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INTRODUCTION
1. Rationale for the study
Emotion plays an important role in our mental life and has a
great impact on our work, study, and creativity. When man is happy,
he tends to be active, enthusiastic and he often acts positively. When
man is sad, worried, disappointed, he tends to be slack, reserved if
that kind of feeling lasts too long. When man feels resentful and
hatred, he tends to do something that is harmful to him and others as
well. Thus, managing emotion in a reasonable way to make our life
balanced and harmonious is what everybody pays attention to and
wants. Daniel Goleman (2007) claimed that: “Emotion management
proves the ability to make our feelings get used to the situation, how
man restricts his own emotions.
People without this basic
psychological ability getting themselves out of worry, sadness, and
anger often have to struggle against bad emotions”. Therefore,
emotion management does not only mean controlling our actions,
biological expressions, or outside attitudes, but it also needs to work
out solutions to control emotion, release restricted feelings in time.
Emotion management skill is a type of living skill, playing a very

important role in activities, helping man is able to control feeling, and
perfect personal quality. Cadets at Military Officer Training Colleges
selected from the National Entrance Exams have graduated from high
school and are now being trained to become cadres and officers. During
the training course, cadets have to carry out many tasks, solve different
situations according to the military rules and disciplines. At the same time,
the negative side of the market-economy, the social evils, the bad habits
often have a negative impact on the cadets. In order to meet the training
objectives and requirements as well as to form and develop the personal
qualities of the officers, cadets must have living skills in general and
emotion management skill in particular to control, adjust emotion; always
keep themselves balanced in emotion.
Over the past years, Party Committees, Administrators,
functional organizations and units in military officer training schools
always pay attention to directing, guiding, building plans and
organizing to practise and develop personal qualities, abilities, living
skills in general and emotion management skills in particular for the
cadets. Cadets have good personalities, firm and steadfast thoughts,
good abilities, good working methods and styles, their studying and


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training results are good; cadets have formed and developed some
basic living skills including emotion management skills. However, at
military officer training colleges nowadays, living skills in general, and
emotional management skills in particular of the cadets still have a lot
of limitations. The ability to control and adjust emotions of the cadets
is at a certain level, especially in complex situations with a lot of
affecting elements, cadets feel confused and are not really flexible and
creative to solve the situations in a reasonable way. Currently, the
training objectives and requirements of the officer training schools are
getting higher and higher. Hence, to meet the above contents, cadets
are required to train and develop living skills including emotion
management skills. Studying emotion management skills is a
complicated issue; up to now there have been many opinions about
emotion management skills. The research on emotion management
skills is not various; especially in the military environment there has
been no deep and systematic research on emotion management skills
of the cadets at military officer training colleges. Based on the above
theories and realities, the author chose the thesis topic entitled:
"Emotion management skills of division officers-training cadets at
Military Officers-Training Colleges in the Vietnam People’s Army”.
2. Purpose and tasks of the research
* Purposes of the research
The dissertation clarifies a number of practical and theoretical
issues on emotion management skills of cadets, proposes pedagogic psychological measures to develop emotion management skills of
cadets of military schools.
* Tasks of the research
The dissertation gives an overview of foreign and domestic
works related to the thesis.
The dissertation analyses, generalizes and systematizes some
theories on emotion management skills, building the tool concept of
the thesis, identifying signs of emotion management and factors
affecting emotion management skills of cadets at military schools.
The dissertation evaluates the actual situation skill of emotion
management and factors affecting cadets’ emotion management
skills. The dissertation proposes pedagogic - psychological measures
to develop emotion management skills of cadets of military schools.
The dissertation experiments factors affecting skill of emotion
management cadets of military schools.


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3. Object, Subject, Scope and Scientific hypothesis
* Object of the study
Signs of emotion management skills and factors affecting
emotion management skills cadets of military schools.
* Subject of the study
Officers-training cadets, teachers and officials managing cadets
at military schools.
* Scope of the study
- In terms of content: The thesis researches on signs of emotion
management skills and factors affecting cadets’ emotion management
skills. In addition, it researches on cadets’ emotion management skills in
learning, training and communicative relationships at schools.
- In terms of subject: The thesis researches on officials, teachers
and cadets at the following military schools: The Army OfficersTraining College N1, The Political Officers-Training College, The
Officers-Training College of Telecommunication, The Officers-Training
College of Commando.
- In terms of time: Data and surveys for the study are collected
from 2013 to the present.
* Scientific hypothesis
Cadets’ emotion management skills is composed of several
supporting skills (skill of identifying emotion, skill of controlling emotion,
skill of directing emotion, skill of using emotion). Cadets’ emotion
management skills is above average, the components skills are not equal,
of which skill of identifying emotion is the best, and skill of using emotion
is the worse. Cadets’ emotion management skills is formed and shown in
studying, training and communicative relationships; being affected by
subjective and objective factors. If the theoretical basis is clarified and the
actual situation of cadets’ emotion management skills and factors affecting
cadets’ emotion management skills are evaluated, then pedagogic psychological measures to develop skill of emotion management of cadets
are proposed, contributing to improve the quality of education, training at
military officers-training colleges in the Vietnam people’s Army.
4. Methodology and research methods
* Methodology
The thesis is based on the thorough understanding of the
materialist dialectics of Marxist-Leninist philosophy and the views of
President Ho Chi Minh, the Communist Party of Vietnam’s view on


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education and training, including education and training at military
officers-training colleges in the Vietnam people’s Army. It is based on a
system of views: view of activity; concrete and historical view;
development view.
* Research method
The thesis uses a combination of different methods of psychology
studies in general and military psychology studies in particular:
In terms of theory: Analysing, generalizing some scientific
works related to emotion management skills of cadets at military
officers-training colleges in order to form theory of the thesis.
In terms of practice: Method of observation; Method of
questionnaires; Method of conversation; Method of interview;
Method of experts consult; Method of experiment; Method of
multiple choice.
In terms of maths statistics: Use of software SPSS 20.0 to
calculate the data of survey, investigation, experiment and showing
research results.
5. New contributions of the thesis
* In terms of theory
The thesis generalizes the theory on emotion management
skills and forms some basic concepts: emotion management, skill of
emotion management, emotion management skills of cadets at
military officers-training colleges. It identifies that the signs of
emotion management skills of cadets are shown through 4 component
skills (skill of identifying emotion, skill of controlling emotion, skill
of directing emotion, skill of using emotion) and factors affecting
skill of emotion management of cadets.
* In terms of practice
The thesis points out that the actual situation of emotion
management skills of cadets are shown in 4 skills: skill of identifying
emotion, skill of controlling emotion, skill of directing emotion and
skill of using emotion are of above- average level. The worst is skill
of using emotion; the best is skill of identifying emotion.
Emotion management skills of cadets is affected by 2 groups of
factors: Group of subjective factors and group of objective factors. Of
which, group of subjective factors have more impact than group of
objective factors. The findings of experiment show that skill of
emotion management of cadets at military schools can be promoted by


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the following pedagogic measure: Nurturing skill of using emotion for
cadets at Army N1 Officers-Training College.
6. Theoretical and practical significance of the thesis
* Theoretical significance
The thesis contributes to supplement and develop the theory on
Psychology studies of skill of emotion management and emotion
management skills of cadets at military schools. The thesis identifies the
basic sighs of emotion management skills of cadets at military schools
and points out factors affecting emotion management skills of cadets at
military officers-training colleges.
* Practical significance
The thesis provides the scientific basis for promoting emotion
management skills of cadets, contributing to improve the quality of
cadets at military officers-training colleges. It can also be used as
references for researching on emotion management skills in general
and researching, educating and supervising officers-training cadets at
military officers-training colleges in particular.
7. Structure of the thesis
The thesis includes: Introduction, Overview, The content consists of
4 chapters (11 periods), Conclusion, List of References and Appendixes.
Chapter 1
LITERATURE OVERVIEW OF RESEARCHES RELATED TO
THE THESIS TOPIC
1.1. The foreign works related to the thesis topic
1.1.1. The works on emotion
* The works on emotion as phenomenon of individual psychology
Here are typical authors: Cruchetxki V. A. (1982), Rubinxtein X. L.
(1960), Carrol E. Izard (1992), Vugotxki L. X. (1997), Goderfroid Jo.
(1998), Nicky Hayes (2005), Richard J. Gerrig and Philip Zimbardo G.
(2003), etc. In their works, the authors research on issues of emotion
definition, sign, stable level, appearance and origin of emotion,
classifying emotion and impact of emotion on personal activities.
* The works on emotion as a driving force for individuals in
working and their life
Typical authors: Skinner B. (1953), Maslow A. (1970), Strongman
K.T (1987), Carrol E. Izard (1992), Maurice Reuchlin (1995), Keith Oatley
& Fennifer Jenkins M. (1995), Goderfroid (1998), Freud S. (2002), Nicky
Hayes (2005), Helen Greathead (2007), Daniel Goleman (2002, 2015),


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James L. Gibson (2011), Virender Kapoor (2012), Richard J. Gerrig and
Philip G. Zimbardo (2003), etc. In these above works, emotion is seen as a
driving force for individuals to act. Therefore, how to maintain, satisfy or
strengthen personal emotion is of great importance.
1.1.2. The works on emotion management
In terms of emotional intelligence, which includes the factors
of being conscious and controlling of the self and of others, there are
works on emotion management. Typical works: Fischer, Manstead,
Evers, Timmers & Valk (2004), Wegner and Therriault (1996),
Diamond & Aspinwall (2003); Michelle Sams (2010). The authors
points out the signs of emotions and causes of these emotions.
1.1.3. The works on emotion management skills
* The works on emotion management skills as one basic factor
and component in emotional intellect
Emotion intelligence is a recent psychological phenomenon
appeared in the end of the 20 th century. The appearance of emotion
intelligence has changed the traditional concept of emotion
intelligence and has widely affected several fields of life. The
research on emotion intelligence started in America with such experts
as: Bar-On R, Salovey and Mayer in 2007, Goleman, etc. Generally
speaking, there are three representatives researching emotion
intelligence in different ways: Bar-On R. touched upon emotion
intelligence under the perspective of personal manner; Salovey and
Mayer under the perspective of consciousness; Daniel Goleman under
the perspective of the work efficiency. In this thesis, we touch upon
emotion intelligence according to the view of Daniel Goleman.
* The works on emotion management skills as a
communicative skill
Soviet psychologists have made an important contribution
researching in communication in general and communicative skill in
particular, especially pedagogical communication. Typical authors:
Cubanova, Dakharo, Leonchiev, etc. In psychology studies in
America, there are a number of authors researching in art of
communication, communicative skill in management and business
such as: Allan Pease (1994), Torrington and his fellows (2004).
* The works on building measurement to identify skill of
emotion management
Here are typical works: Emotion control questionnaires
(ECQ2) by Roger D. and Najarian B. (1989). These questionnaires


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consist of 56 items, divided into 4 categories (14 items in each
category) with 4 areas. Emotional Quotiet Inventory, 1997. This
measures stress control and management. Nowadays, another
measurement is widely used in research in TTCX, that is MEIS by
Mayer, Salovey and Caruso (2000) designed to measure 4 factors
making up EI, with the ability to control emotion (item 4). However,
these measurements are focused on identifying the general skill of
emotion control, not on specific emotion.
1.2. The domestic works related to the thesis topic
1.2.1. The works on emotion
Emotion is researched by several psychologists in Vietnam,
typically: Vu Dung (2008), Do Manh Ton (2006), Nguyen Quang Uan
(2004), Ngo Cong Hoan (2003), Nguyen Huy Tu (2003), Nguyen Khac
Vien (2003), Nguyen Ngoc Phu (1998), Nguyen Dinh Sang (2015),
etc. These authors believe that emotion is the indispensible product of
the process of satisfying human’s basic necessity. Emotion is the
feeling shown when being affected by other factors.
1.2.2. The works on emotion management skills
* The works on skill of emotion control as a component of
emotional intelligence
The term “Emotional intelligence” was officially mentioned at
the conference of Social Science at the State level KX-07 by Pham Minh
Hac (chief editor) in 2001. Emotional intelligence - essence and ways
of measurement” by Nguyen Huy Tu (2003). The work at the State
level, code KX-05-06 in the 2001 - 2005 period by Tran Kieu and
Vietnamese psychologists and educationists of Institution of Strategy
and education Program. Emotional intelligence is seen as one of three
factors of intelligence. This serves as a favourable condition for the
author to do research on skill of emotion management of cadets.
* The works on emotion management skills as basic
communicative skills
There are a number of works on communicative skills on
different objects and areas such as: pedagogic communication;
communication and negotiation in leadership; art of communication
in tourist business; communication of military doctors with patients;
communication of political instructors in the Vietnam People’s
Army, etc. Typical authors: Hoang Anh (1993), Nguyen Van Thac
(1992), Nguyen Thi Thanh Ha (2000), Nhu Van Thao (2012), etc.
Generally, these authors indicate that the skills of controlling


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communicative process (manage and control personal emotion) is
one components of communicative skill.
* The works on emotion management skills as a kind of life skill
In recent years, emotion management skills is considered as one
kind of life skill, one field of educating life skill for pupils and
students at schools and students support centre. Typically: Nguyen
Quang Uan, Huynh Van Son, Nguyen Thanh Binh, Kim Ngoc Dai, etc. The
contents of education and training contain emotion management skills or
skills of controlling personal emotion and is considered as one life skill
needs educating so as for people to perfect themselves, meeting the demand
of social development and international integration.
* The works related to emotion management skills of cadets at
military officers-training colleges
In Vietnam, there are limited numbers of works on emotion
management skills, focusing on emotion management skills of cadets,
students at pedagogic universities, typical authors: Huynh Van Son, Tran Thi
Thu Mai, Nguyen Thi Hai, Nguyen Ba Phu, Ta Quang Đam, etc. There are
some works on this field but limited to emotion management skills. These
authors present skill of emotion self-management, assessing the actual
situation and factors affecting thoroughly and completely.
1.3. Generalization of the research results of published
scientific works and the focussed issues of the thesis
1.3.1. Generalization of the research results of published
scientific works
For emotion, there have been many studies of domestic and
foreign researchers on emotion approached from different angles and
on different subjects and objects. At the same time, domestic and
foreign researchers show different schools and opinions in their
studies. For emotion management, emotion management skills,
foreign researchers have many studies on emotion management,
emotion management skills, and their way to study is very clear and
coherent. Domestic studies on emotion management skills are limited
in number and the studies are mainly through TTCX and living skills.
In the field of military operations, there have been some studies on
the emotion management skills and emotion control of lecturer
training cadets and cadets at military officer training colleges. The
results of the mentioned studies on emotion management skills are
very valuable and various sources that the author can exploit and
refer to and inherit in order to fulfil this thesis.


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1.3.2. The focused issues of the thesis
In this thesis, the author will continue to study and solve some of
the problems as follows: For emotion management skills, domestic and
foreign psychologists have different opinions. However, the tendency to
consider emotion management skill as a type of living skills, the
complex skill was chosen and studied to justify and make clear this
opinion in studying emotion management skills of the cadets.
Psychologists have different approaches to the emotion
management skills and they have pointed out different skills of
emotion management skills. Based on the studying and training
activities of the cadets at Military Officer Training Colleges, the
author considered the cadets’ emotion management skill a process
to identify the component skills of the cadets’ emotion
management skill. The objectives of the thesis is focus on
clarifying the expressions of the emotion management skills of the
cadets at Military Officer Training Colleges; identifying the
evaluating criteria and the factors affecting the emotion
management skills of the cadets to make the foundation for the
reality survey and evaluation.
Developing the emotion management skill of the cadets, the
objectives of the thesis is not only clarifying the theories but also
studying, surveying the reality, and evaluating the reality of this
skill. The emotion management skill of the cadets is affected by
many objective and subjective factors. Therefore, it is necessary to
study and analyse the factors affecting the cadets’ emotion
management skill. At the same time, to check the effect of the
suggested measures, the study needs to carry out experimental
testing on a measure in random to prove its impact on developing
the cadets’ emotion management skill at Military Officer Training
Colleges in the Vietnam People’s Army.
Summary of chapter 1
By generalizing domestic and foreign studies relating to the
topic of the thesis, the author assumed that the emotion management
skill of the cadets at officers’ schools has not received adequate
attention from the researchers both on the aspects of theory and
practice. With the special characteristics of studying, training, and
living, the relationships at Military Officer Training Colleges in the
Army require the higher and higher standard of physical strength, the


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intense psychology, which is one of the main causes of the bad
emotions among the cadets. Thus, the topic of the thesis is of great
practicality and significance.
Emotion management skill is approached from different angles.
However, there have not been many studies on emotion management
skill in general, and on emotion management skill of cadets at military
officer training colleges in particular. The results of these studied are
diverse and useful sources that the author can exploit, refer to, and
inherit in order to fulfil the thesis.
Chapter 2
THEORIES ABOUT EMOTION MANAGEMENT SKILLS OF
DIVISION-OFFICER TRAINING CADETS AT OFFICER
TRAINING COLLEGES IN THE VIETNAM PEOPLE’S
ARMY
2.1. Emotion management skill
2.1.1. Emotion
* Definition of emotion:
Emotion is the vibration that shows people’s attitudes toward
things and phenomena related to their needs and motives.
* Classification of emotion
Focus on analysing the 6 basic types of emotion as follows:
happy, miserable, fearful, angry, surprised, and scornful.
2.1.2. Skill
Skill is the application of the available knowledge and
experience to the reality to achieve an identified goal.
2.1.3. Emotion management skill
2.1.3.1. Emotion management
* Definition of emotion management
Emotion management is the process of identifying, controlling,
directing, and using our emotions affected by the situation in order to
help individuals master their own emotion.
* Distinction between emotion management and emotion
intelligence
Emotion management and emotional intelligence are similar in
the way that they both refer to the appearance of emotion; people can
identify, control, direct, and use it. The content of these two concepts
has something in common.


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However, there are still differences between emotion
management and emotional intelligence: emotional intelligence has a
wider range; it is a very popular psychological phenomenon like a
quality, a character, ability in everyday activities and communication
of human. Emotional intelligence is always present in individuals.
Emotion management is a process and it can be present or not.
2.1.3.2. Emotion management skill
* Definition of emotion management skill
Emotion management skill is the use of the available
knowledge and experience to identify, control, direct, and use
individual emotion when there is an impact to master our own
emotion in real activities.
* Component skills of emotion management skill
Based on the results of the above-mentioned studies, the
definition of emotion management skill, the author assumes that
emotion management skill consists of the following component
skills: emotion identifying skill; emotion controlling skill; emotion
directing skill; emotion using skill.
2.2. Emotion management skill of division-officer training
cadets Military Officer Training Colleges
2.2.1. An overview of Military Officer Training Colleges and the
characteristics of division-officer training cadets at Military Officer
Training Colleges
2.2.1.1. An overview of Military Officer Training Colleges in
the Vietnam People’s Army
2.2.1.2. The characteristics of division-officer training cadets at
Military Officer Training Colleges
* Cadets at Military Officer Training Colleges
* The characteristics of cadets at Military Officer Training
Colleges
- The bio-psychological characteristics.
- The socio-psychological characteristics.
* The characteristic features of the studying and training of
cadets at Military Officer Training Colleges
- Cadets are carefully selected based on the entrance exam result,
and they study and train in a pedagogical and military environment in
accordance with the regulations and disciplines in the Army.


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- The studying and training activities of the cadets are intense
in the aspects of the mentality and physicality due to the strict
requirements of the future career.
- The studying and training activities of the cadets at Military
Officer Training Colleges are well organized in a pedagogical and
military environment.
2.2.2. Emotion management of division-officer training
cadets at Military Officer Training Colleges
* Emotion of division-officer training cadets
Emotion of division-officer training cadets is the vibrations
that show their attitudes to things and phenomena related to their
needs and motives.
* Definition of emotion management of division-officer
training cadets
Emotion management of division-officer training cadets is the
process of identifying, controlling, directing, and using their emotions to
help them master their own emotions during the studying process and
meet the communicative goal, and the school requirements.
2.2.3. Emotion management skill of division-officer training
cadets at Military Officer Training Colleges
2.2.3.1. Definition of emotion management skill of divisionofficer training cadets at Military Officer Training Colleges
Emotion management skill of cadets at Military Officer Training
Colleges is the use their knowledge and experience to identify, control, direct
and use their own emotion when being affected in order to help them master
their own emotions during the process of studying, training, living and
communicating to meet the training goal and requirement of the schools.
2.2.3.2. Expression of the emotion management skill of the
division-officer training cadets at Military Officer Training Colleges
- The emotion identifying skill of the cadets
- The emotion controlling skill of the cadets
- The emotion monitoring skill of the cadets
- The emotion using skill of the cadets
2.3.
Factors
affecting
the
emotion
management skill of division-offi cer training
cadets at Military Offi cer Training Colleges
2.3.1. Objective factors: The impact of socio-economic
condition; The cultural pedagogical military environment; The aims,


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the requirements and the content of the training programme; The
qualities, the abilities, the methods, the styles of cadres and lecturers;
The pressure of the study and examination.
2.3.2. Subjective factors: The knowledge and experience of the
cadets; the temper of the cadets; the health and the spirit of the
cadets; the methods of studying and training of the cadets; the
military career tendency of the cadets.
Summary of chapter 2
In this thesis, emotion management skill of the cadets at
Military Officer Training Colleges is defined as the use of their
knowledge and experience to identify, control, direct, and use their
emotion when being affected to help cadets master their own emotion
during the process of learning, training, living, communicating to
meet the training goal and requirement of the schools.
Emotion management skill of the cadets at Military Officer
Training Colleges in the Vietnam People’s Army consists of four
component skills: emotion identifying skill; emotion controlling skill;
emotion monitoring skill; emotion using skill. Many factors, including
subjective factors as well as objective factors, affect emotion management
skill of the cadets at Military Officer Training Colleges. The effects of
these factors on the emotion management skill of the cadets at Military
Officer Training Colleges are different from each other.
Chapter 3
RESEARCH ORGANIZING AND METHODOLOGY
3.1. Research organizing
3.1.1. Research units
The research was carried out in 4 units: The Army OfficersTraining College No1, The Political Officers-Training College, The
Engineering Officers-Training College, and The Military OfficersTraining College of Telecommunication from 2015 to 2018.
3.1.2. The object of the study
The object of the study consists of 396 cadets, 127 cadres and
lecturers.
3.1.3. The content of the study
Study the reasoning problems about emotion management skill
in general and the emotion management skill of cadets in particular.
Survey, evaluate the real situation of the emotion management
skill of the cadets at military officer training colleges today. Based on


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the results of the study, propose some pedagogical-psychological
measures to develop the emotion management skill for cadets at
military officer training colleges.
Test the effect of the measures developing the degree of the emotional
management skill of the cadets at military officer training colleges.
3.1.4. The stages of the study
Stage 1: Study the theories and do a preliminary survey,
complete the detailed thesis proposal. Stage 2: Survey the situation,
conduct impact experiments, and write the contents of the thesis.
Stage 3: Check the survey statistics and continue to supplement the
thesis content. Stage 4: Complete the thesis.
3.2. Criteria for evaluating the degree of emotion
management skill of cadets at military officer training colleges
Criteria for evaluating the degree of emotion management skill
of cadets are based on the expressions of the component skills of
emotion management skill of the cadets.
3.3. Research methodology
In this thesis, the author has combined different methodologies
to study as follows: document study, survey questionnaire,
observation, in-depth interview, group discussion, experimental
method, expert method and the data analysis method by using SPSS
20,0 software: analysis using descriptive statistics, analysis using
inference statistics, and factor analysis.
Summary of chapter 3
To study the situation of emotion management skill of
cadets at military officer training colleges in the Army, the author
carefully prepared the studying process and used various studying
instruments. Therefore, during the process of surveying the
situation and conducting the experiment, a lot of difficulties arisen
subjectively or objectively were limited. A smooth combination of
different study methodologies promoted their effect, helping to
measure the situation of emotion management skill of cadets
accurately. The findings were qualitatively authentic, valuable,
help to make clear the quantitative findings collected and analysed
by using SPSS 20.0 software. The measurements used in the thesis
have been adapted to the civilian environment and are now applied
to the military environment, these measurements have been
supplemented with the characteristics of the cadets at military


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officer training colleges as the object of the study; therefore, they
ensure the reliability when applied to the study to decide on the
judgement and evaluation in the thesis.


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Chapter 4
THE FINDINGS OF THE SITUATION OF THE EMOTION
MANAGEMENT SKILL OF DIVISION-OFFICER TRAINING
CADETS AT MILITARY OFFICER TRAINING COLLEGES
IN THE VIETNAM PEOPLE’S ARMY
4.1. The situation of the emotion management
skill of division-officer training cadets at military
officer training colleges
4.1.1. A general evaluation of the situation of the cadets’
emotion management skill
In this thesis, the author studied the degree of emotion
management skill of cadets basing on the cadets’ self-evaluation of
their four component skills: emotion identifying skill, emotion
controlling skill, emotion monitoring skill, and emotion using skill, the
findings are presented in table 4.1 below:

Table 4.1. Emotion management skill of cadets
TT
1
2
3
4

Skills
ĐTB ĐLC
Self-evaluation of cadets’ emotion identifying skill
3.71
0.41
Self-evaluation of cadets’ emotion controlling skill
3.67
0.42
Self-evaluation of cadets’ emotion directing skill
3.61
0.34
Self-evaluation of cadets’ emotion using skill
3.50
0.35
Cadets’ emotion management skill
3.62
0.58
The results of the study show that the cadets’ emotion management
skill is at good level (ĐTB = 3.62; ĐLC = 0.58). Of component skills, the
cadets’ emotion identifying skill is the best (ĐTB = 3.71; ĐLC = 0.41);
next is the emotion controlling skill (ĐTB = 3.67; ĐLC = 0.42); the third
place is the emotion directing skill (ĐTB = 3.61; ĐLC = 0.34) and the
lowest is the emotion using skill (ĐTB = 3.50; ĐLC = 0.35).
The testing results show that there are 6 correlations among the
4 component skills and they are all positive. Four of six are closely
positive, including: correlation between emotion identifying skill and
emotion controlling skill (r = 0.423**), correlation between emotion
controlling skill and emotion directing skill (r = 0.477**), correlation
between emotion directing skill and emotion using skill (r = 0.559**)
and correlation between emotion controlling skill and emotion using
skill (r = 0.456**). At the same time, there are two loosely positive
correlations: between emotion identifying skill and emotion directing
skill (r = 0.280**), between emotion identifying skill and emotion using


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skill (r = 0.201**). This result shows that although belonging to the
component skills of emotion management skill of cadets, any increase or
decrease in one skill will lead to the increase or decrease in the other.
The differences in emotion management skill between different
groups of cadets through Independent Samples Test and One - way
ANOVA in combination with in-depth Post Hoc Tests (Bonferroni). The
results are presented in the table below:

Table 4.2. The relationship between different object
groups on emotion management skill

Already learned

Emotion
management
skill
ĐTB ĐLC
3.82
0.52

Not yet learned

3.53

0.57

Cadets
Cadres and lecturers
The first-year
cadets
The second-year
cadets
The third-year
cadets
The fourth-year
cadets
Hot
Active
Quiet
Thoughtful
Mixed
The lowest group
The second
lowest group
The average group
The second
highest group

3.62
3.53

0.49
0.48

3.34

0.54

3.54

0.60

3.76

0.58

3.90

0.50

3.21
3.71
3.76
3.17
3.63
3.17

0.61
0.40
0.47
0.57
0.43
0.58

3.47

0.65

3.78
3.95

0.53
0.60

Content
Learn
emotion
management
skill
Object
groups

Cadets of
different
school years

Different
types of
temper
Selfevaluation
of the
studying and
training
results

t-test, 0ne - way
anova
t/F

p

t (394) = 8.225 0.000 (< 0.05)
t (521) = 26.550 0.000 (< 0.05)

F(3,392) = 128.62 0.000 (< 0.05)

F(4,392)= 367.92 0.000 (< 0.05)
F(4,391)= 299.94
0.000 (< 0.05)


18
The highest group 4.16
0.54
There have been significant differences between cadets who have
learned emotion management skill and cadets who have not learned that
skill, t (394) = 8.225 and p = 0.000 (< 0.05); the previous groups of cadets
have better emotion management skill than the following groups of
cadets; there have been significant differences between cadets who have
different types of temper, besides, there is no difference in emotion
management skill between the group of cadets who are quiet and the
group of cadets who are thoughtful (p = 0.600 > 0.05); cadets with
good emotion management skill often have better results of studying and
training.
The results of the relationship between the studying and
training results and the emotion management skill of the cadets
through Chi-Square Tests show that: P = 0,000 (< 0.05), proving that
they have relation with each other, the emotion management skill of
the cadets has an important role in their studying and training
situation and it is the foundation for them to do their tasks according
to their position after graduation.

Table 4.3. Cross correlations between the degree
of emotion management skill and the studying and
training result of the cadets
Content

Degree of
emotion
managem
ent skill

Low emotion
management
skill

High emotion
management
skill

N
Emotion
management
skill (%)
Studying
and training
result (%)
N
Emotion
management
skill (%)

The studying and
training result
The low
The high
studying
studying
and training and training
result
result
190
9

Total
199

95.5

4.5

100

88.0

5.0

50.3

48.0
26
13.2

2.3
171
86.8

50.3
197
100


19
Studying
and training
result (%)

Sum

N
Emotion
management
skill (%)
Studying
and training
result (%)
% of sum

12.0

95.0

49.7

6.6
216

43.2
180

49.7
396

54.5

45.5

100

100

100

100

54.5

45.5

100

It can be confirmed that emotion management skill of cadets
at officer training schools plays an important role in the reality of
the studying and training of the cadets and is the foundation for
them to do their tasks according to their positions after graduation.
There have been differences in emotion management skill of groups
of cadets with different temper types, different school years, and
different studying and training results; or the evaluation of cadres
and teachers and the self-evaluation of the cadets. In the next part of
the thesis, the author will make clearer the situation of emotion
management skill of cadets by analysing the four component skills:
emotion identifying skill, emotion controlling skill, emotion directing
skill and emotion using skill.
4.1.2. Real situation of expression degree of emotion
management skill of cadets
4.1.2.1. Real situation of emotion identifying skill of cadets
The emotion identifying skill of the cadets are at good level
(ĐTB = 3,71, ĐLC = 0,41). In which, 5/6 emotions are identified
at good level and one is identified at average level. Correlations
between the emotion identifying skills of the cadets through
situation and self-evaluation are positive and relatively close (r =
0,428** and p = 0.000). Development degree of emotion
identifying skill depends on the time of studying and training at
school; there are significant differences among cadets of different
school years; and differences among cadets who have learned and
not learned emotion management skill.
4.1.2.2. The real situation of emotion
controlling skill of cadets


20
The emotion controlling skill of cadets is at good level (ĐTB =
3,67; ĐLC = 0,42), however, there is still some at average level. The
results from different research methodologies are the same. High-level
research results have positive correlations low-level research results are
between self-evaluation and the result of the situational exercises on
emotion controlling skill of the cadets. There have been significant
differences between cadets with different studying and training results;
there have been significant differences in emotion controlling skill
between cadets of different school years.
4.1.2.3. The real situation of emotion directing skill of cadets
The emotion directing skill of the cadets is at good level, ĐTB
= 3.61 (ĐLC = 0.34). This level is presented in all items measured on
the measurement scale (ĐTB from 3.46 to 4.05). Cadets of the
previous year have better emotion directing skill than those of the
following year. The groups of the first year cadets have emotion
directing skill at average level. Cadets who have learned emotion
management skill have better emotion directing skill than the group
of cadets who have never learned this skill. The differences are all of
statistical significance.
4.1.2.4. The real situation of emotion using skill of cadets
The emotion using skill of cadets is at good level (ĐTB = 3.50;
ĐLC = 0.35). Four out of 6 items measured are at good level and 2
items are at average level. There has been low positive correlation
between cadets’ self-evaluation and their emotion using skill through
situations. There has been significant difference in emotion using
skill among different groups of cadets of different school years;
similarly, there has been difference among groups of cadets with
different studying and training results of emotion using skill.
In general, the emotion management skill of the cadets is at
good level, representing in four component skills. Of the four
component skills, the best is emotion identifying skill and the worst
is emotion using skill. There has been positive correlation between
component skills and general emotion management skill, ranging
from closely related to very closely related. There has been
significant statistic difference in types of temper among different
groups of cadets; among cadets of different school years and among


21
cadets of different studying and training results. There has been closely
positive correlation between the studying and training result and the
emotion management skill of the cadets. Cadres and lecturers’ evaluation
on cadets’ emotion management skill was lower than the cadets ‘selfevaluation.
4.2. The real situation of factors affecting the career success
need of young officers in the Vietnam People’s Army
4.2.1. Objective factors
Objectives factors have had a great impact on the emotion
management skill of the cadets (with average score = 3.80 and ĐLC = 0.60).
The items measured all represented this level. Cadets who highly
appreciated the impact of this objective factor would also highly appreciated
the impact of the other objective factor and vice versus. The cadets’ emotion
management skill was affected by pressure from examinations and tests the
most (with the average score = 4.07 and ĐLC = 0.72); at the same degree of
impact, however, the lowest average score and high dispersion are due to the
impact of socio-economic condition on cadets’ emotion management skill
(with the average score = 3.56 and ĐLC = 1.05).
4.2.2. Subjective factors
Subjective factors affecting the cadets’ emotion management
skill are at good level (ĐTB = 3.82; ĐLC = 0.57). All the items
measured showed this result. Cadets who highly appreciated this
subjective factor would highly appreciate the impact of the other
subjective factor at different levels. Cadets claims that some
outstanding factors were life experience, living experience and
experiences (ĐTB = 3.99; ĐLC = 0.78), and the method of studying
and training (ĐTB = 3.83, ĐLC = 0.77) were the factors that affected
emotion management skill more dramatically. This leads to a suggestion
that we should develop emotion management skill for cadets, and
attention should be paid to emotion management skill and the methods
of studying and training of cadets at military officer training colleges.
4.3. Pedagogical-psychological measure to develop emotion
management skill for division-officer training cadets at military officer
training colleges
Based on the results of theoretical and practical study on
emotion management skill of cadets, the researcher suggested 4
pedagogical-psychological
measures
to
develop
emotion
management skill for cadets at military officer training colleges in the
Vietnam People’s Army. 4.3.1. Educate to raise the cadets’ awareness


22
about emotion management skill in improving the quality of education
and training at military officer training colleges. 4.3.2. Renew the
content and method of teaching; form of examination and testing to
develop emotion management skill for cadets. 4.3.3. Create situations in
studying, training, and communicating to train emotion management
skill for cadets. 4.3.4. Raise the positive and the proactive of cadets in
the process of training, developing emotion management skill. 4.3.5.
Build a positive cultural environment to create condition for cadets to
train and develop emotion management skill.
4.4. Analysing the experimental results
4.4.1. The results of the survey before experiment
The testing results of Independent Samples T test showed that: t (394)
= 0.348 and P = 0.78 (>0.05), there was no difference in emotion using
skill between the experimental group and the rest of cadets in the Samples.
The testing results of Independent Samples T test also showed that there
was no significant difference in emotion identifying skill, emotion
controlling skill and emotion using skill between the experimental group
and the rest of the cadets. This confirms that the selection of a group of
cadets to experiment is completely appropriate, ensuring the
representative for the whole samples in the study.
4.4.2. The results of the survey and test after the experiment
After the process of experiment, the degree of emotion using
skill of cadets belonging to the experimental group increases
considerably and the most dramatically (ĐTB: 3.65 → 4.20, the
degree of difference is 0.55. In order to find out if this change is of
significance in statistics or not, the author carried out testing Paired
samples T test. The result showed that t (39) = -9.245, p = 0.000
(>0.05) proving that there has been significant statistic difference in
emotion using skill of the experimental group before and after the
experiment. In other words, after experiment, emotion using skill of
the experimental group has improved significantly.


23

Chart 4.6. Emotion management skill of cadets in the experimental
group before and after the experiment
The above results show that emotion using skill of the
experimental group has improved after the experiment, creating
significant development in comparison with itself and with NDC as
well. NĐC itself, emotion using skill measured after the experiment
has recognizable change. This also happened to component skills and
emotion management skill itself of the experimental group and NĐC.
4.4.3. Some findings from the analysis of the experiment results
Together with emotion management skill, the emotion using skill of
the cadets developed in a regular way and was affected by subjective and
objective factors pointed out in the thesis. If the cadets’ emotion using skill
is enhanced in accordance with the rule of development, the emotion using
skill will be developed in particular and the emotion management skill is
also developed in general. Pedagogical and psychological measures to
develop emotion management skill for cadets recommended are
scientifically based both in theory and in practice, and they are highly
feasible. The process of carrying the experiment ensured the characteristics
of being objective and scientific and the collected results reflected the real
situation of the study object.
Summary of chapter 4
Emotion management skill of cadets at military officer training
colleges is at good level. Of the four component skills, emotion


24
identifying skill is the best, and emotion using skill is at the lowest
level. Component skills are in a positive correlation and they are
from closely related to very closely related. There are many factors
affecting cadets’ emotion management skill, including two main
groups: the group of objective factors and the group of subjective
factors. In order to develop emotion management skill for cadets it is
necessary to impact on these influencing factors by using the system
of pedagogical and psychological measures recommended. The
results of the testing experiment show that there has been an increase
in the development of emotion using skill of cadets. This proves that
the situational study and recommended measures are right and the
measures are highly feasible.


25
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
1. Conclusion
Living skill in general and emotion management skill in particular
plays a very important role and is essential for cadets who are studying,
training, living and communicating at military officer training colleges.
Studying emotion management skill of cadets at military officer training
colleges is of great significance both in theory and practice. Based on the
collected results of the study on emotion management skill of cadets at
military officer training colleges, the author realized that:
1.1. Overview of research situation shows that emotion
management skill of cadets at military officer training colleges in the
Vietnam People’s Army has been studied by some authors, it is not
systematic and logic in both theoretical aspect and practical aspect,
the angles of approach are also different.
1.2. Emotion management skill of cadets is the use of
knowledge and experience to identify, control, direct and use their own
emotion when being affected to help them master their own motion
during the process of studying, training, living and communicating to
meet the object and the requirement of colleges. This is an important
skill to help cadets complete the training object and requirement of
military officer training colleges. The results of the study show that the
practice of this skill is at good level and there are differences in the
level of emotion management skill of cadets of different school years.
1.3. Expression of emotion management skill of cadets includes 4
skills: emotion identifying skill, emotion controlling skill, emotion
directing skill, emotion using skill. Of these four skills, emotion
identifying skill is the best; at the lowest level lies emotion using skill,
but only emotion management skill and emotion identifying skill is in
closely positive correlation.
1.4. There are two groups of factors affecting emotion management
skill of cadets: the group of subjective factors and the group of objective
factors. Of these two groups of factors, the important factors creating the
influence of the subjective group consist of: knowledge, experience,
method of learning and training of cadets...; in the objective groups, it
includes: studying and testing pressure, quality, ability, working method
and working style of staff and lecturers, the object, the requirement and the
content of the training programs, ....


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