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INTRODUCTION
1. Reason for choosing topic
Testing and evaluating are very important positions in the teaching process.
Testing and evaluating allows the implementation of teaching, the result of
applying teaching methods as well as teaching paradigms to be monitored and,
more importantly, students’ performance at school to be evaluated. Testing and
evaluating during teaching process at universities and colleges is vital for
students, lecturers and administrators in particular. Teaching in schools today
revolves around not only what to teach but also how to teach. Innovating
teaching methods is an urgent demand in improving teaching quality. It requires a
integration of curriculum, methodology and testing as well as evaluating to
enhance the standard of training. An erroneous assessment of the quality of
training may have a detrimental effect on the utilization of the human resources.
Therefore, innovating testing and evaluating has become an urgent need for the
education ministry and society as a whole. Accurate and objective assessment
boosts learners’ confidence and enthusiasm, thus enhancing learning creativity.
The fundamental principles of Marxism-Leninism is one of the disciplines
of political theories taught in universities and colleges in our country to equip
students with the scientific knowledge of Marxism- Leninism, forming the

worldview and scientific methodology for learners. In the process of studying
this subject, the core competence, the specificity students need to achieve is the
ability to solve problems. By studying this subject, students not only have the
capacity to be aware of theoretical issues, but also have the power to apply the
knowledge they have learned to solve practical problems with a positive spirit
and attitude. However, reality shows that the development of students’ problemsolving capacity has not really been paid attention; the work of examining and
evaluating the students’ problem-solving capacity is still confusing, leading to
the efficiency of teaching being yet to be achieved as expected. Students are not
really interested in learning due to the academic content of the subject. They are
not experienced in the handling of problematic situations in the learning
process, which limits their adaptability to real life as well as the actual demands
of the profession. Therefore, it is required that teachers find measures to
promote the development of students’ problem-solving capacity, especially in
the examination and evaluation of work.
Based on the above-mentioned reasons, I chose the issue “Assessing
students’ problem-solving in teaching the philosophical part, subject of the
fundamental principles of Marxism-Leninism in colleges and universities of
Vietnam today” as my PhD thesis.
2. The purpose of the study
Based on the analysis and clarification of the theoretical and practical basis
of assessing students’ problem-solving capacity in the teaching of philosophical
part, subject of the fundamental principles of Marxism-Leninism in universities


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and colleges in our country nowadays; the thesis proposes the principles and
measures to evaluate students’ problem-solving ability in this discipline. The
thesis helps enhance the standard of teaching the philosophical part, subject of
the fundamental principles of Marxism-Leninism in universities and colleges
today, oriented towards developing learners’ capacity.
3. The object and subjects of the research
3.1. The object of the research
The process of teaching the philosophical part, subject of the fundamental
principles of Marxism-Leninism in colleges and universities today, with
orientation to capacity development.
3.2. The subjects of the research
Principles and measures to improve students’ problem-solving ability in
teaching the philosophical part, subject of the fundamental principles of
Marxism-Leninism in colleges and universities today.


4. Scientific hypothesis
If the principles and measures proposed in the thesis are ensured in testing
and evaluating in the philosophical part, subject of the fundamental principles
of Marxism-Leninism in colleges and universities today, the quality of teaching
this subject in current universities and colleges will be improved.
5. Research tasks
- Overview of research works related to assessing students’ problemsolving capacity in learning he philosophical part, subject of the fundamental
principles of Marxism-Leninism.
- Study theoretical bases and investigate the situation of assessing students’
problem-solving capacity in teaching the philosophical part, subject of the
fundamental principles of Marxism-Leninism in universities and colleges today.
- Propose principles and measures to assess students’ problem-solving
capacity in the teaching of he philosophical part, subject of the fundamental
principles of Marxism-Leninism in colleges and universities of Vietnam today.
- Organize pedagogical experiments to test the feasibility and effectiveness
of the measures proposed.
6. Research scope
- Reasoning: The thesis only investigates the assessment of students’
problem-solving ability in the philosophical part, subject of the fundamental
principles of Marxism-Leninism in colleges and universities (is the core capacity,
representing the ability to apply worldview and methodology in real life)
- Practice: The thesis surveys the real situation and pedagogical
experiments assessing students’ problem-solving ability in the philosophical
part, subject of the fundamental principles of Marxism-Leninism in these
colleges and universities:


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Tay Bac University; Thai Nguyen University of Education; Ho Chi Minh
City University of Education; Vietnam Traditional Medicine and Pharmacy
Academy; Thai Nguyen Teacher Training College.
- Time: The thesis examines the current situation and pedagogical
experiments from January 2014 to June 2018.
7. Research Methods
- The thesis uses methods such as analysing-synthesizing, logicalhistorical, comparative, inductive-deductive, systematic-structural.
- Observation method: observing students’ attitude and enthusiasm to
assess students’ problem-solving capacity in teaching the philosophical part,
subject of the fundamental principles of Marxism-Leninism.
- Sociological survey method: using questionnaire to collect information
from lecturers and students on the research matter.
- Interview method: face-to-face interview with administrators, lecturers
and students to gather information on the research topic of the thesis.
- Expert method: consulting experts on designing questions in tests, test
matrix, choosing to construct a set of questionnaires to study the real situation.
- Pedagogical experiment: Conduct pedagogical experiment to evaluate the
feasibility and effectiveness of assessment methods for students’ problemsolving capacity in teaching the philosophical part, subject of the fundamental
principles of Marxism-Leninism.
8. New contributions of the thesis
- Systematizing and sharpening the theoretical foundations of evaluating
students’ problem-solving capacity in teaching the philosophical part, subject of
the fundamental principles of Marxism-Leninism in colleges and universities
nowadays.
- Studying and evaluating the reality of assessing students’ problemsolving capacity in teaching the philosophical part, subject of the fundamental
principles of Marxism-Leninism in colleges and universities today.
- Proposing the principles and measures to assess students’ problemsolving capacity in lectures on the philosophical part, subject of the
fundamental principles of Marxism-Leninism in colleges and universities today.
- Experimenting to prove the feasibility of the proposed measures in the thesis.
9. Theses pointed out to protect:
- The general assessment of published research on testing and evaluating
students’ problem-solving capacity in teaching the philosophical part, subject of
the fundamental principles of Marxism-Leninism.
- Evaluate the reality of assessing students’ problem-solving capacity in
teaching the philosophical part, subject of the fundamental principles of
Marxism-Leninism in colleges and universities today.
- The principles and measures of assessing students’ problem-solving
capacity in teaching the philosophical part, subject of the fundamental
principles of Marxism-Leninism in colleges and universities today.


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- Basic theoretical issues concerning students’ problem-solving capacity in
teaching the philosophical part, subject of the fundamental principles of
Marxism-Leninism in colleges and universities today.
10. The structure of the thesis
Apart from the introduction and conclusion, appendix and list of
references, the thesis consists of 4 chapters, 10 lessons:
Chapter 1: Overview of the research situation on assessing students’
problem-solving capacity in teaching the philosophical part, subject of the
fundamental principles of Marxism-Leninism in colleges and universities today.
Chapter 2: Theoretical and practical base of assessing students’ problemsolving capacity in teaching the philosophical part, subject of the fundamental
principles of Marxism-Leninism in colleges and universities today.
Chapter 3: Principles and measures to improve the quality of assessing
students’ problem-solving capacity in teaching the philosophical part, subject of the
fundamental principles of Marxism-Leninism in colleges and universities today.
Chapter 4: Pedagogical experiments of measures to assess students’
problem-solving capacity in teaching the philosophical part, subject of the
fundamental principles of Marxism-Leninism in colleges and universities today.
Chapter 1
OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH ON THE ASSESSMENT OF
STUDENTS’ PROBLEM-SOLVING CAPACITY IN TEACHING THE
PHILOSOPHICAL PART, SUBJECT OF THE FUNDAMENTAL
PRINCIPLEs OF MARXISM-LENINISM IN COLLEGES AND
UNIVERSITIES OF VIETNAM TODAY
1.1. Overview of research on the assessment of students’ problemsolving ability in teaching the philosophical part, subject of the
fundamental principles of Marxism-Leninism.
1.1.1. Researches on the capacity and problem-solving capacity in
teaching.
1.1.1.1. Definition of capacity.
Education oriented towards capacity development has been a hot-debated
topic since the 90s of the twentieth century and has now become a global
education trend.
According to foreign materials, ability is a category of capacity (ability,
competency, capacity, possibility). Weinert wrote in the Vergleichende
Leistungsmessung in Schulen (2001) that: Ability is the combination of inherent
or acquired capabilities and skills to solve real life problems [100].
According to OECD (The Organization for Economic Co-operation and
Development) in the Definition and Selection of Competencies: Theoretical and


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Conceptual Foundation, ability is the capacity to efficaciously fulfil complex
requirements under a certain circumstance [95].
Denyse Tremblay claimed in The Competency - Based Approach: Helping
learners become autonomous that ability is the capacity to act efficiently from
efforts based on resources [99] …
Overall, foreign authors all held an opinion that ability consists of inborn,
inherent or acquired psychological traits and is perpetually linked with practical
activities. Ability is a personal characteristic that is formed and developed based
on inherently good traits and a process of learning and practising, allowing
people to successfully conduct a certain action and achieve the desirable
outcome in specific situations.
In Vietnam, the concept of ability has caught the attention of not only
researchers but also the public as education is carrying out a comprehensive and
fundamental reform, shifting from knowledge-based education to capacitybased education. This concept is defined to be closely similar to the definition
researchers all over the world have put forward: in Integration-based Teaching
method, Nguyen Van Tuan generally stated that “ability is a complex
psychological characteristic, the convergence of many factors like knowledge,
skills, experience, responsibility and the will to act” [80:20]. Dang Thanh Hung
in the article Ability and its approaching education believed: “Ability presents
the combined application of elements (laborers’ knowledge, skills and good
traits) and is demonstrated by personal attempts to carry out a certain task”
[36:1]. Tran Khanh Duc put it clearly in the Research on needs and the
construction of an ability-based training model in education that “ability is the
capacity to acquire and apply collectively as well as efficiently every human
potential (knowledge, skills, attitude, physical strength, belief,...) to perform an
activity or deal with any situations arising in life or work” [25:55]
1.1.1.2. Definition of problem-solving ability
These days, there are a number of ways to interpret the concept of problemsolving ability based on different points of view. The International students
assessment programme by the OECD put it that: Problem-solving capacity is an
individual ability to comprehend and handle the situation when the measure is
yet to be clearly seen. It consists of one’s involvement in solving his issues, thus
proving himself as a positive and constructional citizen [95].
Marzano & McTighe in the study Assessing Student outcomes
performance assessment using the dimensions of learning model pointed out
ways for teacher to effectively teach and develop students’ competency: 1/
Create a safe, friendly and comfortable learning environment; 2/ Use teaching
methodology that helps linking new lessons with those introduced; 3/ Extend
and filter information to combine the lesson content with cognitive skills; 4/
Enable students to apply useful information to boost the learning process; 5/
Boost students’ cognitive thinking to creativity, allowing them to be energetic
and able to solve problems in real life.
Cotton, in the research The schooling practices that matter most,
determined factors in developing students’ problem-solving ability: diverse
types of situation and exercise; flexibility in group working; keeping track of


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students’ performance; involvement of parents and the community; safe and
enlivened studying environment. The author placed a stress on the pivotal role
of family and the community in the formation and development of students;
problem-solving capacity.
PISA [102] concentrated on reading, mathematic and scientific
competency, an integration of an overall ability to solve issues beyond the scope
of the subjects.
In Vietnam today, there have been a number of researchers on the ability to
solve problems of students, such as Nguyen Canh Toan, Tu Duc Thao and Dinh
Quang Bao. Doctoral thesis “Develop the ability to identify and solve problems
of middle school students in the teaching of mathematic concepts, demonstrated
by opening concepts of algebra” by Nguyen Anh Tuan. Nguyen Thi Phuong
Thuy with her doctoral thesis “Experimental teaching application in teaching
Organic Chemistry to develop Northern high school students’ problem-solving
capacity”, Nguyen Thi Lan Phuong, Thai Thi Nga,...
Research conducted internationally and domestically has proved the
necessity of building a curriculum that is oriented towards establishing and
developing learner’s core capabilities, one of which is problem-solving.
1.1.2. Studies on ability and students’ problem-solving capacity in
teaching the philosophical part, subject of the fundamental principles of
Marxism-Leninism.
In recent years, the issue concerning students’ problem-solving capacity in
teaching the philosophical part, subject of the fundamental principles of
Marxism-Leninism has been mentioned by some authors: Tran Hoang Phong,
Hoang Thi Thu Phuong, Le Thi Son,...
Beside researchers on the development of students’ problem-solving capacity
in teaching the philosophical part, subject of the fundamental principles of
Marxism-Leninism in general, there have been authors who study the capacity of
students to resolve issues in this discipline, such as Nguyen Phuoc Dung with his
doctoral thesis “Problem-solving teaching of the fundamental principles of
Marxism-Leninism at political schools in Cuu Long Delta”.
1.2. Overview of research on assessing students’ problem-solving
capacity in teaching the philosophical part, subject of the fundamental
principles of Marxism-Leninism.
1.2.1. Studies on assessing students’ problem-solving capacity in
teaching the philosophical part, subject of the fundamental principles of
Marxism-Leninism.
Concerning educational evaluation, recently the world has paid great attention
to ability evaluation. There have been several countries like Britain, Poland,
Australia, Canada,... or organizations like AAIA (The Association for
Achievement and Improvement through Assessment), ARC (Assessment research
Centre),... and authors like C.Cooper, S.Dierrick, F.Dochy, A.Wolf, D.A.Payne,


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M.Wilson, M.Singer,... that express their attention to ability evaluation.
Particularly, in the first few years of the XXI century, nations in OECD Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development - have carried out
PISA - Programme for International Student Assessment. PISA is implemented
with students at the age of 15, it does not examine what is learnt at school but
rather the ability to apply knowledge to solve problems in real life situations.
In 1956, Benjamin Bloom wrote Cognitive classifications based on
educational goals: Perception, in which the description of cognitions consisting
of six levels has been widely accepted and used in many fields till this day. His
list of perception processes starts from the lowest level - knowledge recall to the
the most complex - assessment of an idea’s value and usefulness. Marzano in
Designing a new categorization of cognitions based on educational goals raised
an objection to Bloom’s classification. In 2011, in the Classifying cognitions for
teaching, learning and evaluating, Dr Lorin Anderson, along with his colleagues,
published an updated version of Bloom’s cognition classification.
In Vietnam, the evaluation of capacity and learners’ problem-solving
capacity also receives the attention of many scientists like Tran Ba Hoanh,
Nguyen Cong Khanh, Dao Thi Oanh, Phan Thi Xuan Hong, Phan Anh Tai,
Hoang Hoa Binh, Nguyen Thi Lan Phuong, Le Thi Thu Hien, Phan Dong Chau
Thuy, Nguyen Thi Ngan,...
1.2.2. Studies on assessing students’ problem-solving capacity in
teaching the philosophical part, subject of the fundamental principles of
Marxism-Leninism.
Training materials of the Ministry of Education and Training on innovating
methodologies for teaching, testing and assessing Politics at professional
intermediate school in 2014, training materials of Department of High school
education on teaching, testing and evaluating school performance, oriented to
developing students’ ability in Civil education at middle schools and high
schools, especially examining and assessing the module “Civils with worldview
and theoretical method” [82]. In the graduation standards concerning quality
and ability of the high school education programme, Vietnamese educational
scientists have proposed a position of 6 qualities and 9 abilities, including the
capacity to solve problems,
Most recently, some doctoral theses in the field of Theory and Politics
teaching methods have mentioned some methodologies to promote students’
general capacity and spared a part of the thesis for the testing and assessing
ability in teaching fundamental principles of Marxism-Leninism, such as Bui
Thi Thanh Huyen, Duong Quynh Hoa, Hoang Phuc.
In conclusion, testing and evaluating in teaching the philosophical part,
subject of the fundamental principles of Marxism-Leninism with an approach to
general learners’ ability has been mentioned in some authors’ theses. But there has
yet to be a work digging deep into testng and evaluating problem-solving capacity
in teaching of this subject. This is a new issue that requires further investigation.
1.3. Research results and the issues that the thesis continues studying.


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1.3.1. Achievements relating to the topic of the thesis.
Following the overview, this postgraduate notices that works on assessing
students’ problem-solving capacity in teaching the philosophical part, subject of
the fundamental principles of Marxism-Leninism in universities and colleges these
days have touched on these following problems: The concept of ability, the
constituents of ability; the concept of problem-solving ability and its constituents;
levels of perception processes; the role of ability assessment in education; rules,
forms and measures to evaluate problem-solving ability. Authors all acclaimed the
position, the enormous role and meaning of testing and evaluating oriented
towards competency in education and teaching; while at the same time pointed out
a number of forms, devices, scales and measures to examine and evaluate the
problem-solving ability conformable to specific subjects.
Most of the studies concentrate on articles, books and scientific topics
directly associated with the discipline. Therefore, when conducting the topic
“Assessing students’ problem-solving capacity in teaching the philosophical
part, subject of the fundamental principles of Marxism-Leninism in universities
and colleges nowadays”, scientific contributions of authors are inherited and
filtered in accordance with the direction of the topic to write the thesis
profoundly, comprehensively and systematically, thus enhancing the quality and
effectiveness of teaching this subject.
1.3.2. Issues the thesis continues studying.
The overview of researches shows that the scientific results achieved and
the “missing” part in studies put forward for the topic pose a demand for further
research, clarifying obscure content such as: Systematization of theoretical
basis of assessing students’ problem-solving capacity in the teaching of the
subject, objective and well-rounded judgement of the reality of assessing
students’ problem-solving capacity in many subjects in universities and colleges
in our country. Particularly, there lacks a work on the principles and measures to
assess students’ problem-solving capacity in teaching the philosophical part,
subject of the fundamental principles of Marxism-Leninism in universities and
colleges these days.


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Chapter 2
THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL BASIS OF ASSESSING
STUDENTS’ PROBLEM-SOLVING CAPACITY IN TEACHING THE
PHILOSOPHICAL PART, SUBJECT OF THE FUNDAMENTAL
PRINCIPLES OF MARXISM-LENINISM IN COLLEGES AND
UNIVERSITIES OF VIETNAM TODAY
2.1. Theoretical basis of assessing students’ problem-solving in
teaching the philosophical part, subject of the fundamental principles of
Marxism-Leninism in colleges and universities nowadays.
2.1.1. Students’ problem-solving capacity in teaching the philosophical
part, subject of the fundamental principles of Marxism-Leninism in
universities and colleges nowadays.
2.1.1.1. Definition of competency.
Competency is derived from the Latin word “competentia” which means
meeting. Competency is interpreted as the proficiency with which one carries
out a task. These days, “competency” receives attention and research from
international as well as Vietnamese scientists. Competency is defined
differently according to the study objectives of each scientific field.
Upon analysis of scientists’ opinions, this postgraduate believes:
Competency is a collective ability to combine qualities, knowledge and skills of
a person or a group to effectively perform an activity in real life.
2.1.1.2. Definition of problem-solving ability.
- Definition of problem, problem in philosophy
The Vietnamese Encyclopedia states: Problem is understood as "the thing
that needs to be examined, studied and solved" [54;102]; matters that we have
yet to know, but we want to know, examine, study and solve.
Problems in teaching are matters posed for learners to examine, study and
solve at the time the learners have no answer or are dissatisfied with the answer.
When teaching the philosophy of subject The basic principles of
Marxism-Leninism, the philosophical question raised for students focused on
studying the most common concepts, categories, laws of motion, development of
nature, of society, of thought; the formation of world views, scientific
methodology and their application to solving life problems.
- Definition of problem solving and problem solving in Philosophy:
Solving problems is a positive process of cognition with mental and
physical efforts and the capacity to associate inherent knowledge and
experiences to arrive at a proper measure to an unprecedented problem.
Solving problems in teaching is the act of using cognitive thinking and
intellectual performance during teaching and learning to meet the demands of the
problems.
Problem solving in elementary teaching the philosophical part, subject of
the fundamental principle of Marxism-Leninism is to equip learners with the
fundamental knowledge of the relationship between existence and cognition (or
material and mind), through which the ability to identify political, socioeconomic problems and analyze them is formed, thus enabling them to apply
the basics of philosophy to perceptive and practical activities.


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- Definition of problem-solving ability and problem-solving ability in
Philosophy:
Problem-solving capacity is one of the basic and necessary abilities for
anyone to survive in society at any time. Therefore, the establishment and
development of this capacity in students at universities and colleges is of
complete necessity. “Problem-solving ability is an individual capacity that uses
perception processes, actions and attitudes, motives and emotions efficiently to
resolve issues where there is no inherently common method and measure”.
Students’ problem-solving ability in teaching the philosophical part,
subject of the fundamental principles of Marxism-Leninism is the
combination of competencies illustrated in activities in the process of solving
philosophical problems, which consists of: the ability to understand the
philosophical issues, to propose measures to solve these problems, to conduct
these measures and to form new ideas and discover new problems.
2.1.1.3. Components of students’ problem-solving capacity in teaching the
philosophical part, subject of the fundamental principles of Marxism-Leninism.
First, the capacity to understand Philosophy: being able to identify the
nature of the philosophical problems and express them in students’ own ways.
Second, the capacity to give the solution for Philosophical problem: being
able to form a theory, connect and deduct, associate to reality to prove the theory.
Third, the capacity for implementing Philosophical solutions: being able to
deduct effectively, express cearly, provide valid and highly persuasive evidence
to clarify the problems.
Fourth, the capacity to form new ideas and identify new problems: once
the philosophical problem is solved, students will gain more theoretical
knowledge about not only philosophy but also other disciplines; practical
knowledge to form new ideas and solve problems in philosophy in an
alternative way. Starting from the problem posed by philosophy, students can
use available results or measures to find and identify new philosophical
problems, which promotes creativity in learners’ cognitive thinking.
2.1.2.4. Factors influencing the assessment of students’ problem-solving
capacity in teaching the philosophical part, subject of the fundamental
principles of Marxism-Leninism in universities and colleges nowadays.
The process of establishing and developing students’ problem-solving
capacity in teaching the philosophical part, subject of the fundamental
principles of Marxism-Leninism is determined and affected by the following
factors:
First: Subjects of assessment: teachers, students and educational
administrators.
Second: Form and method of assessment.
Third: Content of the subject.
2.1.2. Assessing the problem-solving capacity of students in the teaching
of the philosophy of subject The basic principles of Marxism-Leninism in
universities and colleges nowadays.


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2.1.2.1. Conception of assessing problem-solving ability, the goals and
basis to
evaluate students’ problem-solving capacity in teaching the
philosophical part, subject of the fundamental principles of Marxism-Leninism.
Firstly, the conception of assessing students’ problem-solving.
Assessing is collecting and processing data on the ability to meet the goal in
learning of students when affecting the causes of the situation to lay a foundation
for decisions of those involved, hence improving students’ performance.
Assessing students’ problem-solving capacity is a process of forming
assumptions, drawing conclusions or judging the levels of problem-solving at
which students reach, giving feedbacks to students, schools and families,
whereby students’ problem-solving skills are improved.
Secondly, the goal of assessing students’ problem-solving capacity in
teaching the philosophical part, subject of the fundamental principles of
Marxism-Leninism.
Evaluating students’ problem-solving capacity in teaching the philosophical
part, subject of the fundamental principles of Marxism-Leninism is to:
First, judge the level of solving philosophical problems at which students reach.
Second, determine the position of students in learning to keep track of their
progress in learning and self-development.
Third, provide information for:
- Students to adjust their attitude and learning methods.
- Lecturers to adjust their schedules and teaching methods.
- Education management agencies to adjust the curriculum and learning
materials to enhance students’ problem-solving capacity.
Thirdly, the basis to assess students’ problem-solving capacity in teaching the
philosophical part, subject of the fundamental principles of Marxism-Leninism.
The evaluation of students’ problem-solving capacity in teaching the
philosophical part, subject of the fundamental principles of Marxism-Leninism
needs to be based on requirements for problem-solving ability, or the system of
constituents of problem-solving capacity and their indicators.
2.1.2.2. Form and measure to assess students’ problem-solving capacity in
teaching the philosophical part, subject of the fundamental principles of
Marxism-Leninism.
Firstly, the form of assessing students’ problem-solving capacity in
teaching the philosophical part, subject of the fundamental principles of
Marxism-Leninism.
First, assess overall and periodically.
Second, self-evaluation and mutual evaluation.
Secondly, the measure of assessing students’ problem-solving capacity in
teaching the philosophical part, subject of the fundamental principles of
Marxism-Leninism.
First, assessing by means of learning assignments.
- Oral tests
- Written tests
- Study the results of students’ problem-solving process
Second, assessing by means of observation.


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2.1.2.3. The procedure of assessing students’ problem-solving in teaching the
philosophical part, subject of the fundamental principles of Marxism-Leninism.
When assessing students’ problem-solving in teaching the philosophical
part, subject of the fundamental principle of Marxism-Leninism, the procedure
consists of these main stages:
Firstly, determine the goal, form, sphere and timeframe for assessment
Secondly, choose the methodology, construct assessment tools
Thirdly, process the assessment results
2.2. Practical basis of assessing students’ problem-solving in teaching
the philosophical part, subject of the fundamental principles of MarxismLeninism in colleges and universities nowadays
2.2.1. The reality of assessing students’ problem-solving in teaching the
philosophical part, subject of the fundamental principles of MarxismLeninism in colleges and universities nowadays
2.2.2. Assess the situation and the problems faced in assessing students’
problem-solving in teaching the philosophical part, subject of the
fundamental principles of Marxism-Leninism in colleges and universities
nowadays
2.2.2.1. Assess the situation of assessing students’ problem-solving in
teaching the philosophical part, subject of the fundamental principles of
Marxism-Leninism in colleges and universities nowadays
Based on the practical survey, we summarize the situation of assessing the
problem-solving capacity of students in the teaching of the philosophical part,
subject of the fundamental principles of Marxism-Leninism in colleges and
universities nowadays as follows:
1. Perception
Most managers and teachers (if not all) are not aware of the necessity of
the ability to assess problem-solving in the teaching of the philosophical part,
subject of the fundamental principles of Marxism-Leninism; They understand
about the constituents of problem-solving capacity, but assuming that the
capacity of students in teaching this subject has only reached the first 3 levels.
Almost all teachers are aware that the goal of assessing problem-solving
capacity is helping students and teachers to change their studying and teaching
methods and helping educational administrators to change their management
method. Most teachers agree with the conditions to assess students’ problemsolving capacity in this subject that this thesis proposes and claim that it is
possible to implement in their schools.
2. Implementation
Most teachers have made efforts to renew testing and evaluation with
capacity-based orientation, implementing in many diverse ways and methods.
However, because this is quite a new problem, in the practising process,
teachers do not fully understand and are not theoretically accurate about testing


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and evaluating students’ problem-solving capacity. Thus, confusion, wrong
procedure, misunderstanding about the purpose and value of assessing students’
problem-solving capacity may happen in the process. The development of
learners' capacity is not considered as the ultimate goal of teaching, students do
not understand about assessment of problem-solving capacity. Lack of attention
to the capacity of the students, not to assess the capacity of students, but just
stop at the level is to help students acquire knowledge, practice skills, apply
knowledge to solve the problem. Pay attention to the formation and
development capacity of students. Students do not have the ability to self-assess
the capacity of the forest. Teaching is always about being responsive to
examinations, not for the progress and development of students. The status of
students studying cabinets, rote learning, learning because of grades, learning to
cope with the examination and examination is common.
The above situation is due to a number of major causes:
1. The teaching program’s content focuses on imparting scientific
knowledge, leading to the trend of testing and evaluating mostly based on the
manifestation of knowledge, rather than its practical application.
2. The concept of the managerial staff and teachers on teaching goals only
stop at equipping knowledge and responding to examinations. The role of capacity
development, especially the capacity for action for each person, is not clear, thus
being irresolute in renewing testing and evaluation for fear of making mistake.
3. Understanding of assessment in general, capacity assessment in
particular (methods, techniques, tools, evaluation process) of the teaching staff
is still limited. Expertise of young teachers is not enough, the teaching
organization capacity is limited.
4. The content of the syllabus has few chapters close to real life, theoretical
weight, dry knowledge.
5. Learners and students are not fully aware of problem-solving capacity, being
lazy with a relaxing mind after entering colleges. Their self-learning ability is low.
The information included in the assessment is mainly for the purpose of
rating, being qualified to pass, to be eligible for the graduation exam, class ...;
Not really interested, use feedback to help teachers, students adjust in teaching,
learning and helping families to support students studying ...
2.2.2.2. Issues for assessing students’ problem-solving in teaching the
philosophical part, subject of the fundamental principles of Marxism-Leninism
in colleges and universities nowadays.
The problem posed in terms of perception is to grasp thoroughly the policy
of rudimentarily and comprehensively renewing education and training,
according to Resolution No.29 of the Ministry of Education and training,
among the whole team of managers and teachers, helping them understand the
importance and necessity of testing and evaluating in the capacity-based
direction, equipping teachers and students with the most basic knowledge about
testing and evaluating with capacity.


14

About the solution for implementing, teachers have to start from the step of
testing and evaluating because this will directly influence teaching and learning.
If the testing and evaluation of students’ problem-solving skill in teaching and
learning is implemented, students will be provided with the chance to practice
problem-solving ability, helping them to be more mature when entering life
after graduation.
Chapter 3
PRINCIPLES AND IMPROVEMENTS FOR ENHANCING THE
QUALITY OF ASSESSING STUDENTS’ PROBLEM-SOLVING
CAPACITY IN TEACHING THE PHILOSOPHICAL PART, SUBJECT
OF THE FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF MARXISM-LENINISM IN
COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES TODAY
3.1. Basic principles in assessing students’ problem-solving in teaching
the philosophical part, subject of the fundamental principles of MarxismLeninism in colleges and universities today
When constructing tools and methods of assessing student’s problemsolving capacity in teaching the philosophical part, subject of the fundamental
principles of Marxism-Leninism, it is necessary to comply with the following
rules: ensuring the objective of capacity assessment; ensuring the objectivity,
scientific criteria and differentiation; ensuring the comprehensiveness; ensuring
that the assessment is for learners’ progress.
3.1.1. Assurance of the objectives of capacity assessment.
a) Knowledge
In the teaching process, in order to achieve the objective of knowledge,
teachers and students in implementing the forest management must ensure the
following three requirements:
Firstly, in the process of solving problems of philosophy, students have to
master and ensure the accuracy of the concepts, categories and philosophy of
philosophy. Because every concept, category, philosophy of philosophy is the
basis of basic reason to apply to solving practical problems.
Secondly, ensure the integrity of the subject.
Thirdly, in the teaching process, teachers have to apply teaching
methodology to solve problems, creating problematic situations, creating
students' needs for discovering and solving problems as their own needs.
b) Attitude
Teachers, instead of paying too much attention to testing, assessing
knowledge and skill, should focus on testing, assessing the problem-solving
capacity of students who have the motives, enthusiasm and willingness to solve
the problems arising in the subject and problems given as tasks by teachers.
Designing tests needs to meet the following requirements:


15

Firstly, students have to spend more time studying their own materials. In
other words, students must have a positive attitude, actively participate in
exploring, exploring knowledge, planning to solve cognitive problems.
Secondly, students must be self-reliant and knowledgeable, active and selfmotivated to participate in the learning process.
Thirdly, through student advocacy activities, students are able to develop their
capacity for knowledge management and other basic skills so that after graduation
they are able to successfully address the social and work environment.
c) Skills/ competence
Assessing students’ problem-solving in teaching the philosophical part,
subject of the fundamental principles of Marxism-Leninism has a great potential
for shaping both basic skills and competences such as presentation skills, team
work, reading information ....and core competencies such as: planning skills,
problem solving skills and appropriate solutions, skills to implement solutions
and collation of results with initial problems for students, capacity to detect and
solve problems. Therefore, when designing tests to assess students’ problemsolving capacity in teaching this subject, teachers need to be able to measure its
constituent capabilities, with an accurate measurement in order to exactly
measure students’ capacity through constituents of problem-solving capacity.
3.1.2. Ensure the objectivity and equity
Assurance of objectivity when evaluating the capacity of students in the
teaching of the philosophical part, subject of the fundamental principles of
Marxism-Leninism is not dependent on the consciousness, thoughts, emotions
and will of the master. evaluation. Assurance of scientific standard when
evaluating is to base on accurate scientific knowledge, with verified
obviousness. Most of the knowledge is available in coursebook but there is still
some outside if it is verified in reality.
Assurance of fairness in assessing the capacity of students in the teaching of
the philosophical part, subject of the fundamental principles of Marxism-Leninism
is indistinguishable, object bias assessment, all subjects Prices are the same.
3.1.3. Ensure comprehensiveness, openness and honesty
Ensuring comprehensiveness is one of the principles of testing. Because
each student has different problem-solving capacity and psychological
characteristics, evaluation test should have comprehensiveness in order to
develop individual’s capacity. Also, there should be the quantification of levels of
capacity that students need to achieve, according to different levels from easy to
difficult, in order to assess students’ ability, qualification and capacity without
falling into generalization and one-sidedness. Ensuring comprehensiveness is
one of the principles of assessing students’ problem-solving in teaching the
philosophical part, subject of the fundamental principles of Marxism-Leninism, it
is presented in the content of the Philosophy section. Objectives to assess the
knowledge, skills, attitudes, capacity students need to achieve.


16

3.1.4. Assurance of learners’ progress
The goal of capacity-based education is helping students to form and
develop necessary capabilities and characteristics. Therefore, capacity
assessment also needs to be for learners’ progress. Assessment must contribute
to improve the learning and self-learning ability of students. Students can learn
from the teacher's assessment. And from that learning, students define how to
adjust their later learning behaviors. In order to do that, the teacher needs to
make the test after the mark is useful for the student by writing the notes on the
test with the following contents:
What students have achieved
What students can do better
What students need support with
What students need to study more
As a result, looking at their work, students recognize the teacher's
affirmation of their abilities. This has the effect of encouraging great learners,
contributing significantly to the educational and developmental function of
educational evaluation.
3.2. Measures to assess students’ problem-solving in teaching the
philosophical part, subject of the fundamental principles of MarxismLeninism in colleges and universities today
3.2.1. Build the assessment scale of students problem-solving capacity
To conduct the assessment of students’ problem-solving, it is necessary to
construct a set of assessment tools including assessment scale and tables.
3.2.1.1. Build the assessment scale for students’ problem-solving capacity.
The assessment scale for students’ problem-solving capacity in teaching
the philosophical part, subject of the fundamental principle of MarxismLeninism is designed based on 4 levels (1. Right solution, 2. Partly wrong
solution, 3. Partly right solution, 4. Wrong solution). In each level of capacity,
we determined criterias to achieve and the corresponding grading scale.
Table 3.2: Summary of the scale for assessing students’ problemsolving capacity in teaching the philosophical part, subject of the
fundamental principle of Marxism-Leninism
Part 1: Determine the solution to the problem
Assessment result
Solutions to
Capability
Criteria
the problem
level
[% points] (*)
4
- (H3) - (P3) - (Tr3)
[75%]
3
- (H3) - (P3) - (Tr2)
[70%]
Right solution
2
- (H3) - (P3) - (Tr1)
[65%]
- (H3) - (P3) - (Tr0)
1
[60%]
- (H3) - (P2) - (Tr2)
Partly wrong
4
- (H3) - (P2) - (Tr1)
[55%]
solution
3
- (H3) - (P2) - (Tr0)
[50%]
2
- (H3) - (P1) - (Tr1)
[45%]
1
- (H3) - (P1) - (Tr0)
[40%]


17

- (H2) - (P2) - (Tr2)
4
- (H2) - (P2) - (Tr1)
[35%]
- (H3) - (P0) - (Tr0)
3
[30%]
- (H2) - (P2) - (Tr0)
Partly right
solution
2
- (H2) - (P1) - (Tr1)
[25%]
1
- (H2) - (P0) - (Tr0)
[20%]
4
- (H1) - (P1) - (Tr1)
[20%]
3
- (H1) - (P1) - (Tr0)
[15%]
Wrong
solution
2
- (H1) - (P0) - (Tr0)
[10%]
1
- (H0) - (P0) - (Tr0)
[0%]
Part 2: Detect new problems
Capability
Assessment result
Criteria
level
[% points] (*)
Form new
3
- (V2)
[15%]
ideas, detect
new problems
2
- (V1)
[10%]
1
- (V0)
[0%]
Assortment
- T (Good): From 80% to 100% of points,
- K (Quite good): from 65% to under 80% of points,
- Trb (Average): from 50% to under 65% of points,
- Y (bad): from 30% to under 50% of points,
- k (really bad): under 30% số điểm)
(*) : By points or comments
The table used in assessing students’ problem-solving capacity in teaching
the philosophical part, subject of the fundamental principles of MarxismLeninism is based on a range of criteria, rather than just grades. The table points
out that the markers mark the test according to expectations and describe the
levels of criteria required to be assessed. The table helps students realize what
and how should they learn in a given philosophical situation. It encourages
students to self-orientate their learning. The table is used to assess philosophical
situational exercises and is given before going on to solve situational exercises.
Students can take part in designing the tables to assess themselves and their
friends. The table is the tool for teachers to observe students’ studying attitude,
presentation skill, reporting skill, essay, group work and assess the quality of
answers and exercises…
3.2.2. Using various forms of assessing students’ problem-solving capacity
Assessing students’ problem-solving capacity needs to combine regular
assessment (assessing the whole process) and periodical assessment (finalizing
assessment). Both forms can utilize the following methods: oral test, written
test (writing and multiple choice questions), observation.


18

3.2.2.1. Oral test
Oral testing and evaluating students’ problem-solving capacity in teaching
the philosophical part, subject of the fundamental principles of MarxismLeninism is a method in which the teachers tactfully use a system of problematic
situations for students to answer, by the way throwing light on new problems,
exploring new knowledge through the manifestation of taught knowledge,
combined with experience gained in life. The goal of testing and evaluating
students’ problem-solving capacity in this subject is to fortify students with the
ability to express verbally scientific matters, accurately and concisely, helping
teachers receive responses from students rapidly in order to make amendment to
their activities. In the same way, students receive corresponding responses to
adjust their study. In addition, teachers have the ability to control the activities of
students as a whole and as individuals. Teachers set questions of problems,
requiring students to acquire knowledge to solve the problems.
3.3.2.2. Written test
a. Characteristics and requirements of written test
Written test is the type of questions facilitating assessing expression and
thinking ability at high level. The final test of a module can be designed with 2
open questions for students to perform in 50 mins or 90 mins.
This type of exam would minimize cheating, swoting without deep
understanding. It would require students to learn systematic and creative
thinking, practice problem-solving, make decisions and give explanations.
Simultaneously, this method also helps students practice using supporting tools
to find information swiftly and effectively. This method not only requires
teachers, together with students, to create diverse types of exercise with
ascending difficulty, but also allocate more time to discussion in class. However,
written test is difficult to be absolutely marked in an objective and equal way.
b. Characteristics and requirements of multiple choice test
Multiple choice tests have some advantages: cater for large number of
students, quick result; reliable grade;, impartial, accurate; prevent learning by
rote. However, this method has some drawbacks: students tend to guess the
answers, the test fails to manifest students’ thinking process, designing test
requires much effort from teachers.
Multiple choice test/ exam has many types of questions: True-false, fill in
the blank, matching, multiple choice.
c. Designing questions to test and evaluate students’ problem-solving
capacity in teaching the philosophical part, subject of the fundamental
principles of Marxism-Leninism
To assess students’ capacity and particularly students’ problem-solving
capacity in teaching the philosophical part, subject of the fundamental
principles of Marxism-Leninism, it is necessary to combine different forms and
methods of assessment, as well as design evaluation test on students’ studying
outcome. These are the steps for designing questions to test and evaluate
students’ problem-solving capacity in teaching the philosophical part, subject of
the fundamental principles of Marxism-Leninism:
- Determine the goal and requirement of the test
- Establish a two-way matrix
- Matrix for designing test


19

- Design questions and exercises according to the matrix
- Answers and grading scale
3.2.2.3. Observing the problem solving process of students
Observation is the method of collecting information through direct
perception of behavior, manipulation, reaction, attitude, nuance, ... in the
process of solving problems of students in teaching at school. By observating,
teachers gather a lot of information that is both quantitative (eg. the number of
times students solve problems) and qualitative, reflecting the capacity of
students in the field. To achieve enough information, observers need to pay
attention to the subject, avoid missing any information (especially important
and fundamental one) relating to assessing the problem-solving capacity of the
subject. Teachers screen and maintain the most important information for the
purpose of assessing the capacity of students.
Chapter 4
EXPERIMENTAL TEACHING OF THE MEASURES USED TO
ENHANCE THE QUALITY OF ASSESSING STUDENTS’ PROBLEMSOLVING CAPACITY IN TEACHING THE PHILOSOPHICAL PART,
SUBJECT OF THE FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF MARXISMLENINISM IN COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES OF VIETNAM
TODAY
4.1. Pedagogical experiment plan
4.1.1. The purpose of pedagogical experiment
Pedagogical experiments were conducted in order to test the feasibility and
effectiveness of measures to improve the quality of assessing students’ problemsolving in teaching the philosophical part, subject of the fundamental principles
of Marxism-Leninism in colleges and universities today.
4.1.2. Objects and areas of experimental pedagogy
Experimental pedagogy took place at the Traditional Medicine and
Pharmacy Academy of Vietnam, located in Hanoi, a metropolis city with
suitable conditions for educational development. Experimental pedagogy also
took place at Thai Nguyen University of education, Thai Nguyen teacher
training college in Thai Nguyen province, a Northern mountainous area facing
difficulties in developing education.
4.1.3. Content of experimental pedagogy
Firstly, provide management officers and teachers of the philosophical part,
subject of the fundamental principles of Marxism-Leninism with knowledge
about assessing students’ problem-solving capacity in teaching this subject.
Secondly, deploy students of the experimental pedagogy classes some
problems about assessing problem-solving capacity, assessment criteria and
scale for assessing problem-solving capacity.


20

Thirdly, organize test and module-ending exams for students of the
experimental pedagogy classes to take, by using the test of evaluating
constituent capabilities of the problem-solving capacity aforementioned in the
thesis.
4.1.4. Experimental method of pedagogy
The assessment of students’ problem-solving capacity was conducted as
follows:
+ During the lecture
+ Organizing group-work
+ Taking tests
4.2. Experimental pedagogical organization
In the experimental pedagogical classes, teachers teach with the teaching
plan which is drafted with orientation to problem-solving capacity
development. In this thesis, only the assessment stage is mentioned, so the
teaching plan is not illustrated.
The thesis’s author joined as an observer in 9 lectures of each classes,
making 27 lectures altogether.
Organize test and module-ending exams for students of the experimental
pedagogy classes to take, then work out statistics on levels of constituent
capabilities students have achieved and give marks.
4.3. Experimental results and general conclusions about pedagogical
experiment results
4.3.1. Result of the qualitative assessment
From the pedagogical experiments, the following assumption can be made:
- Initially, because students did not perform the right problem-solving
procedure and did not understand clearly about the assessment scale, confusion
occurred in the process. Shortly, after they have been familiar with the new
method, assessment and self-assessment is more convenient and can be carried
out regularly. On the other hand, the assessment of students’ problem-solving
capacity in teaching the philosophical part, subject of the fundamental
principles of Marxism-Leninism, if appropriately organized, can raise students’
sense of initiative, and creativity, thus improving the outcome of the subject.
This would contribute to raising students’ enthusiasm for the subject commonly
considered tedious and unintelligible.
- In teaching the philosophical part, subject of the fundamental principles
of Marxism-Leninism, it is possible to assess students’ problem-solving
capacity based on the constituents of problem-solving capacity, as proposed in
the thesis. Through this way of assessing, students’ studying outcome would be
more objective and accurate. Also, students’ problem-solving capacity could be
developed, not only in this subject but in other subjects of the training program
as well.


21

- In teaching the philosophical part, subject of the fundamental principles of
Marxism-Leninism, the capacity assessment scale can not only help teachers assess
students’ problem-solving capacity, but also help students assess their own problemsolving capacity and their friends’. Specifically, students can make quantitative
assessment (giving marks) and qualitative assessment (giving remarks) about
students’ problem-solving capacity in teaching this subject. Students can comment
on their own problem-solving capacity as well as their friends’.
- Teachers strictly followed the right assessment procedure. Methods and
tools of assessing students’ problem-solving capacity have been quite well
utilized. This assessment method contributed to student’s practicing the
problem-solving skill, enhancing the subject effectiveness, making students
active in solving problems faced in real life.
4.3.2. Results of the quantitative assessment
4.3.2.1. Results from pedagogical experiment classes
Teachers in these classes performed the right assessment procedure,
combined different methods, made a flexible use of different methods to assess
students’ problem-solving capacity in the lectures.
These are some illustrating statistics:
*Class Y1EK13, Vietnam traditional medicine and pharmacy academy
Table 4.5. Students’ study results in 1 periodical test and 1 modulefinalizing exam (Y1EK13 Class, Viet Nam traditionnal medicine and pharmacy
academy)
Tests

0

1 2 3

4

Grade
6
7

5

8

9

10

number of
0 0 0 0 6 10 15 25 23 21
20
students
rate (%)
0 0 0 0 5,0 8,3 12,5 20,8 19,2 17,5 16,7
module- number of
0 0 0 0 7 13 18 22 21 20
19
finalizing students
exam
rate (%)
0 0 0 0 5,8 10,8 15,0 18,3 17,5 16,7 15,8
* Literature K52 A Class, Thai Nguyen University of Education,
academic year 2017-2018.
Table 4.9. Students’ study results in 1 periodical test and 1 modulefinalizing exam (Literature K52 A Class, Thai Nguyen University of Education)
Periodica
l test

Tests
Periodical
1 test

0

number of
0
students
rate (%)
0

1

2

3

4

5

0

0

2

2

4

0

0

Grade
6
7
8

20

8

9

10

16

10

10

2,8 2,8 5,6 11,1 27,7 22,2 13,9 13,9


22

module- number of
0 0 0 0 3 4
8
20 18 10
9
finalizing students
exam
rate (%)
0 0 0 0 4,2 5,6 11,1 27,7 25,0 13,9 12,5
* Preschool K13 A, Thai Nguyen teacher training college, academic
year 2016 - 2017.
Table 4.13. students’ study results in 1 periodical test and 1 modulefinalizing exam (Preschool K13 A, Thai Nguyen teacher training college).
Grade
Tests
0 1 2 3
4
5
6
7
8
9 10
number of
0 0 0 1
6
15 10 11 10 4
3
Periodical 1
students
test
rate (%)
0 0 0 1,7 10,0 25,0 16,7 18,3 16,7 6,7 5,0
number of
module0 0 0 3
5
14 12 10 10 3
3
students
finalizing
exam
rate (%)
0 0 0 5,0 8,3 23,3 20,0 16,7 16,7 5,0 5,0
4.3.2.2. General conclusions about pedagogical experiment results
The statistics obtained show that:
- Teachers are able to use the problem-solving capacity assessment scale
and combine methods and tools to assess the level of students’ problem-solving
capacity in teaching the philosophical part, subject of the fundamental
principles of Marxism-Leninism (tables 4.3, 4.7, 4.22, 4.4, 4.8, 4.12)
- Students are also able to use the problem-solving capacity assessment
scale to assess themselves and their friends in studying the philosophical part,
subject of the fundamental principles of Marxism-Leninism (tables 4.2, 4.6,
4.10)
- Based on the problem-solving capacity assessment scale in teaching the
philosophical part, subject of the fundamental principles of Marxism-Leninism,
teachers have made quite accurate assessment by grading student’s problemsolving capacity.
- Students in different experimental classes in different schools have
dissimilar levels of problem-solving capacity.
4.3.2.3. Opinions of Managers and teachers
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
1. Conclusions
The assessment of students’ problem-solving capacity in teaching the
philosophical part, subject of the fundamental principles of Marxism-Leninism
in colleges and universities today is aimed at raising teaching quality with
orientation to capacity development. In addition to making the assessment
process more accurate and objective, it also contributes to the formation of


23

students’ problem-solving capacity, which is of great importance to students.
The thesis has obtained the following main results:
Overview research related to the thesis, assess researched problems, point
out inherited theoretical points and urgent problems worth researching but
normally neglected. This is what the author concentrated on solving, with the
inherited direction elaborated in the thesis.
The reasoning ground dealt with the following problems: The concept of
capacity; concept of problem-solving capacity; determine the constituents of
problem-solving capacity in teaching the philosophical part, subject of the
fundamental principles of Marxism-Leninism; elements affecting the
assessment of students’ problem-solving capacity; conception about assessing
students’ problem-solving capacity; Goals, foundation, form, method and
procedure of assessing students’ problem-solving capacity in teaching the
philosophical part. Based on this reasoning ground, the author designed a
system of querytables, survey papers in the teaching process.
In the practical basis part, we investigated, assessed, analyzed the reality of
assessing students’ problem-solving capacity in teaching the philosophical part,
subject of the fundamental principles of Marxism-Leninism in universities and
colleges today. Based on that, we pointed out problems need solving and
constructed pedagogical method to assess students’ problem-solving capacity,
thus improving the teaching quality.
Propose principles and measures for assessing students’ problem-solving
capacity in teaching the philosophical part, subject of the fundamental
principles of Marxism-Leninism. The author focused on the two most
fundamental methods to assess students’ problem-solving capacity:
Constructing a scale for the assessment of problem-solving capacity and using
appropriate assessment methods such as oral test, written test and observation.
Due to the sphere and condition of the thesis, in the interest of
convenience, the author organized pedagogical experiments in 3 universitie,
college and academy based on the real condition of teaching the subject. The
results of pedagogical experiments prove the correctness of the scientific
hypothesis given by the thesis, affirm that the procedure and pedagogical
methods for assessing students’ problem-solving capacity in teaching the
philosophical part, subject of the fundamental principle of Marxism-Leninism
are feasible and widely applicable for assessing study outcome in universities
and colleges in our country today. The quantitative and qualitative results of
pedagogical experiments proved the effectiveness and sustainability of the
methods proposed in the thesis.
2. Recommendations
1. With the Ministry of Education and Training: It is necessary to study and
renew the syllabus, content of the subject, encourage the autonomy in building
programs of local schools to grasp the philosophy of the discipline. Basics of


24

Marxism-Leninism are closely linked to local practice, closely linked to the
training profession. The number of seminars and seminars in the curriculum
should increase. This is a condition that guarantees time problems in solving
problems of individuals and groups and presents problem solving in
philosophical teaching.
2. With universities and colleges: It is necessary to ensure good facilities
for teaching and learning of lecturers and students, especially the space for
teaching activities. Students are able to solve problems of students such as:
teaching by project, teaching technique by gallery, piece, station …
3. With faculties and professional groups: It is necessary to provide
training for teachers of this subject field methods, tools, scale of capacity of
students. As a facilitator, to regulate the teaching process and to test and
evaluate the problem-solving capacity of students, teachers have an important
role to play in helping learners achieve their learning goals, the skills needed for
life, especially the ability to solve problems.
4. For students: It is necessary to be aware that the purpose and value of
assessing problem-solving capacity is to help students practice problemsolving capacity and become more mature in real life. It requires students to
have a serious attitude, motives and effective study plan and method; actively
participate in the process of organizing problem-solving capacity assessment
with the support from teachers; bring into play personal capacity and the ability
to utilize knowledge in solving real-life problems in order to gain benefits and
apply in future life.
5. For the researchers: Conducting research on assessing the general
capacity and capacity of students in particular in teaching other subjects in the
school, comparing the results of other subjects with the results of the thesis to
confirm the objectivity and correctness of the problem.



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