.1. Model for urban overall space: There are the model of urban
agricultural fields on the both banks of rivers, canals and model of
the urban spatial landscape axis. These two models contribute to the
building of a large-scale centralized landscape with characteristics
for urban areas.
3.4.2. Model for residential space: It consists of models such as
cottage gardens, home garden gardens, and urban agricultural
landscapes in high-rise buildings in residential areas. Most of the
construction works in the residential area have ability to combine
urban agricultural activities through functional spaces, including
building space, roof or apartment space.
3.4.3. Model for central space: They are spatial models of urban
agricultural park square, high-rise building including specialised UA
buildings integrated with urban agricultural landscape. This models
of UA in the central area is able to construct a new image of the
ecological high-rise building by agricultural landscape as well as to
create symbolic spaces for urban areas.
3.4.4. Model for industrial space: It is a model of urban agricultural
landscape space in a factory. This has created a new image of urban
agricultural landscape for factories and buildings as friendly feeling
of the productive environment of UA for workers. Urban agricultural


20
green plants replacing for isolated green trees not only establish the
landscape that brings a sense of environmental friendliness but also
produce economic value.
3.4.5. Model for urban green space: Model of urban agricultural
space for urban green space: It is a model of urban agricultural park
with a large and concentrated green area and a highlight of green
space for urban areas. It can be said that the urban agricultural street
combined with the surrounding landscape has brought a very diverse
space image for urban space.
3.4.6. Model for existing farmland in urban structure: The models
with large-scale centralized spatial characteristics are proposed as:
urban ecological farms, urban organic farms, urban high-tech farm.
In addition, it is possible to form a multifunctional urban agroindustrial model combining many areas of UA.
3.5. Application of research results: spatial forming of UA space
towards the lotus space in Cao Lanh City, Dong Thap province.
"The most beautiful flower in Thap Muoi is Lotus, the most beautiful
Vietnam named Uncle Ho", the verse suggested the application of
research results of lotus spatial forming in urban space in Cao Lanh
City, Dong Thap province.
3.5.1. General planning orientation of Cao Lanh City to 2030,
vision to 2050: This orientation is the basis for determining the
development direction of UA for Cao Lanh city. With this
orientation, lotus is chosen as one of the key agricultural plants that
contributes to development of Cao Lanh city towards agro-ecological
urban with local identity.
3.5.2. General viewpoints, objectives, principles of master planning
– Lotus spatial organizing and forming in Cao Lanh City: The view


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is lotus space in the Cao Lanh city has organic relationships with
existing urban spaces which is in accordance with the master
planning of the city. The objective is to organize lotus space making
Cao Lanh City becomes an ecological city with urban agricultural
landscape in which lotus plays is a key role. The principle is that
lotus space organizing must assure the optimization of existing Cao
Lanh space; the lotus and lotus space are organized in harmony with
other functional spaces and adds new value for Cao Lanh city.
3.5.3. General orientation for solutions of master planning –
spatial organizing and forming solutions to create lotus space in
Cao Lanh city. The general orientation for the overall planning
solution of lotus space is in harmony with urban structure,
contributing to environmental improvement and creating city
identity. The general orientation for the organizing solution of lotus
space is to apply the re-distribution technology to the existing
farmland space, to apply integrated planning solutions to other
existing functional spaces. The general orientation for the forming
solutions of lotus space with Cao Lanh’s identity is to implement
aesthetic and functional elements in some typical spaces such as
lotus fields on both sides of Cao Lanh river, landscape space fruit
and lotus plant from urban center to Cao Lanh bridge, lotus park at
Khong Tu lake in ward 1, lotus farm combining with fruit trees, on
agricultural land of some communes in the city. To sum up, the
above illustrated examples show that the organizing of lotus space
and other agricultural plants for Cao Lanh city is carried out on the
scientific foundation of UA, pursuant to the theory of urban
development having agricultural factors and the basic of status quo
of urban space in Cao Lanh city.


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3.6. Discussing research results
3.6.1. Discussing the conditions for UA to become a new driving
force for sustainable urban development: It is the organizing of UA
that needs to adopt urban planning tools. Thereby it facilitates UA to
add value for urban in accordance with the trend of the era.
3.6.2. Discussing the integration of UA activities in functional
spaces to create new images towards urban areas bearing the local
agricultural ecological identity:
- Integrating towards multi-color green urban space: The integration
of green space factors and natural elements in urban space
contributes to significantly enhancing the quality of life.
- Integrating the direction to the green urban economy: A leading
role of agricultural economy facilitates green urban economic
development integrating with agricultural services trend that has not
only created economic value but also minimized environmental risks.
- Integration towards green urban infrastructure: The most retention
of natural status and the combination of agricultural activities create
the foundation for functional spaces in urban areas to operate
efficiently but still environmentally friendly and green.
3.6.3. Discussing following studies to spatial organizing of UA in
urban planning in MD from theory to reality: The urban planning
law in Vietnam is still much constrained, so the solutions of master
planning, spatial organizing and forming still depends on many other
urban factors. For this reasons, further studies such as standards and
regulations UA in urban planning as well as issues of planting trees,
raising animal to match with urban environment, whoever cultivates,
cares, harvests, and manages the production environment, food safety
etc…need to study professionally to come up with actual solutions.


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CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
I. Conclusion
1. Through the picture of UA in the world today, UA is increasingly
asserting its role in urban space. The value system of urban
agriculture to renew urban space proves that the development trends
of UA take place inevitably on a global scale. In terms of urban
development planning and climate change, the status quo of
agriculture in Vietnam urban areas, especially the MD urban area is
necessary for organizing of UA towards sustainable urban planning.
2. The systematic, multidisciplinary approach and research method
appropriate to the field of urban development planning helped
identify scientific foundations that reflect the theories, scientific
perspectives of UA in the context of the MD in which urban space
plays an important role in facilitating for agricultural development.
Besides, international and domestic lessons on urban agricultural
development also have significant reference meaning.
3. General orientation for solutions in master planning – spatial
organizing and forming of UA is considered the most important
content of the thesis. These orientations fully reflect the viewpoints
and principles set out and are consistent with the objectives of the
thesis. That is the MD urban area that has developed sustainably
towards ecology with local identity.
4. Research results show that UA in general, spatial organizing of
UA in particular, is one of the inevitable trends of sustainable urban
construction planning activities. Therefore, the author discussed and
clarified how to integrate urban agricultural activities in urban space
and conditions for UA to become a new driving force for sustainable
urban development in the ecological local identity.


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